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The importance of organisational climate and commitment of knowledge workers for increasing the competitive advantage of enterprises

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As a result of socio-economic transformations and development of the Information Era, the competitive advantage of enterprises is based on intellectual capital. Competent employees as owners of knowledge, skills and creativity, essentially contribute to the strengthening of the position taken by their organisation on the market. In order to allow employees to use their capabilities in an effective way, it is crucial to provide them with favourable organisational conditions, which constitute organisational climate. The concept of organisational climate refers to employees’ perception of organisational conditions, which can be combined with the first level of economic analysis in the approach presented by New Institutional Economics, according to the model presented by O. Williamson (2000, p. 597). It is assumed that the employees’ positive assessment of the organisational climate is correlated with a higher level of the employees’ commitment, which leads to an increase in the competitive advantage of an organisation. In order to verify the hypothesis, some quantitative surveys have been carried out among knowledge workers (N = 639). In the research, two questionnaires have been used: the Organisational Climate Questionnaire (authors: L. Rosenstiel and R. Bögel) and the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI developed by E. Demerouti), which examine the level of burnout and commitment to work. The results of the statistical analysis have shown a significant, strong relationship between the assessment of organisational climate dimensions and the level of employees’ commitment to work, which contributes to an increase in the competitive advantage of an enterprise.
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WSB Journal of Business and Finance
Year 2019, Vol. 53, No. 1
eISSN 2657-4950
The importance of organisational climate and commitment of
knowledge workers for increasing the competitive advantage of
enterprises
Stefan Tokarski,a Karolina Oleksa-Marewska,b,
aWyższa Szkoła Bankowa w Gdańsku, aleja Grunwaldzka 238A, 80-266 Gdańsk
b aWyższa Szkoła Bankowa w Poznaniu, ul. Powstańców Wielkopolskich 5, 61-874 Poznań
© 2019 Stefan Tokarski, Karolina Oleksa-Marewska, This is an open access article distributed under the Creative
Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/
DOI 10.2478/WSBJBF-2019-0002
Abstract
As a result of socio-economic transformations and development of the Information Era, the
competitive advantage of enterprises is based on intellectual capital. Competent employees as owners
of knowledge, skills and creativity, essentially contribute to the strengthening of the position taken by
their organisation on the market. In order to allow employees to use their capabilities in an effective
way, it is crucial to provide them with favourable organisational conditions, which constitute
organisational climate. The concept of organisational climate refers to employees’ perception of
organisational conditions, which can be combined with the first level of economic analysis in the
approach presented by New Institutional Economics, according to the model presented by O.
Williamson (2000, p. 597). It is assumed that the employees’ positive assessment of the organisational
climate is correlated with a higher level of the employees’ commitment, which leads to an increase in
the competitive advantage of an organisation. In order to verify the hypothesis, some quantitative
surveys have been carried out among knowledge workers (N = 639). In the research, two questionnaires
have been used: the Organisational Climate Questionnaire (authors: L. Rosenstiel and R. Bögel) and the
Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI developed by E. Demerouti), which examine the level of burnout
and commitment to work. The results of the statistical analysis have shown a significant, strong
relationship between the assessment of organisational climate dimensions and the level of employees’
commitment to work, which contributes to an increase in the competitive advantage of an enterprise.
Keywords: Organisational climate, knowledge employees, New Institutional Economics, work
commitment
Key words: Neighbouring countries, tourist traffic, inbound tourism
Introduction
Although it has been developing since the 1960s, New Institutional Economics has grown in
significance for only a dozen years, first of all, in the face of dynamically changing mechanisms of
economic development and globalisation processes (Rudolf, 2016, p.39). It can be particularly observed
in the changes in the approach towards intangible resources, which denote the competitive advantage of
The importance of organisational climate and commitment of knowledge workers for increasing the competitive advantage of enterprise
WSB Journal of Business and Finance, Vol. 53, No.1
14
enterprises, and which allow them to adapt to the turbulent environment. Among the above-mentioned
resources, intellectual capital is the most important, that is, namely: employees and their capabilities to
acquire, to process and to develop knowledge. Considering the approach of New Institutional
Economics, the main emphasis is laid on the role of exchange that takes place between employers and
knowledge workers. In order to allow employees to use their knowledge efficiently and to contribute to
the growth of the competitive advantage of their enterprise, they require conditions, which will allow
them to develop and to become more committed to their work. An indicator of the assessment of the
conditions provided at a particular enterprise can be its organisational climate, namely: a set of
observations shared be the employees on management practice, procedures and other features of their
enterprise (Payne, Pheysey & Pugh, 1971, p.46; Kopelman, Brief & Guzzo 1990, p. 297; Rosenstiel &
Bögel, 1992, p. 46). A negative assessment of the organisational climate may come as a response to a
situation in which the terms of the contract have not been met by the company that offers unfavourable
conditions to its employees.
The aim of the article is to identify a relation between the assessment of organisational climate
and the level of knowledge workers’ commitment to their work, which is translated into their willingness
and readiness to work, and which increases the competitive advantage of the enterprise in this way.
There has been a quantitative survey carried out on 639 knowledge workers, with the use of two
questionnaire forms: the Organisational Climate Questionnaire developed by L. Rosenstiel and R. Bögel
(1992) and the OLBI (Oldenburg Burnout Inventory) developed by E. Demerouti (2003) to examine the
level of burnout and commitment to work. Subsequently, the results of the survey have undergone a
statistical analysis. It has been assumed that the positive assessment of organisational climate is
correlated with a higher level of employees’ commitment. The article is of empirical nature, and it is
divided into four parts. In the first part, the concept of organisational climate is discussed along with
transactional costs and the contractual theory of the firm. The second part refers to the role of knowledge
workers in the development of the competitive advantage of enterprises and the significance of
organisational climate for an increase in workers’ commitment. The third part of the article is of
methodological nature, and it presents the research sample, the tools applied in the research and the
statistical analysis of the results obtained after the research. The fourth part presents a discussion of the
results and a presentation of some practical conclusions. The closing part refers to the limitations of the
conducted research and the perspectives for further development of the discussed problem.
Transactional costs and organisational climate
In the approach of New Institutional Economics, an enterprise is a concatenation of contracts
(Gruszecki, 2002, p.131), which can be understood as a network of mutual agreements between some
economic entities. In each contract, there are some transactional costs, which come as dissension in the
system (Williamson,1998, p.32). During the exchange between an organisation and its knowledge
workers, there might be numerous costs related to the contracting problems. The aim of contracting is
to establish a favourable relationship, which will allow the parties to minimise transactional costs; hence,
it usually involves the choice of the most profitable variant at the lowest costs (Zbroińska, 2013, p. 165).
Some costs are subject to legal regulations; however, some other costs refer to less formalised aspects,
and they are more difficult to be minimised. If an invoice is not paid in its due time, the problem is to
be decided by the court, but offering employees some delusive prospects of promotion and failing to
meet the terms of a contract is the question of trust and interpersonal relations.
Costs are related to limited rationality of entities and opportunism, which is a tendency towards
pursuing one’s own interests without any consideration for the interests of other parties, with the use of
passive and active forms of deceit and manipulation (Williamson,1998, p. 600. In accordance with the
contractual theory of the firm, opportunist behaviour is considered to be the basis of entering contracts
(Gruszecki, 2002, p. 216). Opportunism allows the contract parties to limit their own efforts in the hope
of increasing their gain at the minimal contribution on their side; however, in fact, it introduces a lot of
uncertainty, and it impairs the quality of relationships. In economy based on knowledge, the long-term
character of relationships is of high significance, because it allows parties to establish stable links and
to obtain long-term advantages. Companies that neglect their transactions and do not meet terms of their
contracts act to their own detriment. Considering the long-term contracts that allow parties to increase
their competitive advantage, it is necessary to notice the high significance of the social aspect in which
The importance of organisational climate and commitment of knowledge workers for increasing the competitive advantage of enterprise
WSB Journal of Business and Finance, Vol. 53, No.1
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the values, norms and usual practices of enterprises are based (Williamson, 2000, p. 596). In accordance
with O. Williamson’s assumptions (ibidem), this aspect is the first level constituting the New
Institutional Economics. At this level, it is possible to observe the norms and premises of an enterprise,
which come as the constant attributes of an organisation (in the management sciences, this level may be
referred to as organisational culture). As O. Williamson observes (2000, p. 597), some unwritten aspects,
such as usual practices or norms, are divided into groups (of employees, of managers), and they form a
framework for informal institutions, which are understood as the principles of cooperation. Due to such
principles of cooperation, transactions become more predictable (Klimczak, 2005, p. 16). The social
level forms a basis for further transactions (compare the scheme of New Institutional Economics
published by O. Williamson (2000, p. 597)); therefore, the assessment of organisational factors provided
by employees comes as a significant indicator of corporate efficiency. On one hand, monitoring the
assessment provided by employees makes it possible to control fulfilling the terms of the contract by
the company; on the other hand, it is possible to know employees’ willingness to participate in the
transaction.
In expert literature on management sciences, the assessment of organisational factors provided by
employees is defined as organisational climate. It is a set of observations and opinions shared by
employees on managerial practice, procedures, relationships between employees and management staff
and other attributes of an organisation (Payne, Pheysey & Pugh, 1971, p. 46; Kopelman, Brief & Guzzo
1990, p. 297; Rosenstiel & Bögel, 1992, p. 46). Common perception of organisational conditions affects
the actions undertaken by employees, also under the contracts that have been concluded. Interaction
between the objective status of the organisational factors and the subjective assessment provided by the
groups of employees affects the atmosphere among the parties of the contract (Moran & Volkwein,
1992, p. 29). The assessment of the organisational climate may refer to the whole enterprise or its part,
because the basis of such an assessment is formed by a social group in which some observations are
made about the workplace (Rosenstiel & Bögel, 1992, p. 29). The total organisational climate is affected
by numerous factors. According to L. Rosenstiel and R. Bögel, there are seven dimensions in the concept
that they have assumed for their research (Durniat, 2016, pp. 4649):
1) General assessment of the management staff’s intentions it refers to convincing employees
about the good intentions of their superiors and about their genuine concern for the employees’
interest. The dimension examines general trust of employees towards their superiors.
2) Co-workers the assessment of the quality of relationships among employees, the level of
mutual trust and the sense of community
3) Superiors the assessment is focused on relationships with superiors, general impression
referring to whether the management staff is oriented towards people rather than towards tasks.
4) Work organisation the dimension refers to the structuring of work, delegation of responsibility
and the level of control over employees. The main aspect is the assessment of work overload and
organisation of tasks in a way which is favourable or unfavourable for their implementation.
5) The flow of information and communication the assessment refers to the way of
communication and the level of information transparency. The dimension also verifies the
assessment of communication credibility and the sense of being well informed.
6) Representing employees’ interests – the assessment refers to respecting employees’ rights,
respecting the representatives of professional groups and taking care of employees’ interests.
7) Remuneration and opportunities for promotion the assessment refers to the system of
remuneration.
Organisational climate performs a function that not only represents the employees’ assessment but
also a function, which determines the behaviour of the contract parties and perception of transactional
costs.
The significance of organisational climate in the development of knowledge workers’
commitment
Contemporary competition of enterprises takes place in specialist, qualitative and intangible
fields (Drucker, 1999, p. 13; Gruszecki, 2002, p. 225; Kowalczyk & Nogalski, 2007, p. 17). The
The importance of organisational climate and commitment of knowledge workers for increasing the competitive advantage of enterprise
WSB Journal of Business and Finance, Vol. 53, No.1
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production process or owned materials are not enough to develop a competitive advantage.
Contemporary competitive capabilities cannot be limited only to the reduction of production costs, but
they must be considered from many perspectives (Rudolf, 2005, p. 48). Hence, in our contemporary
economy, the key capital in an organisation is formed by its knowledge workers, as in 1959 P. Drucker
(1999, pp. 1314) defined the educated practitioners who had knowledge and who knew how to apply
it in their work. Since then, a number of studies have been presented on knowledge workers, who until
the end of the 20th century did not form the most important professional group. This was dynamic
economic development along with advancing globalisation and the requirement of specialisation, which
caused the fact that at present, knowledge determines the competitive advantage of enterprises. Among
the various studies on knowledge workers, we should pay particular attention to the studies by T.
Davenport (2007, p. 22) who defines knowledge workers as people with highly developed specialist
knowledge, education and professional experience, which allow them to gather, to process, to apply and
to develop new knowledge in the process of work. In Polish expert literature, a suggestion proposed by
M. Morawski (2009, p. 4041) should be noticed. The author suggests that knowledge workers are
employees who use, develop, analyse and practically apply their knowledge at work. Knowledge
workers, talented employees and specialists form networks of information exchange and cooperation,
which result in the synergy effect that contributes to an increase in the competitive advantage of an
enterprise (Rudolf, 2005, p. 51). Distortion in the relationships between workers and deterioration in
organisational climate result in the fact that the chances for the establishment of synergy, knowledge
sharing and maximisation of operations become smaller. This effect is opposite to the assumptions of
New Institutional Economics, because the aim of a transaction is cooperative surplus, which is possible
due to the freedom of exchange and trust among the parties of a contract (Staniek, 2017, p. 152).
Enterprises oriented towards an increase in their competitive advantage should pay some special
attention to their human resources policy, based on a model of human resources management, which
will enable them to retain competent and talented employees for a long time (Kłos, 2012, p. 393).
In all the companies where knowledge workers are employed, it is important to take care of the
welfare and enhancement of employees’ efficiency, because employees’ work makes the development
of enterprises possible. Any negligence of work conditions in an organisation will mean difficulties in
retaining its human resources and, in this way, also retaining its efficiency, which may eventually lead
to the recession of that company. Hence, it is extremely important to pay a lot of attention to work
environment and to form it in a way that will encourage knowledge workers’ commitment and their
development. It will be impossible with opportunist behaviour of the members of the management board
and management staff. As S. Rudolf postulates (2005): Conditions for the functioning of an enterprise
are provided only when the costs of its coordinating functions are lower than the transactional costs,
which are indispensable to provide some particular products to the market (op.cit. p. 49). Hence, it
requires good care about the conditions inside an organisation, which are favourable to a decrease in
coordinating costs. Organisational climate is one of the main determinants indicating the behaviour of
employees and efficiency of companies (Bratnicki, Kryś & Stachowicz, 1988, p. 95). For employees,
the assessment of an enterprise comes as a decisional criterion in undertaking activities and putting effort
into their work (Bratnicki & Wyciślak 1980, p. 89). Organisational climate also affects the level of
employees’ commitment (Stankiewicz & Moczulska, 2012, p. 217). It means that the climate that has
been positively assessed fosters higher commitment and effort put into work. In this way, it contributes
to an increase in efficiency and reinforcement of the position taken by the company on the market.
Commitment is an affective state, which is characterised by high professional activity, focus on work
and involvement into professional issues (Schaufeli at al., 2002, p. 74). Employees’ commitment can be
perceived in the context of the contractual theory of the firm (Pietrzak, 2016, p. 52). It performs a
function that stimulates people to meet their responsibilities defined in the contract or even to go beyond
the assigned tasks. Committed workers perform their tasks more easily and more willingly than the non-
committed people. It is possible to assume that committed workers share their knowledge more
willingly, and they apply it in their work, which contributes to the development of their company and
its competitiveness. Knowledge workers are usually characterised by performing intellectual tasks,
mobility, a need to exercise control, readiness for further development and learning (Daveport, 2007, p.
23-25; Morawski, 2009, p. 4748). Considering their awareness of their own value in the market,
knowledge workers decide to leave their companies faster than other employees if these companies do
not meet their expectations, and transactional costs are higher than possible benefits. Hence, in order to
The importance of organisational climate and commitment of knowledge workers for increasing the competitive advantage of enterprise
WSB Journal of Business and Finance, Vol. 53, No.1
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increase its competitiveness, an enterprise should, first of all, take good care of working conditions, limit
opportunist behaviour at the organisation and increase employees’ commitment.
As a result of the above-mentioned considerations, it has been decided to verify the relation
between the assessment of organisational climate and the level of commitment of knowledge workers.
Hence, the following hypotheses have been formulated:
H1: There is a relation between the assessment of organisational climate and the level of commitment
presented by knowledge workers.
H2: The level of the respondents’ commitment has various relations to the assessment of the
particular dimensions of organisational climate.
Methodology and analysis of the research on the relation between the assessment of
organisational climate and the level of commitment presented by knowledge workers
The aim of the research was to verify the relation between the assessment of organisational
climate and the level of commitment presented by the surveyed knowledge workers. It has been assumed
that the positive assessment of the climate fosters an increase in commitment, and that the negative
assessment of the climate correlates with the loss of commitment. In order to verify the hypotheses, the
quantitative research has been conducted along with the statistical analysis of the collected data.
The characteristics of the research tools and the research sample
The research survey has been implemented with the use of the Organisational Climate
Questionnaire developed by L. Rosenstiel and R. Bögel in its Polish version adapted by K. Durniat
(2012) and the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI) questionnaire developed by E. Demerouti in its
Polish version adapted by Ł. Baka and B. Basińska (2016). Dedicated to the examination of
organisational climate, the questionnaire consists of seven parts, which refer to the analysed dimensions
that have been described in the first part. There are 55 statements in the questionnaire and the
respondents are asked to refer to them by choosing a variant on a 5-level Likert scale. The OLBI
questionnaire measures the level of two factors: burnout and commitment loss. The tool consists of 16
statements, 8 of which refer to burnout and the other 8 to commitment loss. The respondents refer to
the statements by choosing a variant on a 4-level Likert scale. In order to mark out knowledge workers,
the purposeful selection to the sample has been performed. The criterion assumed to select the
respondents has included their higher education and tasks that they have to perform using, processing,
transferring and developing new knowledge (Drucker, 1999, p. 13; Davenport, 2007, p. 22; Morawski,
2009, p. 40-41). There have been 639 knowledge workers selected from the following professional
sectors: architecture, education, finance and accountancy, pharmaceutic science, computer science,
medicine, sales and marketing, human resources management and business administration. There have
been 388 women in that group (60.1%) and 251 men (39.3%) from ten provinces of Poland. Some
respondents have completed their questionnaire forms on paper and some of them on-line, providing the
material for the research from almost the whole territory of Poland.
Statistical analysis of the results
In order to verify the assumed hypotheses, pairwise correlation has been carried out with the use of
the Pearson’s r coefficient and stepwise linear regression. The results of pairwise correlation are
presented in Table 1.
Table 1. The Pearson’s r coefficient of the correlation between the dimensions of
organisational climate and the level of the respondents’ commitment
Dimensions of organisational climate
Commitment loss (N = 639)
The importance of organisational climate and commitment of knowledge workers for increasing the competitive advantage of enterprise
WSB Journal of Business and Finance, Vol. 53, No.1
18
General intentions of the management
-.599**
Relationships with co-workers
-.498**
Relationships with superiors
-.665**
Work organisation
-.604**
Information flow and communication
-.603**
Representation of employees’ interests
-.608**
Remuneration and opportunities for
promotion
-.630**
Total assessment of organisational
climate
-.688**
** Correlation significant at the level p < 0.01 (bilaterally)
The Pearson’s r coefficient indicates that there are significant inversely proportional negative
relations between the level of commitment loss and all the dimensions of organisational climate and its
total assessment. It means that commitment lossdecreases along with the higher assessment of
organisational climate and its every dimension (that means that the respondents indicate higher
commitment to their work). The strength of correlation differs, depending on the dimension of
organisational climate. In order to check which dimensions of organisational climate explain the
phenomenon of commitment loss better in the analysed sample, the linear regression of variables has
been conducted. Table 2 presents the regression model.
Table 2. The model of the R linear regression of the commitment loss variable
Model
R-squared
Corrected R-squared
Standard deviation of
assessment
1
0.492
0.489
0.43508
The stepwise linear regression indicates that there is a model that fits well and explains the
variation of commitment loss. The R2 coefficient is 0.492, which means that the model explains the
variability of commitment loss in the analysed sample in 49.2%. The model includes the following
dimensions: relationships with superiors, remuneration and opportunities for promotion, work
organisation. The equation for the linear regression model, which explains the linear relation between
commitment loss and the assessment of the dimensions of organisational climate, is as follows:
y = β-0,30 x1 + β-0,26 x2 + β-0,21 x3 + ε
where:
y = the level of commitment loss
βx = the value of the beta rate
x1 = the assessment of the relationships with superiors dimension
x2 = the assessment of the remuneration and opportunities for promotion dimension
x3 = the assessment of the work organisation dimension
ε = random error
The beta (β) rate for the relationships with superiors dimension is -0.30, which means that a
decrease in the assessment of this dimension by 1 unit will increase the level of commitment loss by
0.30 point. A decrease in the assessment of the remuneration and opportunities for promotion dimension
by 1 unit will increase commitment loss by 0.26 point and a decrease in the assessment of the work
The importance of organisational climate and commitment of knowledge workers for increasing the competitive advantage of enterprise
WSB Journal of Business and Finance, Vol. 53, No.1
19
organisation dimension by 1 unit will contribute to an increase in commitment loss by 0.21 point. The
equation is applicable under an assumption that other parameters are constant.
Considering the results obtained after the analysis, it has been possible to confirm the assumed
hypotheses H1 and H2, which refer to the relation between the assessment of organisational climate and
the level of commitment, and which refer to the fact that the level of the respondents’ commitment has
a different relation with the assessment of the particular dimensions of organisational climate.
Conclusions after the research
The research and statistical analysis that have been conducted indicate a strong positive relation
between the assessment of organisational climate and the level of commitment presented by the surveyed
knowledge workers. It is particularly significant when competitiveness of enterprises is concerned. In
economy based on knowledge, enterprises can be developed due to social capital, namely, relationships
established among employees that form a network of connections optimising communication,
coordination and cooperation (Rudolf, 2005, p. 51). In a situation when such a network is disrupted by
deficient communication, lack of trust among employees and opportunist actions of superiors, it is
impossible to achieve high efficiency and competitive advantage in the market. Transactional costs come
as the measure for the assessment of corporate efficiency (Zbroińska, 2013, p. 164); hence, decreasing
uncertainty related to contracting is highly significant for enhancing competitive capabilities.
The statistical analysis indicates that the volatility of the commitment level can be explained in
the best way by the assessment of relationships with superiors, a remuneration system, opportunities for
promotion and also by the assessment of work organisation and distribution of responsibilities. While
assessing their superiors, the respondents have been asked to refer to the communication style, the
quality of feedback information they receive, the proportions between orientation towards tasks and
orientation towards employees, sensitivity to employees’ needs and conflicts between superiors and their
employees. In order to increase knowledge workers’ commitment, the management staff should take
care of an attractive incentive system, open and sound communication, a sense of partnership and
autonomy (Morawski, 2009, p. 49, 51). Enterprises dealing with knowledge management should
improve processes inside the organisation, adapting themselves to market transformations and
respecting privacy and independence of their employees, which shall contribute to an increase in the
competitive advantage of their companies (Szaban, 2003, p. 68). Hence, openness towards discussion
with employees, consideration of their requests, keeping promises and skilful appreciation (both in
financial and praise terms) make it possible to increase the willingness to intensify effort put into the
development of the company.
The second important organisational factor that explains the volatility of the commitment level
in the analysed sample is a remuneration system and opportunities for promotion. A transparent and fair
remuneration system increases workers’ commitment, whereas the lack of estimation, the lack of
transparent principles of remuneration and promotion based on acquaintance with some people and not
on skills decrease commitment and willingness to work for a particular company.
The third significant factor is the assessment of work organisation. Commitment can be
decreased by too many responsibilities, a sense of unfair delegation of tasks and excessive supervision.
A practical conclusion that can be drawn by management staff is careful consideration of workload and
abandonment of exploitation systems. If knowledge workers are given some more freedom and trust in
their operations, they will be more efficient and they will be able to work more than in a situation when
tasks have been imposed and strictly supervised. Commitment is a factor that stimulates willingness to
work, however, it can be weakened by pressure exerted by some other people. It is not without a reason
that O. Williamson (1998) postulates that instead of responding to opportunism in the same way, it is
more advisable to give and fulfil credible pledges (op. cit. p. 61). The higher the assessment of
organisational climate and its components is, the higher the level of perceived commitment becomes.
The results that have been obtained may provide some applicable conclusions for management
practitioners. Among various organisational factors, the strongest correlations can be observed between
the assessment of relationships with superiors and the level of employees’ commitment. It indicates a
necessity of training dedicated to management staff, also in the field of soft competences and
management style oriented more towards people than towards tasks.
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WSB Journal of Business and Finance, Vol. 53, No.1
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Results
The conducted research indicates high significance of organisational climate for the
improvement of commitment presented by knowledge workers, whose work contributes to an increase
in competitive advantage of their company. Lower assessment of organisational climate indicates that
transactional costs are more perceptible in relation to the advantages resulting from the contract
concluded between an organisation and knowledge workers. In the case of knowledge workers, who
often form a mobile group of specialists highly aware of their value on the market, low assessment of
organisational climate may even contribute to a decision about leaving the company. Usually, losing a
well-qualified worker involves costs related to recruitment and onboarding procedures, but it also means
the loss of intellectual capital, which is the most important element of the competitive advantage of a
company. Even if employees do not leave the company because of the work conditions that are assessed
as poor, their commitment to work may still go down. Understood as willingness to work, concentration
on one’s responsibilities and being engaged in organisational operations, commitment seems to be one
of the key factors that condition the development of an organisation. Committed employees wish to
work hard and in the best possible way, and it contributes to growing competitiveness. Therefore, it is
important for enterprises that employ knowledge workers to take good care of their organisational
climate, particularly in the field of partner relationships with employees, even distribution of tasks with
the optimal level of supervision and fair remuneration systems based on employees’ performance.
Although the surveyed knowledge workers represent various professional groups, the relationships with
the superiors and their management style have been the most significant factors explaining the level of
commitment. The style that is oriented towards people rather than towards tasks is correlated with an
increase in commitment.
It would be worth carrying out further research on employees’ commitment with regard to the
improvement in the competitive advantage of enterprises. The limitations to the discussed research
involve the size of the sample (N = 639); hence, an increase in the number of respondents would be
valuable for the development of knowledge in this field. Some longitudinal studies would be worth
considering too, as they could verify the assessment of organisational climate, the level of knowledge
workers’ commitment and an increase in the competitive advantage of an enterprise in a particular period
of time. Longitudinal studies would allow us to identify the influence exerted by the assessment of
organisational climate on the level of commitment and the relation between the assessment of
organisational climate, commitment and an increase in the competitive capabilities of an enterprise in a
particular time. In its current form, the quantitative research allow us only to provide an analysis of the
relations and to explain the volatility of the commitment level with the use of the regression model that
comprises the analysed factors of organisational climate.
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Klimat organizacyjny: Pojęcie, mierzenie, badania i diagnoza
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Bratnicki, M. & Wyciślak M. (1980). Klimat organizacyjny: Pojęcie, mierzenie, badania i diagnoza, Prakseologia, 4(76), 85-104.
Polish adaptation of L. Rosenstiel and R. Boegel's organizational climate diagnosis questionnaire
  • P F Drucker
Drucker, P. F. (1999). Społeczeństwo pokapitalistyczne, Warszawa: PWN Durniat, K. (2012). Polish adaptation of L. Rosenstiel and R. Boegel's organizational climate diagnosis questionnaire, Polish Journal of Applied Psychology, 10 (1), 147-168