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The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research

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... Classic grounded theory was first described by Barney Glaser and Anslem Strauss in 1967 as a method for discovering theory through rigorous data analysis [22,23]. Originally developed in the field of sociology, it has become widely used in many health sciences disciplines including nursing, social work, and medicine [24]. ...
... Two hallmarks of classic grounded theory make it the ideal approach for developing a theoretical understanding of the cancer experience during the pandemic: constant comparison and emergence. Constant comparison involves iteratively collection and analysis of contrasting data to identify and characterize common concepts and how they relate [22,23]. For instance, data reflecting the lived experiences of patients receiving cancer care before and during the pandemic is valuable for understanding the experience of living with cancer before and during the pandemic, how changes to health services delivery impacted the cancer experience. ...
... Emergence identifies that the course of exploration is guided by what is learned as the study evolves. By allowing the course of exploration to emerge as the study evolves, and not relying on pre-conceived assumptions or frameworks, the resulting theory emerges from the data [22,23,25]. A methodological approach that includes emergence is especially valuable in the context of rapidly changing care contexts such as the pandemic, as it could not be known a priori what was happening in the lives of cancer patients, their friends and families, or what changes the next wave might bring. ...
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Background It is not clear how changes to healthcare delivery related to the COVID-19 pandemic, including virtual care and social distancing restrictions, have impacted the experience of living with cancer. This study aimed to discover a theory capable of describing the cancer experience, how the pandemic impacted it, and for guiding predictions about how to improve it. Methods Between October 2020 and July 2021 digitally recorded semi-structured one-on-one interviews were conducted virtually with adult cancer patients and informal caregivers in Manitoba, Canada. Transcriptions and field notes from the interviews were analyzed using classic grounded theory. Results Interviews with 33 patients and 6 informal caregivers were conducted. Fit emerged as the core concept of the theory and describes the relationship between the healthcare system and the unique combination of characteristics each patient has. Good fit results in a positive experience and poor fit in a negative experience. Virtual care improves fit in clinical situations where non-verbal communication and physical examination are not important. Support from informal caregivers improves fit. Social distancing restrictions reduce the ability of informal caregivers to provide support. Conclusions The impact of fit on the cancer experience suggests that care delivery should be tailored to both the individual needs of the patient and the intention of the clinical interaction. Developing evidence-based strategies to inform the integration of virtual care into oncology practice, with aim of promoting good fit between patients and healthcare services, is an important future direction.
... Most households are multigenerational with an average size of 7.9 (SD4.7). 19 Employment is low (over 85% youth (20)(21)(22)(23)(24) unemployed) 2 and mobility is high, particularly among young people. 2,19 HIV prevalence is high (41% antenatal HIV prevalence), and HIV incidence is 4.5% per annum in 15-19-year-old girls, and 7.5% per annum in 20-24-year-old women. ...
... Data analysis was thematic and complemented by constant comparison and deviant case analysis techniques. 22 Based on the topic guides, the review of the literature and any themes that emerged during the debriefs, the first author developed separate coding frames for the IDI and FGD interviews. These coding frames were used to reduce the data and summarise it by theme with coding being conducted by SSRAs who had collected the data. ...
... There is a lot to say but drug abuse is at the core." (FGD in peri-urban area with females aged [14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22] This reflected a perception that some young people lived relatively chaotic lives which were also characterised by a lack of opportunities owing to both personal and structural barriers: ...
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Young people, particularly adolescent girls and young women, represent a growing proportion of those living with HIV. Edutainment programmes have been widely used throughout the world to "educate" and "entertain" audiences and tackle serious social issues in bold and engaging ways. This paper examines the extent to which an edutainment programme, MTV-Shuga, was reported to influence young people's engagement with sexual and reproductive health (SRH) information in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. In 2019 we conducted eight community-based screenings of MTV-Shuga episodes followed by 25 individual in-depth interviews and 13 focus group discussions with young people aged between 15 and 30. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data analysis was thematic and complemented by constant comparison and deviant case analysis techniques. In this rural and poor setting with a high burden of HIV, young people exhibited high levels of awareness of SRH and HIV but had constrained access to services, and limited ability to engage with parents or guardians on SRH matters. MTV Shuga provided an entertaining guide of ways to navigate the risks that they faced in a way that resonated with them. The findings highlight the importance of enabling young people in rural areas to watch MTV Shuga with peers in a safe space in which discussion of the content is facilitated. There is also value in encouraging parents to watch MTV Shuga as a means of enabling discussions between children and adults in their lives about SRH matters.
... Qualitative approach is appropriate for this study since the aim is to analyze actors' meanings and experiences of project management (Gephart, 2004;Glaser & Strauss, 1967;Van Maanen, 1998). Qualitative research examines actors' daily interactions and experiences in their natural setting and tries to identify patterns (Denzin & Lincoln, 2000). ...
... The potential of the company as a case and data source is established with this familiarity (Patton, 2002;Stake, 2000). The company is instrumentally used to understand the practices of project management in the industry and to develop theoretical insights into institutional practices and mechanisms (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). It is not simply described as an interesting case. ...
... In the analysis, we followed grounded theory approaches (Glaser & Strauss, 1967;Strauss & Corbin, 1990). We started our analysis by examining interview notes around the draft categories formed through interview questions. ...
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This study examines how projects are successfully conducted and how project management is maintained as an institutional practice within the complex and dynamic environment of the healthcare industry in Turkey where many different actors and departments are involved. The study follows a qualitative case study design with participant observations and in-depth interviews in the sales, service, and project management departments of a major healthcare company in Turkey and analyzes the collected data through grounded theory approaches. It explores the interdependent operation of rules/norms and relations in project management. It highlights the importance of being flexible in the implementation of rules and developing multiple norms acceptable for different departments. It also emphasizes building trust and reciprocity and using conditional positions of dominance. The study shows that creating an informal environment based on inclusive rules/norms and reflecting them in relations through trust/ reciprocity and role reversals are critical for the success of project management. It develops suggestions for companies to improve and ensure the long-term maintenance of project management. ÖZET Bu çalışma, farklı pek çok aktörün ve departmanın rol oynadığı, karmaşık ve değişken yapıdaki Türk sağlık sektöründe projelerin nasıl başarılı bir şekilde yürütüldüğünü ve proje yönetiminin kurumsal bir pratik olarak nasıl muhafaza edildiğini incelemektedir. Çalışma örnek olay olarak Türkiye'de sağlık sektöründe faaliyet gösteren en büyük firmalardan birinde, satış, servis ve proje yönetimi departmanlarında yapılan katılımcı gözlemlere ve derinlemesine mülakatlara dayanan nitel bir araştırma tasarımı takip etmekte ve toplanan verileri gömülü kuram yaklaşımlarıyla çözümlemektedir. Çalışma, proje yönetiminde kuralların/normların ve ilişkilerin bağlantılı şekilde kullanılmasını konu edinmektedir. Kuralların uygulanmasında esnekliğin ve değişik departmanlarca kabul görecek çoklu norm sisteminin yanısıra, karşılıklı güvenin ve durumsal güç pozisyonlarının önemine işaret etmektedir. Çalışma, kapsayıcı kurallara/normlara dayanan ve bu kapsayıcılığın karşılıklı güven ve rol değişimleriyle ilişkilere yansımasını sağlayan gayri resmi bir ortamın, proje yönetiminin başarısı için gerekli olduğunu göstermekte, firmaların proje yönetim pratiklerini iyileştirebilmeleri ve uzun dönemde muhafaza edebilmeleri için öneriler sunmaktadır.
... In this paper, interview results from university teachers and students using MOOCs were processed and analyzed by the grounded theory, which was proposed by socialists Glaser andStrauss in 1967 (Glaser andStrauss, 1967). This theory, which aims to explain and understand social phenomena, is a bottomup inductive research process that advocates extracting relevant concepts from interview data to construct the theory, instead of deducing hypotheses from existing theories (Holt et al., 2022). ...
... In this paper, interview results from university teachers and students using MOOCs were processed and analyzed by the grounded theory, which was proposed by socialists Glaser andStrauss in 1967 (Glaser andStrauss, 1967). This theory, which aims to explain and understand social phenomena, is a bottomup inductive research process that advocates extracting relevant concepts from interview data to construct the theory, instead of deducing hypotheses from existing theories (Holt et al., 2022). ...
... In this paper, interview results from university teachers and students using MOOCs were processed and analyzed by the grounded theory, which was proposed by socialists Glaser andStrauss in 1967 (Glaser andStrauss, 1967). This theory, which aims to explain and understand social phenomena, is a bottomup inductive research process that advocates extracting relevant concepts from interview data to construct the theory, instead of deducing hypotheses from existing theories (Holt et al., 2022). ...
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Many factors affect the teaching of massively open online courses (MOOCs). In this study, to explore the factors that influence the effective teaching of MOOCs, a large number of relevant studies are analyzed. Based on grounded theory, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 students and teachers who used MOOCs for online teaching. The interview data were subjected to four research processes –open coding, axial coding, selective coding, and saturation testing– to explore the factors influencing MOOCs’ effective teaching and the interactions between them. The results demonstrate that: (1) Effective teachers, effective tuition, effective communication, active online learning, social support guarantees, and online course design have important positive effects on effective teaching, while only certain online learning behaviors will seriously affect the teaching effectiveness of MOOC, resulting in negative effects. (2) Effective communication is essential for effective teaching in MOOCs; effective teachers are the leading factor, thus teachers should take the initiative to study and understand the students to understand their various learning needs and difficulties. (3) Reasonable and effective classroom teaching design is key to improving MOOCs’ teaching efficiency. (4) E-learning is respected, cared for, and valued by society, including cognition, emotion, and learning platform support from family, school, teachers, and classmates, and has an important impact on students’ motivation and the effects of online learning. The results of this study further clarify factors influencing effective teaching of MOOCs, thus helping to enrich and supplement the theory of effective teaching and evaluation and providing theoretical guidance for teachers to effectively implement MOOC teaching.
... My initial research into the types of grounded theory (Charmaz, 2014(Charmaz, , 2015(Charmaz, , 2016Corley, 2015;Glaser, 1978Glaser, , 1992Glaser & Strauss, 1967;Howard-Payne, 2015;McGhee, et al., 2007aMcGhee, et al., , 2007bStrauss, 1987;Strauss & Corbin, 1990) (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). This classic text presented a new method that aimed at theory generation. ...
... My initial research into the types of grounded theory (Charmaz, 2014(Charmaz, , 2015(Charmaz, , 2016Corley, 2015;Glaser, 1978Glaser, , 1992Glaser & Strauss, 1967;Howard-Payne, 2015;McGhee, et al., 2007aMcGhee, et al., , 2007bStrauss, 1987;Strauss & Corbin, 1990) (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). This classic text presented a new method that aimed at theory generation. ...
... In exploring the merits of a grounded theory approach for this thesis, I needed to consider several theoretical considerations to ensure that I chose a grounded theory approach that aligned with my own epistemological and ontological perspectives. There are three main research approaches for researchers conducting grounded theory research: Glaser's classical grounded theory approach (Glaser & Strauss, 1967), Strauss and Corbin's interactionist grounded theory approach (Strauss & Corbin, 1990), and ...
Thesis
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This thesis presents an original contribution to knowledge in the form of the Differential Emotional Processing Theory of Maladaptive Daydreaming. This theory provides new theoretical understanding of the maladaptive daydreaming experience. maladaptive daydreaming is a widely researched topic, but research into daydreaming, that is not maladaptive, but absorptive and vividly experienced, is newly emerging, with a need for more research to be conducted. Uncertainty is evident in how to theoretically explain maladaptive daydreaming beyond psychopathological suggestions. A constructivist grounded theory methodology enabled the researcher and 16 participants to co-construct a theory that provides a theoretical understanding of maladaptive daydreaming. In line with human research requirements, ethical approval was obtained from the Charles Sturt University Human Research Ethics Board (study one: case studies approval number: H17118) and (study two: forum approval number: H18078). The research data was derived from two research stages. These were two case study interviews and an online forum that involved 16 adult participants. Extensive coding was carried out across both research stages involving memo writing and a simultaneous literature review, along with an updated literature review in 2019 to 2022. The theory presented in this thesis relates to maladaptive daydreaming, positing that maladaptive daydreaming is one pathway of a wider construct ‘absorptive daydreaming’, with features that are maladaptive, whilst the other pathway is one that relates to emotional growth that is adaptive, through emotional processing factors. Key contributions of this thesis include: a move towards seeing maladaptive daydreaming as a potential emotional processing mechanism; ideas for meeting emotional processing needs in other ways than maladaptive daydreaming; and, moving treatment towards emotional processing rather than focusing on psychopathology. In conclusion, this thesis presents the first constructed grounded theory of maladaptive daydreaming. The theory provides a new theoretical understanding that may be able to be tested and extended into other populations in order to develop interventions that may assist the worldwide maladaptive daydreaming community. This thesis’s theory of maladaptive daydreaming and the wider construct of ‘absorptive daydreaming’ suggests that maladaptive daydreaming research would benefit from adopting broader understandings of maladaptive daydreaming, to include further areas of daydreaming experience, such as immersive daydreaming, which may be the emotional growth pathway within the current theory, that was found within this current study.
... Data was primarily collected via open-ended, in-depth, face-to-face interviews with senior practitioners. Interviewee sampling and selection followed theoretical sampling principles (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). Theoretical sampling implies overlapping data collection and analysis and enables constant comparison and saturation, the key tenets of GT (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). ...
... Interviewee sampling and selection followed theoretical sampling principles (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). Theoretical sampling implies overlapping data collection and analysis and enables constant comparison and saturation, the key tenets of GT (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). The interviews started with open-ended, non-directive questions encouraging interviewees to speak about their experiences and the PPP projects on which they had worked (refer to Appendix 2 for typical interview questions). ...
... Data collected from the interviews can be considered rich and representative with a level of breadth, depth and authenticity. Data analysis followed the approach of Gioia et al. (2013), developed from the Grounded Theory Method of Glaser & Strauss (1967) and Strauss & Corbin (1998). NVivo software was used in the analysis process. ...
Article
This research investigates the impact of project finance on the ability of Special Purpose Vehicles (SPVs) to deliver infrastructure Public Private Partnership (PPP) projects. The research reports on data that was collected through 46 in-depth interviews with senior executive practitioners involved in PPPs in Australia. Analysis of this data confirms that while SPVs are integral vehicles for PPP integration, organizational power dynamics can generate tensions that restrict SPVs’ ability to manage PPP delivery effectively. Control of the key resource of capital, by debt and equity investors, is central in SPV power plays. Improved understanding of power dynamics will help PPPs better achieve benefits through reforms that enhance managerial agency and develop stronger social and system integration, enabling better alignment of the interests of key stakeholders.
... These audio recordings were then transcribed and analysed. The data were analysed using the NVivo 12 qualitative data analysis program, and the coding was performed using the similarities and differences technique (Glaser and Strauss 1967). A three-step coding procedure, using open coding, axial coding, and selective coding, was used to determine the themes. ...
... Themes arose from the qualitative data using similarities and contrasts, as well as cutting and sorting techniques. The similarities and differences technique are used to establish systematic comparisons between data units (Glaser and Strauss 1967). While the cutting and sorting process entails picking phrases or statements that appear to be significant and then grouping them into piles of related items (Lincoln and Guba 1985). ...
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Purpose-This study is aimed towards examining the experiences of visually impaired people participating in tourism and recreational activities with tandem bicycles and to explain the social integration function of cycling. Design-The research was conducted using qualitative research methods in an exploratory study. Methodology-Data were collected through in-depth interviews with a total of six visually impaired touring cyclists in Turkey. Approach-An inductive approach was used in the study. Findings-After the analysis, four themes were identified: 'embodied experiences,' 'equal difficulties,' 'friendships' and 'social inclusion.' First, the analysis revealed that participants embodied experiences of nature, socialisation, freedom, entertainment, and exploration through body performance in a multisensory manner. Second, disabled people have similar challenges as non-disabled people. Third, friendships rather than acquaintances developed between tandem partners with and without visual impairments, which contributed to long-term social inclusion. Finally, cycling tours play an important role in the social inclusion of people with disabilities by facilitating access to the social environment and raising disability awareness Originality of the research-This study contributes to the expansion of theoretical and practical knowledge about the cycling experiences of disabled individuals in tourism and leisure.
... Since the objectives of this present study are to explore roles of a sustainable social healthcare enterprise in achieving good health and wellbeing, and to develop a sustainable social healthcare enterprise development model, we explore a sustainable social healthcare enterprise on how it can attain the goal of good health and wellbeing, as informed by the grounded theory approach (Glaser and Strauss, 2017). ...
... We later aggregate these codes into concepts which we name or label as open codes. The analysis usually reveals multiple open codes (Glaser and Strauss, 2017;Strauss and Corbin, 1990). ...
... We first utilized our qualitative data from the first round of interviews to inductively build a model of the refugee experience starting from the MCO by utilizing grounded theory [69]. We built our theory by systematically collecting and analyzing data in order to understand how our respondents interpreted their realities, and how they defined different agents in their lives. ...
... With reference to Sutton [72] which utilized qualitative evidence and process model in the study of organizational death, we inductively built a theoretical framework to illustrate the process flow of a refugee's experience during the first COVID-19 lockdown as well as the factors affecting the refugee's experience in the process flow. By applying grounded theory [69], we employed a systematic method of constant comparisons between the qualitative data collected and the model that was built. Although we did not work in a strictly linear fashion, the general steps were as follows: first, all interviews were transcribed verbatim, according to the language that they were conducted in, before being translated into English if the transcript was in a non-English language. ...
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This paper examines the experiences of refugees in a developing country during its first COVID-19 lockdown by utilizing a two-stage qualitative data analysis of 39 interviews with refugees and asylum-seekers. We find that their experiences during the lockdown are shaped by identity, trauma and help from external parties-such as community leaders and local non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Experiences during the pandemic in turn moderate the relationship between policy changes and trust in domestic authority figures, which consequently affects attitudes towards and compliance with public health measures put in place to contain the pandemic. We then explore the role of identity in refugees' pandemic experiences by comparing the differences between two refugee groups (Syrians and Rohingyas), validating them by utilizing comparative thematic analysis. Finally, the paper presents policy implications for crisis response in developing countries by suggesting improvements that can be made on the ground regarding the delivery of aid and assistance to vulnerable groups.
... First, case studies make it possible to analyze complex relational dynamics through multiple observations (Eisenhardt and Graebner, 2007) and are particularly useful in developing theoretical insights on a novel phenomenon (Eisenhardt, 1989). Second, we analyze multiple case studies to leverage the logic of replication proposed by Eisenhardt and Graebner (2007) and to maintain a close correspondence between theory and data (Glaser and Strauss, 1967). Our work is in fact structured as an iterative process with a continuous comparison between the emergent frame and the evidence from each case, which serves as a distinct experiment that replicates, contrasts, and extends the emerging theory (Yin, 1994). ...
... The research sample is represented by three New Space Economy cases that are at the forefront of competitive dynamics in their respective industry verticals. The cases have been chosen for theoretical reasons, an ideal approach for our intention of theory development (Glaser and Strauss, 1967). The goal of such theoretical sampling is to identify cases that are likely to replicate or extend the emergent theory (Eisenhardt, 1989), hence allowing to develop theory rather than test it. ...
Article
We explore the concept of Business Model Innovation (BMI) in the transition from the embryonic to the growth phase of industry lifecycle. Grounded in the extensive data obtained from qualitative case studies of three New Space Economy firms (Nanoracks, D-Orbit, AIKO), we suggest that the changing structural characteristics in the organization's operational environment underlie the need for specific and recurring BMI mechanisms. Our results mainly contribute to the identification of a consistent relationship between BMI and time, with the latter interpreted as the progression in industry lifecycle. Specifically, we find that embryonic industries call for a focus on exploratory activities to understand market needs, implying frequent adaptations to the BM strategy. Growing industries are instead correlated with organizational ambidexterity, as environmental conflicts underlie strategic trade-offs between exploration and exploitation. This work also adds to the very limited managerial studies of the fast-growing and increasingly relevant New Space Economy.
... This level of analysis involved grouping and classifying the emergent codes and concepts into more specific categories and themes. This process was realized by means of constant comparison within and across data (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). Comparisons were also made between data and the existing categories as well as across categories (Charmez, 2000, p. 717). ...
... A cross-case analysis of data from the multi-case study was conducted to identify the commonalties and differences (Stake, 2006) among the three participants. The constant comparative method (Glaser & Strauss, 1967), which involved repeatedly reading through the cases and creating codes, concepts, and categories, was deployed in the analytical process to identify recurrent themes, common patterns, and salient concepts (see the final themes, categories, and codes in Appendix K). The cross-case analysis was guided implicitly by the theoretical frameworks of activity theory (Engeström, 2001) and writer identity (Ivanič, 1998) as well as the theoretical understanding of the manifestations of intertextuality and interdiscursivity in the participants' course assignments in relation to their beliefs about and practices of textual borrowing. ...
Thesis
With a skyrocketing international student population from Asia at Canadian universities in recent decades, second language (L2) students’ abilities to adapt to the (inter)textual practices of their prospective discourse communities have received increased attention in L2 writing research. This thesis study aimed to uncover the complexities and heterogeneity inherent in L2 student writers’ uses of textual sources. Through a multi-case study design (Stake, 2006), I examined the textual borrowing practices of 3 first-year international graduate students from China studying Education at an English-medium university in Canada. Drawing on Engeström’s (2001) activity theory and Ivanič’s (1998, 2005) analytic framework of writers’ construction of identity, I answered 2 research questions: (1) What activity systems do students from China experience while learning to read and write in China and writing assigned papers for master’s courses in Education in Canada? and (2) What challenges do these students encounter while writing papers from sources and how do the students address these challenges, with what consequences in their writing and identities? The instruments for this multi-case study were learning history and text-based interviews with each student along with data from their written assignments and certain source texts, a learner profile questionnaire, and a reading-writing questionnaire. My analysis revealed tensions and contradictions within and between the students’ former literacy learning activity systems in China and their current writing-from-sources activity systems in Canada. These tensions and contradictions posed challenges for the students to (a) effectively process source information and accurately and appropriately present that information to demonstrate comprehension and critical thinking, evident in their patchwriting, direct copying, inappropriately quoting, transposing from Chinese sources, and paraphrasing abstracts as purported summaries of their own; (b) cultivate a genuine interest in what they wrote and manifest deep or extended learning in their writing, evident in their tendencies to cite secondary sources without reading the originals of those sources; and (c) take ownership of the knowledge co-constructed through dialogic interactions between the source authors and the students or accept their roles in shaping the double-voiced discourse in the process of writing despite their (imprecise) uses of quotations, paraphrases, summaries, and syntheses to do so.
... Although a variety of methodological genres exist, researchers seem to unanimously agree that GT is a process or method by which conceptual frameworks or theories are generated from inductive analysis of data. [33][34][35] In this empirical study, GT was selected as the most suitable research methodology for three main reasons. First, factors influencing the implementation of BC in organizations go beyond technical aspects. ...
... Data collection in GT is an ongoing activity to achieve theoretical saturation that refers to the point at which no new information is being acquired. 33 The initial data collection process is aimed to identify the main concepts that are then used to decide on the data to be collected in the next stages of the process. 40 This approach is referred to as theoretical sampling by Glaser 40 and is adopted by our study. ...
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Blockchain technology has emerged as a “disruptive innovation” that has received significant attention in academic and organizational settings. However, most of the existing research is focused on technical issues of blockchain systems, overlooking the organizational perspective. This study adopted a grounded theory to unveil the blockchain implementation process in organizations from the lens of blockchain experts. The results revealed three main categories: key activities, success factors, and challenges related to blockchain implementation in organizations, the latter being identified as the core category, along with 17 other concepts. Findings suggested that the majority of blockchain projects stop at the pilot stage and outlined organizational resistance to change as the core challenge. According to the experts, the following factors contribute to the organizational resistance to change: innovation–production gap, conservative management, and centralized mentality. The study aims to contribute to the existing blockchain literature by providing a holistic and domain-agnostic view of the blockchain implementation process in organizational settings. This can potentially encourage the development and implementation of blockchain solutions and guide practitioners who are interested in leveraging the inherent benefits of this technology. In addition, the results are used to improve a blockchain-enabled requirements traceability framework proposed in our previous paper.
... Women who agreed to be informed, were contacted by the researcher a few days later, to see if they had further questions and if they wanted to participate. A total of eighteen women participated in an interview, which was determined by data saturation [29]. Data saturation was reached at the sixteenth interview. ...
... Individual codes were divided in sub-themes. A constant comparative method was used to interpret the data, continuously reviewing the transcripts [29]. Themes were identified by dominant concepts in the raw data [31]. ...
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Background Approximately half of premenopausal women diagnosed with breast cancer desire to conceive after they finish treatment. Counseling about the risk of infertility prior to cancer treatment has been proven to improve quality of life after cancer treatment. As a result of this, guidelines focus on informing women on this topic prior to treatment. However, it is equally important to provide fertility related information after primary treatment has been completed, when the wish to conceive might become actual. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the fertility and early menopause related information needs of young breast cancer survivors and to design, develop and implement online information material with input of stakeholders. Methods A phenomenological qualitative study consisting of four phases was performed: identification of information needs through semi-structured interviews from a professional perspective (1) and a patient perspective (2). Exploration of stakeholders perspective regarding development and implementation of online information material (3) and development and implementation of the information material (4). Results Professionals indicated that there are no guidelines regarding the provision of fertility related information during cancer survivorship. Survivors reported unmet information needs. Women identified the following as most important information needs (a) fertility preservation options, (b) the risk of menopause or infertility, and (c) long term consequences of early menopause. A wide range of stakeholders involved in breast cancer care were interviewed. Based on their proposed design the information material was implemented on a nationwide website aiming at informing and supporting breast cancer patients. Conclusions Fertility and early menopause related information needs of young breast cancer survivors and their professionals were identified. Information material has been designed, developed and nationally implemented. This way, professionals in breast cancer care are provided with an information tool that helps them meet the information needs and preferences of their patients.
... This was assessed by employing "constant comparison", where each transcript is coded and compared with previously analyzed transcripts and memo notes made by the researchers during the interviews and analysis, and "theoretical sampling", where particular demographics of respondents may be associated with experiences divergent from the majority. 32 By employing these established recruitment techniques, we were able to gain confidence in the selection of respondents to participate in interviews, increasing the overall trustworthiness of our data and subsequent analysis. ...
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Introduction: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has devastated populations, posing unprecedented challenges for healthcare services, staff and service-users. In the UK, rapid reconfiguration of maternity healthcare service provision changed the landscape of antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal care. This study aimed to explore the experiences of maternity services staff who provided maternity care during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic to inform future improvements in care. Material and methods: A qualitative interview service evaluation was undertaken at a single maternity service in an NHS Trust, South London. Respondents (n = 29) were recruited using a critical case purposeful sample of maternity services staff. Interviews were conducted using video-conferencing software, and were transcribed and analyzed using Grounded Theory Analysis appropriate for cross-disciplinary health research. The focus of analysis was on staff experiences of delivering maternity services and care during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Results: A theory of "Precarity and Preparedness" was developed, comprising three main emergent themes: "Endemic precarity: A health system under pressure"; "A top-down approach to managing the health system shock"; and "From un(der)-prepared to future flourishing". Conclusions: Maternity services in the UK were under significant strain and were inherently precarious. This was exacerbated by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, which saw further disruption to service provision, fragmentation of care and pre-existing staff shortages. Positive changes are required to improve staff retention and team cohesion, and ensure patient-centered care remains at the heart of maternity care.
... I employed two analysis methods: a bottom-up qualitative method called "the KJ method" (Kawakita, 1967) and text-mining with multiple variable analysis. The KJ method is similar to the grounded theory methodology (Glaser & Strauss, 1967), in that it develops connections among categories using the codes generated from segmented text data. However, the KJ method attempts to create connections between ideas or concepts that would normally be deemed as contradictory or illogical categories (Nochi, 2013), because this methodology was developed based on Charles Sanders Peirce's concept of abduction (Scupin, 1997). ...
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This study examined the role of the narratives of a researcher in a residents’ meeting on municipal disability policy. The research focuses on sessions from 2013 to 2019 of a local meeting spanning approximately 20 years in Yao City, Osaka, western Japan. As an advisory staff member and researcher, I recorded the meetings and analyzed them through the KJ method (a bottom-up qualitative procedure developed in Japan) and text mining. As a result, I suggested that the annual symposium should be an opportunity to promote people’s awareness of disability issues. Appropriate topics for the symposium were considered to be the Disability Discrimination Act and the hardships experienced by people with disability following a disaster, because these covered various aspects of their lives. I asked them to respect the diversity of their disabilities. I also remarked that they could support people with and without disabilities during a disaster. I assert that my role was to promote awareness and narratives in members about aspects of themselves about which they were unaware, such as their potential roles as supporters. However, they gradually recognized the uncertainty and new difficulties, which generated productive narratives.
... Hence, there is an increasing understanding of their function in the education transition. Wijaya (2013) states that the function of teachers as educators in the classroom is very many, namely: (1) educators; (2) instructors; (3) mentor; (4) trainers; (5) advisor; (6) class manager; (7) demonstrators; (8) corrector; (9) inspirators; (10) informator; (11) organizer; (12) motivator; (13) initiator; (14) facilitator; (15) innovators; (16) mediators; and (17) evaluator. Teachers wear different hats in the educative process more importantly in the transition of education from modular to face-to-face learning. ...
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Educators bear a great amount of responsibility for taking purposeful actions and ensuring that all learners continue to receive a high-quality, inclusive, and equitable education despite the pandemic. To assure the continuity of learning in the Philippines public basic education system, modular learning has become the most popular distance learning technique as this considers learners in remote locations who do not have access to the internet for online learning. As the education transforms back to face-to-face learning, this qualitative study conducted an in-depth exploration of teachers as an instructional specialist in the education transition using the grounded theory. The in-depth interviews with the participants exposed four emergent themes and a central category on the teachers' experiences as an instructional specialist in the education transition. "Teacher's adaptable determinants" emerged as the core category and entailed four essential themes: (1) Understanding of function; (2) Recognition and acceptance of the inevitability of the circumstance; (3) Efforts made in response to the ongoing difficulties; and (4) Ability to adjust in the face of adversity. The grounded theory of appreciation-accommodation-resilience: teacher's adaptable determinants in educational transition unveils an understanding that being a teacher in this time of transition requires teachers to appreciate their function (recognition and understanding), to accommodate certain initiatives (adjust), and to be resilient in difficult circumstance (efforts) for the learning continuity to thrive amid the prevailing challenges and other adversities of the pandemic. The theory can provide a frame of reference for the educational leaders and institutions for them to come up with regulations and other guidelines that are responsive to the needs and experiences of the teacher's in actualizing the objectives of face-to-face learning in the public basic education system. Overall, the theory highlights the accounts of the teachers as an instruction specialist in the education transition from modular distance learning back to face-to-face learning. Teachers' appreciation, accommodation, and resilience are being magnified as their adaptable determinants in this educational transition
... Because the phenomenon had not been studied previously in the context of Finnish general upper secondary education, it was first approached in a material-driven way. The practitioner-researcher categorised the transcribed discussion material first with the help of a constant comparative method to gain an overall understanding of the data (Glaser & Strauss, 1968;Peltola et al., 2021;Silvonen & Keso, 1999). As a result of this analysis, she created a category model describing all the themes covered in the professionals' discussions. ...
... Thematic analysis was used to analyse the transcripts. Analysis was conducted using a grounded theory approach; thus, codes were identified as they arose from the data (Glaser and Strauss, 1967). ...
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Opinion leaders (OLs) within the community may lead debate on animal welfare issues and provide a path for information to their social networks. However, little is known about OLs’ attitudes, activities conducted to express their views about animal welfare and whether they are well informed, or not, about husbandry practices in the red meat industry. This study aimed to (1) identify OLs in the general public and among producers and (2) compare OLs and non-OLs’ attitudes, knowledge and actions to express their views about the red meat industry. Two questionnaires, one for the Australian general public ( n = 501) and one for Australian red meat producers ( n = 200), were developed to identify general attitudes. From these questionnaires, OLs were identified using a two-step cluster analysis. Subsequently, a sub-sample of 19 OLs (including the public and producers) participated in a follow-up phone interview. Results disclosed some clear OLs’ characteristics. Public OLs held more negative perceptions of the red meat industry and perceived they had more knowledge about husbandry procedures. However, their actual knowledge about animal husbandry was not different from non-OLs. Public OLs also used and trusted social and internet media more than did non-OLs. In the producer group, a large percentage of OLs were identified (64.0% compared to 29.1% in the public group). Producer OLs had more actual knowledge about animal husbandry and engaged in more behaviours to express dissatisfaction with the industry than non-OLs (dissatisfaction in relation to the image of the red meat industry). Unlike the public respondents, this group used conventional media more than social and internet media, and their levels of trust in all kinds of media were low. While there were clear differences, both groups believed that is important to increase communication and educate about farm practices. This may present an opportunity to develop an opinion leader intervention strategy where informed OLs could later disseminate accurate information to their social networks. Further studies should test if sustained and facilitated educational sessions between public and producer OLs can assist in increasing communication, knowledge and perhaps, may assist in achieving convergence of concerns and expectations between both groups.
... This research has followed a grounded theory approach, employing mixed-methods, in which quantitative and qualitative data were triangulated and validated at different stages (Glaser & Strauss, 1967;Strauss & Corbin, 1990). Phase one led us to conclude that, to have any credibility, and to restore trust, academic workload and performance policies need to be designed to capture what academics do across all levels and disciplines. ...
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This paper reports on research exploring the academic workload and performance practices of Australian universities. This research has identified a suite of activities associated with teaching, research and service, each with an associated time value (allocation). This led to the development of the academic workload estimation tool (AWET). In 2020, to validate the findings, we contacted academics willing to participate further and conducted interviews. We used the AWET to estimate workload for each individual for the previous year and compared it to the workload allocated according to their institutional workload model. Discrepancies were then discussed to ascertain to what extent the AWET was able to capture their work. In general, the participants thought the AWET provided a more realistic estimate of their actual work and highlighted how much is underestimated or unaccounted for by the workload models used within their institutions. It also showed how academic performance policies, focussed primarily on research output, disadvantaged many individuals because they ignored or minimised many scholarly, teaching and service-related tasks inherent in the academic role. Overall, the findings showed the AWET was a useful tool to discuss academic work and assisted them to better capture the complexity and extent of what they did. We offer the AWET as a validated approach for academics to estimate their workload in a holistic and transparent manner. We suggest its implementation institution-wide, along with an aligned performance policy, will facilitate negotiation of reasonable performance expectations. This will rebuild trust in the processes and improve a university’s effectiveness.
... Another criticism is the potential to 'other' the people who are studied and written about in ethnography (Atkinson, 2015) or create a separation between the one who studies and those who are studied. This implies that an ethnographer's interpretation is somehow more valid than those interpretations of the researched (Brewer, 1994 (Glaser & Strauss, 2006); ideally, concepts about interdisciplinary working can come from this research. ...
Article
Interdisciplinarity has been portrayed as the research approach of choice by funders in Europe and the UK. As it is lauded as the necessary research configuration to reach ‘holistic’ solutions to complex problems such as sustainability, researchers and institutions organise their projects accordingly. Interdisciplinarity has become a research topic in itself. However, existing research has principally focused on the reasons why interdisciplinarity research is needed and the challenges to doing it successfully. The popularity of this research approach, coupled with the continued challenges of ‘doing’ interdisciplinarity, suggests that more research is needed to investigate the experiences of the researchers themselves. This research investigates interdisciplinarity in practice by conducting an ethnographic study of academics from both the natural and social sciences at a UK university charged with studying urban sustainability. The research is based on thematic and interpretive analysis and theories from Science and Technology Studies. The data collected between 2016 and 2019 drew from field notes, participant observation, semi-structured interviews, self-recorded diaries and document analysis. The findings from this research suggest that despite the motivation to work in an interdisciplinary way, the lack of a unified definition or incentive to do interdisciplinary work prevented researchers from viewing interdisciplinarity as a primary, integrated objective. In addition, due to the lack of evaluation measures, it was difficult to measure a successful interdisciplinary collaboration; therefore, expectations to meet an interdisciplinary ‘goal’ were unmet. This thesis argues that practising interdisciplinarity within an academic environment makes it difficult to create the incentives necessary to pursue interdisciplinary collaborations and that, in embracing conflict and experimentation, an appreciation for the practice of interdisciplinarity rather than a focus on the outcomes can be achieved.
... A constant comparative method was used in order to analyse the data. Constant comparison was first described by Glaser and Strauss in 1967 as a way of developing grounded theory (Glaser & Strauss, 2004). It can be used in interpretative research generally as a means of analysing written data to distil the underlying constructs and themes. ...
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Figurenotes is a simplified visual music notation system developed in Finland in the mid-1990s for people challenged by the abstract nature of conventional music notation. The system facilitates music reading and instrument playing, thus allowing active participation in music-making. The use of Figurenotes in both educational and therapeutic settings is now spreading to other countries. This thesis examines specifically the effectiveness and applicability of Figurenotes as a tool to facilitate music-making by children with autism in Australia, through the lens of a journey in reflective practice by the researcher-practitioner. The study involved three phases: in the first phase, eight individual children aged 6 to 13 years with autism participated in eight weekly sessions; in the second phase, two school groups of children with autism participated in an eight-week phase, and finally the families of the initial eight individuals participated in an additional phase of four weekly sessions each. Sessions involved the use of Figurenotes in rhythmic and creative activities, participating in ensembles, and developing playing technique using digital keyboards and tuned percussion instruments. The action research methodological approach allowed flexibility in study design, incorporating cycles of reflecting, planning, acting, and observing within the three phases of the study. Data were obtained through video observation, interviews, and researcher notes on participants’ development. Case studies of selected participants were compared with outcomes for the cohort as a whole. Thematic analysis combined with observer ratings to enable the investigation of four key focus areas: music-making skills, social interaction, self-concept, and reflective practice. Figurenotes was found to be an effective tool that allows children with autism to engage successfully in music-making independently, with peers, and with family members. The action research approach allowed novel interventions using Figurenotes which facilitated the development of participants' music-making skills and also their creativity. Participation in musical interactions was found to be associated with improved social interactions with peers and family members. Development of music-making skills was also associated with improvements in participants' self-concept through positive changes in participants' self-perception of their competence. Additionally, action research was found in this study to be an effective methodology in facilitating reflective practice when working with children with autism. The multiple beneficial outcomes demonstrated in this research warrant the further use and development of Figurenotes, and point to the value of further research in the development of music-making skills and creativity in children with autism.
... Thematic analysis of the participants' responses to the anonymous survey was conducted in QDA Miner Lite, utilizing a constant-comparative method [21][22][23]. ...
Article
Fostering relational understanding of science concepts requires that students engage in meaningful practice and consideration of content both inside and outside class. Calibrated Peer Review (CPR) is a text-based academic intervention that has improved students' essay writing skills, content understanding, and critical thinking skills across many disciplines. We investigated whether the Assessment-Calibration-Explanation-Re-Assessment (A.C.E.R.) Learning Cycle intervention, a symbolic-based intervention inspired by CPR, could enhance students' utilization of symbolic content, such as electron pushing arrow formalism in Organic Chemistry. Participants were administered formative assessments after reaction mechanisms were taught, calibrated by performing reflection exercises to score the electron pushing mechanism accuracy of carefully-selected examples from their peers, required to explain how they would rank the anonymous samples from best to worst, and answer related electron pushing mechanism questions. Participants' course grades were higher than control group's course grades. Paired samples t test indicated that participants' Re-Assessment samples were significantly better than their Assessment samples. Moreover, participants expressed that the intervention had helped them understand electron pushing arrow mechanisms to a greater degree. Implications for instructors are suggested, including selection of meaningful mistakes for students' analysis and modification of the CPR intervention for graphically-represented concepts.
... Tableau 1 : échantillon de l'étude Source : Auteur nous mentionnons ici que nous sommes en faveur de la pertinence, la cohérence et la validité interne de l'étude (Glaser & Strauss, 1967) par rapport à son objectif plus que la validité externe et donc la généralisation des résultats n'est pas recherchée dans cette étape. ...
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The scientific literature addressing the issue of balancing sport and academics focuses specifically on the variables that promote performance in these two domains, which are not necessarily distinct Shephard (1997). They demonstrated that the better students' sport career management the better their academic performance (Bonni, Cloes, &Theunissen, 2018). Our ambition is to highlight the value of pursuing a high-level sports career in parallel with a school curriculum in two pilot regional academies. The problem we have addressed is in many ways exploratory and interrogative, and therefore not exhaustive or generalizable, and is limited to a focus on the perception that the project's actor-initiators have of the issue of reconciliation as it is actually experienced and perceived. Convinced of the fact that we are dealing with the interpretation and interweaving of the observed facts, we have followed the interpretativist trend in an attempt to understand the meanings that these facts have on the aspects associated with the conciliation between the search for sporting excellence and academic success. The survey by semi-directive interviews was carried out with fifteen actors likely by their status and their function to provide satisfactory answers on the studied object. The reliability and validity of this research relies largely on the researcher's ability to interpret explanations and seek evidence until saturation point of collected data (Huberman & Miles, 1991).
... I have searched for, learned and taught ways to bring about change (Bate, 1996;Beckhard & Pritchard, 1992;Bennis & Nanus, 1985;Conway, 1998;Lundy & Cowling, 1995;Peterson & Hicks, 1996;Senge, 1994;Winstanley & Woodall, 1998) in teams, in organisations, in communities. I have deployed diverse interventions ranging from operations (Slack et al., 1995) and strategic planning (Dussuage et al., 1999;Glaser, 2008;Johnson & Scholes, 1997;Meyer & de Witt, 1998;Piercy, 1997;Richardson & Richardson, 1992) to process re-engineering (Chang, 1996) and the work of Deming (1981Deming ( , 1986; also see Neave (1987). I have been trained in and used performance management approaches, including the Balanced Score Card (Kaplan & Norton, 1996;Wongrassamee et al., 2003), Total Quality Management (NSQT, 1993) and European Foundation Quality Louie Jean Nora Gardiner, Composite Doctoral submission, March 2022 Management (Bou-Llusar et al., 2009;Wongrassamee et al., 2003). ...
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Traditional scientific paradigms emphasise writing in the third person, effectively marginalising the subjective perspective of the researcher. Many systems thinking, cybernetics and complexity approaches are better in this regard, as they involve systemic interventions where the relationships between the researcher and other participants really matter. Writing in the first person therefore becomes acceptable. In this Thesis (and a partner document coupled with it), I have explored how to reincorporate subjective empiricism into my systemic intervention practice. This has brought forth many unanticipated contributions. These take the form of new frameworks, concepts and approaches for systems and complexity practice, emerging from my engagements with myself and others, as well as from reflections upon those engagements. However, the content of my reflections and ‘becomings’ are not all that represent my doctoral contribution; there is also the form of my representation(s), as well as the emergent nature of the process through which they have come to be. I have drawn from Gregory Bateson’s use of metalogues: where the nature of a conversation mirrors its content – e.g. getting into a muddle whilst talking about muddles! Intuitively, I grasped the importance of metalogue in what I was attempting, and found myself coining the term metalogic coherence. Without fully appreciating what this might mean in practice, I groped my way into undertaking and documenting my research in ways that I believed would be metalogically coherent with the complexity-attuned principles to which I was committing. In sum, and key to appreciating what unfolds in the narrative, is recognising this Thesis and its partner document as metalogically coherent artefacts of naturally inclusional, complexity-attuned, evolutionary research. To fully acknowledge the different ways of knowing that have flowed into my inquiry, I have written in multiple voices (called statewaves, for reasons to be explained in the thesis). I found myself shifting from one voice to another as I explored and expressed different dimensions of what I was experiencing and discovering. In addition, I have made liberal use of hyperlinks, so both documents are far from linear. They are more akin to a mycorrhizal network, interlinking flows of ideas and sensemaking, all of which can be accessed and experienced differently, depending on each reader’s engagement with and through it. The thesis and its partner document are part of a composite submission that contains both poetry and artwork (visual depictions and animations of the ideas). These elements, along with the more conventional academic text, are augmented by penetrating reflections on my personal motivations, guided by a narrator signposting the streams as they flow into and between each other. All of my being has been implicated and impacted by this endeavour. When insights and new ‘becomings’ emerged flowfully during my practice, my joy was reflected in my narrative; as indeed were my pain, doubts and reinterpretations associated with ideas that were difficult to birth. I present all this in my submission, without retrospective sanitisation or simplification. In so doing, I am keeping faith with the principle that I remain at the heart of my research, and cannot be extracted from it without doing violence to the metalogical coherence that gives it meaning.
... After the interview, the transcripts were translated back and forth. Data was analysed using the constant comparison technique, which allows researcher to record, code and analysed the data systematically (Glaser & Strauss, 2009). The interview was recorded, transcribed, and input into NVIVO 12 for thematic analysis. ...
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Entertainment tourism experience is an emerging but largely over- looked phenomenon. The current study, adopting a qualitative approach, explored travel motivation and entertainment tourism experience from tourists’ and industry professionals’ perspectives. A total of 33 tourists and 18 industry professionals in Macao were interviewed. Three layers of entertainment tourism experience were identified, namely, behavioural, functional and affective aspects of experience. Furthermore, the three layers of experience were reported to be interrelated and played different roles in creating tourists’ entertainment experience. The study accordingly established an inte- grated flow of entertainment tourism experience. Moreover, the study offered practical implications to destination marketing organizations, industry practitioners, and tourists on cultivating a desired entertain- ment tourism experience for the tourists.
... Grounded theory [26] was chosen as the research framework since it comprises a well-suited design for exploring human social processes, discovering new theories from data, and determining possible solutions to a main problem [27]. This approach involves methods related to the recruitment of informants, data collection, and analytical procedures, where the characteristic simultaneous collection and analysis process influences further data collection and possibilities to explore specific theoretical links in order to achieve the quality and saturation of the data. ...
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Introduction The “difficult” patient is a well-known and potentially negative character in various care contexts. Objectives This study aimed to generate a conceptual framework explaining the main concerns about “difficult” dental patients, and obtain a deeper understanding of their characteristics, how they affect the dental staff and how the staff think and act in order to manage these patients. Methods Ten interviews were conducted with professional dental caregivers, including dentists, dental hygienists, and dental nurses. The audio-recorded interviews were transcribed and analyzed in accordance with the principles of grounded theory. Results The main concern regarding “difficult” dental patients generated a framework of seven descriptive interrelated lower-level categories grounded in the data, subsumed in the core category “ balancing subjective difficulties” . The informants perceived the possession of “ showing interaction difficulties ” and “ having bio-psycho-social complexity ”, as characteristic features of “difficult” patients, who could further adversely affect the dental staff by “ evoking negative emotions and behaviors ”, “ hampering self-esteem and job satisfaction ”, and “ impairing life and health in general ”. To manage the dental care of these patients, the staff used strategies aimed at “ activating internal and external resources ” and “ creating adaptive treatment relations ” with patients. Conclusions The dental staff’s meaning of the phenomenon of “difficult” dental patients points to specific characteristics, effects, and handling strategies. The core category captures the contradictory dynamics of characteristics and affects as these concepts seem interrelated to the caregivers’ handling capacity. The dental staff’s possibility of handling the main concern through balancing subjective difficulties depends on contextual conditions regarding time, to bring the patient and/or oneself at the center of attention. This indicates a need for further research regarding dental interactions and studies generalizing the outlook on “difficult” dental patients.
... For an inductive approach, researchers often use a constant comparison method (Glaser & Strauss, 1967) to create categories. To do so, researchers must deeply analyze the data they collected by identifying the individual commonalities and differences. ...
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Virtual reality (Vr) is an emerging technology that is gaining traction in K12 education. Whereas well-designed and engaging Vr experiences may be considered educational, teacher educators with content-area expertise are uniquely positioned to analyze the actual content provided by those experiences when determining Vr's educational value. however, at this point, no methodologies have been developed for that purpose. in response, this article describes a content analysis approach that teacher educators can use for determining the educational value of Vr's content. To present it, this article first provides an overview of research about Vr in education followed by a call for teacher educators to engage this work. it then describes the content analysis approach for Vr using step-by-step procedures along with an accompanying example. The article concludes with implications for teacher educators to use when evaluating Vr's content with their pre-service teachers and areas for future research. Virtual reality (Vr) can provide learning experiences that previously were not possible. With Vr, students can walk along the Great Wall, be launched into space, and even travel the human body by surfing on a red blood cell. To make these experiences possible, large technology compa-246 Cherner and Halpin nies like Microsoft, Facebook, and Google to smaller ones such as immer-sive Vr education, alchemy Vr, and discovery Vr are investing billions of dollars annually to develop Vr. Moreover, these companies are not only developing the software for Vr, but also the headsets needed to immerse users within virtual environments. at the same time, philanthropic efforts through donations and grants are increasing the amount of Vr in schools (Sidzyik, 2016; Taylor, 2017). Based on the power and influence that technology companies and philanthropists have on education (Cherner & Scott, 2019), these trends evidence that the use of Vr in educational settings will grow in the foreseeable future (holoniQ, 2019). Because Vr will very likely impact K12 education, it is important that teacher educators prepare pre-service teachers to use Vr effectively for teaching and learning, and that begins by identifying the educational value of the experiences Vr offers students. To support teacher educators, this paper will introduce a content analysis approach for determining Vr's educational value. To present that approach, an overview of research into Vr as related to education will first be provided followed with a rationale regarding why teacher educators are qualified to teach and research Vr. The paper will next provide a detailed description of the content analysis approach for determining the educational value of Vr, and it will conclude with both recommendations for integrating this approach into instructional methods courses in educator preparation programs along with other ways teacher educators can use it.
... Grounded theory is characterized by an iterative process and the interrelatedness of planning, data collection, data analysis, and theory development (Vollstedt and Rezat, 2019) . In 1967, sociologists Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss published the ground -breaking book -The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research‖ (Glaser and Strauss, 1967) . With their focus on theory development, they detached themselves from mere theory verification and the associated separation of the context of theory discovery and the context of theory justification. ...
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Oh yeah, we're an Agile shop, we gave up Waterfall years ago. "-product owners, managers, or could be anyone else. You will seldom have a conversation with a product or software development team member without the agile buzzword thrown at you at the drop of a hat. It would not be an oversell to say that Agile software development has been adopted at a large scale across several big and small organizations. Clearly, Agile is an ideology that is working, which made me explore more on its applicability in research. As someone who has been in the Information Technology sector for more than a decade and a half, and a new entrant in the research community, I am inclined to uplift the best practices from my IT experience and evaluate implementing them in research. The idea is to assess the provocative metaphor of "agile research" and the different research philosophies around the concept. The aim is to explore Agile research methodology, its applicability and find the scenarios where it can add value and those where it may not.
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‘Memoryscapes,’ the intangible expression of memories perceived through physical landscapes, are designed by the state to reinforce national identity in Singapore. However, state‐curated memoryscapes become contested when diverging and diverse memories of the people, which manifests as place attachment, are overlooked. The easy accessibility of content creation and consumption empowers people to bypass the perceived rigidity and performativity of top‐down community engagement to express their nuanced opinions on contentious memoryscapes through various media and artform. For example, local cinema that expresses the richness and complexity of place attachment. This research employs a ‘grounded theory’ approach, using local cinema as data to inductively construct a localized conception of place attachment. Findings reveal place attachment as an incremental range of behaviours with varying degrees of activity. With the emergence of a consultative government and progressive society in Singapore, this paper recommends community‐driven engagement in urban redevelopment to create authentic, localized landscapes.
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Whistleblowing is recognised as part of solving wrongdoing. It requires individual reasoning as it is a potentially complicated process with a risk of possible negative consequences for oneself. Knowledge on how individuals reason for whistleblowing in healthcare context is lacking. This study aimed to create a theoretical construct to describe individual reasoning for whistleblowing. The methodology was grounded theory, with 244 nurses as informants. The data consisted of nurses' written narratives in response to a wrongdoing situation presented in a video vignette. To ensure the heterogeneity of the population and variation in nurses' professional expertise, experiences and geographical locations in health care to capture the multidimensionality of the responses, nurses were invited to participate, and data were collected electronically from the membership register of the Finnish Nurses' Association on a national level. Constant comparison was used to analyse the open data. The core category of the theoretical construct, ‘The formation of morally courageous intervening’, was discovered, reflecting individual's values and beliefs. It forms mentally as an integration of cognition and emotion for recognising one's own strengths and limits to act to do the right thing despite the risk of negative consequences for oneself. The core category consists of three dimensions of reasoning: (1) Reasoning Actors, (2) Reasoning Justifications and (3) Reasoning Activities, their categories and three patterns of reasoning connecting the dimensions and their categories with each other: (I) Individual Reasoning, (II) Collaborative Reasoning and (III) Collective Reasoning. The theoretical construct indicate that reasoning is a multidimensional phenomenon. In future, a theoretical construct could be further developed. In health care, managers could use the theoretical construct to support employees in their whistleblowing.
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Problem‐oriented project work, also known as problem and project‐based learning (PBL), is a popular educational approach in engineering education. However, the focus of the literature on the implementation of PBL has been at the course and institutional levels. Scant attention has been paid to the student experience, especially regarding student conceptions of PBL. This is a phenomenographic study of student conceptions of PBL in a Danish engineering program that uses a systemic PBL model. This study follows a phenomenographic qualitative design. Sixteen participants from four different engineering disciplines were asked to share their views and experiences with PBL. The interview transcripts were analyzed to identify emerging variations in the student conceptions of PBL. The outcome space suggests three levels of students' conceptions of PBL: individual, group and society levels. Within the categories of description, sublevel variations appear: PBL as an unsupportive process and environment, PBL as a supportive process and environment, and PBL as a structured education method. These conceptions were organized hierarchically from a narrow individual to a broader society level. Student conceptions of PBL as a structured education method echo the literature on the intended learning outcomes of PBL. However, our study shows that conceptions of PBL as personal and social processes fall outside of the scope of current scholarly discussions on PBL. Issues of societal relevance, while prominent in the literature on PBL, do not feature in students' thinking about PBL at this stage. Introducing broader reflection practices informed by exemplarity could address some of these discrepancies.
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Effective use of recommended instructional practices is considered integral to the successful implementation of Citizenship Education curriculum. However, literature review reveals that little systematic research concerning mismatch between recommended instructional practices and the actual instructional practices for Citizenship Education has been conducted since the 1970s. This necessitated the current research which sought to examine the actual instructional practices in Citizenship Education in Vihiga County, in Kenya and how it differs from policy instructional practices. The study was guided by the following objectives: explore the use of recommended instructional practices in teaching Citizenship Education; examine reasons for use of recommended instructional practices in the teaching and learning of Citizenship Education and find out the challenges faced by teachers and learners in the use of recommended instructional practices in the teaching and learning of Citizenship Education. Jerome Bruner’s Constructivists Theory of Learning was adopted in the study. The target population comprised of all History and Government teachers and students in secondary schools in Vihiga County, of this population, 170 students and 4 teachers of History and Government were selected using the purposive sampling technique to participate in the study. The study adopted qualitative research method, specifically, a multiple case study design. Data generation was done using: observation schedules, interview schedule and focused group discussion guide. Data was analysed inductively through grounded theory technique. The study findings revealed domination of classroom activities over outdoor activities. Secondly, there was a strong influence of contextual factors on the selection and use of instructional practices. Finally, inadequacy in instructional resources was noted to affect the use of recommended instructional practices in Citizenship Education. The study recommends: A curriculum review introducing competence learning that would enhance the use of both classroom and outdoor activities; a re-conceptualization of History and Government teacher training to include teaching of Citizenship Education in different instructional contexts; and an endeavour by both the Government and school administration in availing of adequate instructional resources. The research finding will enable the relevant stakeholders and curriculum developers to make a change in the way the youth are taught thus facilitating the acquisition of skills, aptitudes and values which will enable them to take an active and responsible role in their society.
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They are participating as a volunteer implies active personal positioning accompanying others. Evidence supports that experiences of those who experience an illness, who are hospitalised or feel lonely, impact the volunteers: positive emotions like engagement and Compassion Satisfaction (CS) or, the reverse, Compassion Fatigue (CF). Motivations help us understand why volunteers spend their time on these activities. And self-care practices will be a challenge to counteract the exhausting emotions of volunteering. This research presents a mixed, exploratory and sequential design study on the island of Majorca (Spain). The first phase (n = 216) was quantitative, gathering data from November 2018 to April 2019. Then, the second phase (two focus groups) started with qualitative data collection (July 2019). Firstly, the study determines CS and work engagement levels and examines the relationship between self-care, CF and motivations. Secondly, the study finds out how they recognise their positive and negative emotions, their relationship with self-care and what motivates them to be volunteers. The results show that the volunteers report highly positive feelings associated with their volunteering (CS and engagement) and are backed up by a good level of personal Self-Care. The Understanding and Enhancement motivational functions generate even more positive feelings for the volunteers themselves, who attach a positive value to their experience of caring for others. Despite the positive results collected, we must not ignore the phenomenon of CF in relational volunteering and pain support because it occurs. After all, that could lead to abandonment by volunteers. K E Y W O R D S volunteer compassion fatigue, volunteer compassion satisfaction, volunteer functions inventory, volunteer self-care, volunteer work engagement 2 | CAÑAS-LERMA Et AL.
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