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Abstract

Dual structural systems with structural fuse such as linked column frame system (LCF) have two main performances, including the resistance to lateral seismic loads and the proper function of structural fuse to control deformation of the other members to remain in elastic phase. The achievement of these two functions is necessary for appropriate seismic design of these systems. Undoubtedly, despite the practical complexity, displacement-based seismic design methods are generally the best method for this purpose. In contrast, conventional force-based methods are relatively simple, but it cannot easily guarantee the desired performance. In this paper, a simplified force-based seismic design method is presented for linked column frame system based on parametric studies on different structures, which are designed with displacement-based method. In addition to simplicity, the proposed method has an appropriate accuracy in terms of achieving the performance objectives. For the parametric study, 18 prototype structures with various relative lateral stiffness of moment frame and linked column system are designed with the displacement-based method. Based on the results of the structures designed with desirable performance, the criteria are proposed for the force-based design method. Based on evaluating results, the structures designed by the proposed simplified force-based method properly reached the performance objectives.

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... Current design methods of building structures, such as the force-based design (FBD) method [14][15][16], are based on the basic design information to determine the seismic influence coefficient and calculate the seismic load effect according to the acceleration response spectrum. The bearing capacity of the structure is required to be greater than the seismic load combinations. ...
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The steel plate shear wall with self-centering energy dissipation braces (SPSW-SCEDB) is a new seismic lateral resistant component. This paper outlines the performance requirements of the steel frame-shear plate shear wall with self-centering energy dissipation braces (SF-SCSPSW) structure and presents a direct displacement-based seismic design method for the structure. A combined strip model of the SPSW-SCEDB that considers the effect of the bolted connection on the wall plate is established. The comparison of the simulated and experimental results shows that the model can accurately predict the strength and hysteretic behavior under cyclic loading. The 8- and 15-story prototype buildings were designed using the presented method. The results of nonlinear dynamic analysis showed that larger inter-story deformations occurred on the lower floors, and the inter-story ratios gradually decreased with an increase in the number of floors. The maximum inter-story drift ratio (1.73%) of the 8-story structure under mega earthquakes and the maximum residual drift ratio (0.018%) of the 15-story structure under large earthquakes were less than the limit values (2% and 0.5%). Local yielding occurred between the brace connection and the column under mega earthquakes, but the columns remained in an elastic state. The seismic responses of the SPSW-SCEDBs in the two structures met the performance requirements of being elastic and suffering light and moderate and serious damage under frequent, medium, large, and mega earthquakes, respectively. The effectiveness of the proposed design method was verified.
... Shoeibi et al. [12] proposed a force-based method for the seismic design of the LCFs. Using a parametric analysis on 18 structures with various lateral stiffnesses, found that the system has been appropriately designed. ...
Article
The Linked Column Frame (LCF) structural system is comprised of moment-resisting frames as the primary gravity load-carrying system and a combination of closely-spaced dual columns interconnected with link beams acting together with the moment-resisting frames as the lateral load resisting system. In this system, the link beams are designed to provide ductility and deform plastically. As the damages are concentrated to the links thus, the LCF rapidly returns to occupancy design performance while retaining architectural privileges of the non-braced steel frames. In this study, 3, 6, and 9-story frames equipped with LCF and resting on soil type II and IV are subjected to seven near and far-field earthquake records. These structures are designed based on the plan of SAC buildings using SAP2000, and then, nonlinear time-history analyses were carried. The results indicate that maximum roof drift of the structures on stiff soil (type II) has been insignificantly affected under both near and far-field earthquakes. In soft soils (type IV), drifts values increase by 6.85%, subject to both far and near-field earthquakes. Moreover, in contrast to the stiff soil, roof acceleration has decreased more when the structure is on soft soil, nearly 6.12%. The result of maximum inter-story drift ratios of the structures founded on soil type II illustrates that under an average of near-field earthquakes, drift ratios of 3 and 6-story structures have increased by 3.2%. On the other hand, the 9-story structure has encountered a decrease of 5.17%. Under an average of near-field earthquakes in soil type IV, a drift ratio of 3 and 6 and 9-story structures has grown to 5.11 and 11.2%, respectively, compared to the fixed-base models. In far-field earthquakes, drift values of 3 and 6-story LCF were reduced by 6.2%, and the 9-story structure has experienced an increase of 8.79%.
... A design algorithm for the system was proposed; by reducing the over-strength factor, an optimised system was obtained. Shoeibi et al. (2019) presented an algorithm for the design of LCF systems, which was based on a moment frame to a linked column interaction. ...
Article
Linked Column Frame (LCF) is a seismic load resisting system with ductile behavior. In this system, the link beam, operating as a shear fuse, reduces or eliminates damages to other components of the structure under various hazard levels. In this study, by combining the rocking motion and changes in the linked column pattern, an innovative seismic-resistant system is presented. This paper aims to improve the performance of the LCF system and reduces damage in the flexural beams and the columns and to concentrate damage to the link beams. For this means, a three-story model based on the SAC building has been designed based on story drift demands. The models were evaluated by incremental dynamic analysis according to FEMAP695 instructions in the open Sees program. Results of changes in the linked column pattern from the incremental dynamic analysis indicate a 20% increase in the structural capacity of the prevalent LCF model. The model with rocking motion results in reduced structural capacity, shear and horizontal acceleration of the story, and maximum drift compared to the model without rocking motion. This novel linked column frame seismic system provides self-centering and damage control by using features such as rocking motion.
... Shoeibi et al. [12] proposed a force-based method for the seismic design of the LCFs. Using a parametric analysis on 18 structures with various lateral stiffnesses, found that the system has been appropriately designed. ...
Article
The Linked Column Frame (LCF) structural system is comprised of moment-resisting frames as the primary gravity load-carrying system and a combination of closely-spaced dual columns interconnected with link beams acting together with the moment-resisting frames as the lateral load-resisting system. In this system, the link beams are designed to provide ductility and deform plastically. As the damages are concentrated to the links, thus, the LCF rapidly returns to occupancy design performance while retaining architectural privileges of the non-braced steel frames. In this study, 3, 6 and 9-story frames equipped with LCF and resting on soil type II and IV, are subjected to seven near and far-field earthquake records. To this end, these structures are designed based on plan of SAC buildings using SAP2000 and then, nonlinear time-history analyses were carried out on them. The results indicate that maximum roof drift of the structures on stiff soil (type II), has been insignificantly affected under both near and far-field earthquakes. Unlike, in the case of soft soils (type IV), drifts values increase by 6.85% subjected to both far and near-field earthquakes. Moreover, in contrast to the stiff soil, roof acceleration has decreased more in the case when resting on soft soil whose value is nearly 6.12%. Analysis of maximum inter-story drift ratios of the structures founded on soil type II, illustrates that under average of near-field earthquakes, drift ratios of 3 and 6-story structures have raised by 3.2% but the 9-story structure has encountered a decrease by 5.17%. in the case of soil type IV, under average of near-field earthquakes, drift ratio of 3 and 6 as well as 9-story structures have grown up to 5.11 and 11.2%, respectively when compared to the fixed-base models. Subjected to far-field earthquakes, drift values of 3 and 6-story structures have been reduced by 6.2% and the 9-story structure has experienced an increase by 8.79%.
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A parametric study was devoted to evaluate, using static nonlinear analyses (pushover), global seismic design parameters for low to medium rise regular reinforced concrete moment-resisting braced frames (RC-MRBFs) with hysteretic energy dissipation devices mounted on chevron steel bracing. Frame models with range from five to twenty five stories were designed using different elastic stiffness ratios between the moment frame system and the whole structure (frame-bracing-hysteretic device system). Also, different elastic stiffness balances between the hysteretic device and the supporting braces were considered. Different post to pre yielding stiffness ratios for the hysteretic devices were considered. Two angles of inclination of the chevron braces with respect to the horizontal axis were considered, taking into account typical story heights and bay widths used in Mexican practice. From the results obtained in this study, stiffness balances are defined to achieve a suitable mechanism where the hysteretic devices yield first and develop their maximum local displacement ductility, whereas in the moment frame incipient yielding is only formed at the beam ends. Finally, additional comments are made with respect to: (a) relations between global ductility capacity and local displacement ductility capacity for the hysteretic devices for a given combination of the studied stiffness parameters and angles of inclination, (b) story drifts at yielding and their relation with the selected elastic stiffness ratio between the moment frame system and the whole structure and, (c) overstrength factors for design purposes.
Conference Paper
Current approaches to building design for large lateral seismic demands typically involve the use of ductile structural systems, which in most cases utilize the gravity load-carrying members to resist the lateral movement. The resulting inelastic behavior reduces the design base shear while preventing collapse and allows for economic design of the structural components. However, inelastic behavior leads to structural damage, which in most ductile frame lateral systems means damage to the gravity load-carrying members. The loss of occupancy and the difficulty associated with repairing the gravity system economically burdens the owners and occupants. A structural steel framing system free of diagonal bracing and intended for rapid return to occupancy is outlined. The lateral system consists of dual columns interconnected with replaceable link beams and a secondary moment frame. The linked columns provide inelastic behavior to the system by having the links yield primarily in shear under predetermined levels of lateral load, while protecting the columns and beams that carry the gravity loads. Non-linear pushover analyses were used to investigate the performance of the proposed lateral system. Under increasing drift, a ductile system response was obtained with inelasticity initiated in the links. The structural system exhibited three levels of performance: 1) elastic, 2) rapid return to occupancy and 3) collapse prevention. The rapid return to occupancy can be achieved prior to yielding of the gravity beams by replacing the damaged links, offering an improved level of performance over conventional moment frames. The linked column contribution toward system stiffness and strength was found to depend on the link strength and the secondary moment frame connectivity. The system behavior was ductile with drift levels exceeding special moment resisting frames, but with reduced demand on the beam moment connections. The closely spaced linked columns can develop large axial forces that need to be addressed at the foundation level, but also resist significantly lower moments than the special moment resisting frames. In general, the non-linear analyses showed the linked column frame system to be viable under seismic loading, offering the designers and owners a ductile structural system with specific target performance levels.
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SUMMARY The linked column frame (LCF) system is proposed as a seismic load resisting system that uses conventional components to limit seismic damage to relatively easily replaced elements. The LCF features a primary lateral system, denoted the linked column, which is made up of dual columns connected with replaceable links, and a secondary flexible moment frame system with beams having fully restrained connections at one end and simple connections at the other. The linked columns are designed to limit seismic forces and provide energy dissipation via link yielding, while preventing damage to the moment frame under certain earthquake hazard levels. A design procedure is proposed that ensures plastic hinges develop in the links of the linked columns at a significantly lower story drift than when plastic hinges develop in the moment frame beams. The large drift difference helps enable design of this system for two distinct performance states: rapid return to occupancy, where only link damage occurs and relatively simple link replacement is possible, and collapse prevention, where both the links and the beams of the moment frame may be damaged. A series of 3-story, 6-story, and 9-story prototype LCF buildings were designed using the proposed design approach. Nonlinear models were developed for the designs with the link models validated using recent experimental results. The seismic response of these systems was investigated for ground motions representing various seismic hazard levels. Results show that the LCF system not only provides collapse prevention, but also has the capability of limiting economic loss by reducing structural damage and allowing for rapid return to occupancy following earthquakes with shorter return periods. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
A new type of seismic resistant structural steel braced-frame system is introduced that employs controlled rocking, elastic post tensioning, and replaceable fuses to resist earthquake shaking with limited structural damage. Through the use of capacity design principles, inelastic energy dissipation is confined to replaceable fuses while the controlled rocking and elastic post tensioning provide self-centering action to eliminate residual drift. Quasi-static cyclic tests and dynamic shake table tests of large-scale specimens confirm that the system can sustain extreme earthquake ground shaking with story drift ratios up to 3 % without structural damage. Owing to the well-defined rocking mechanism, analysis and design of the system is straightforward. Work is ongoing to develop design criteria and guidelines to facilitate practical implementation of these system in building design and construction.
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Extended end-plate moment connections are one alternative to fully welded connections that has been considered for use in seismic force resisting moment frames. As a part of the SAC Steel Project, a research program to investigate the behavior and design of extended end-plate moment connections under cyclic loading was conducted at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Six bare steel beam-to-column connection specimens and one composite slab beam-to-column connection specimen were tested. An overview of the design, fabrication, and testing of the specimens is presented. The test results show that extended end-plate moment connections can be designed to provide the strength, stiffness, and ductility required for use in seismic force resisting moment frames. The effects of the composite slab are discussed, and it is recommended that the effects of the slab be considered in the design of beam-to-column extended end-plate moment connections.
Article
Seismic design relies on inelastic deformations through hysteretic behavior. However, this translates into damage on structural elements, permanent system deformations following an earthquake, and possibly high cost for repairs. An alternative design approach, proposed in the past, is to concentrate damage on disposable and easy to repair structural elements i.e., "structural fuses", whereas the main structure is designed to remain elastic or with minor inelastic deformations. The implementation of the structural fuse concept into actual buildings would benefit from a systematic and simple design procedure. Such a general procedure is proposed here for designing new or retrofitted structures. The proposed structural fuse design procedure for multi-degree-of-freedom structures relies on results of a parametric study presented in the paper, considering the behavior of nonlinear single degree of freedom systems subjected to synthetic ground motions. Nonlinear dynamic response is presented in dimensionless charts normalized with respect to key parameters. The proposed design procedure is illustrated as an example of application using Buckling-restrained braces as metallic structural fuses. This example is used in an experimental project which is described in a companion paper as a proof of concept to the developed design procedure.
Article
Non-linear dynamic analyses examining the seismic response of moment resisting (MR) steel frames enhanced with low-yield steel shear panels are presented. Shear panels, which act as damping and stiffening devices, are schematised as equivalent bracing elements having a suitable hysteretic behaviour. For this purpose, an analytical model is set up and calibrated on the basis of available experimental tests. A parametric analysis is therefore carried out varying several parameters of shear panels, namely strength, stiffness, ductility and hysteretic behaviour, aiming at determining those factors having the major impact on the seismic response of the frame. Obtained results show that the considered design procedure is really effective and convenient, low-yield steel shear panels providing an apparent reduction of storey deflection and damage level of the primary structure.
Seismic behavior of frames with innovative energy dissipation systems (FUSEIS1-2)
  • Dimakogianni
Unbonded braces in the United States—Design studies, large-scale testing, and the first building application
  • Aiken
Investigation of replaceable sacrificial steel links
  • P Dusicka
  • G Lewis
Performance-based plastic desig (PBPD) method for earthquake-resistant structures
  • S C Goel
  • S Chao
  • S Leelataviwat
  • S Lee