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RADIO FREQUENCY (RF) BIO-EFFECTS DO WE HAVE A PROBLEM?

Authors:
RADIO FREQUENCY (RF)
BIO-EFFECTS
DO WE HAVE A
PROBLEM?
Steve Weller B.Sc. Monash, MORSAA
Early radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF -EMR) bio-
effect findings 1970s and earlier
RF-EMR bio-effect findings 2000 to 2012 (TR-164 vs ORSAA
DB)
Health issues that plague modern society The potential role
of RF-EMR
Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity (EHS) real or imaginary?
How funding source and country of origin appears to distort
outcomes
ORSAA in vivo/in vitro comparison with TR-164 findings
Lack of precaution and failure to adequately communicate and
manage risk
AGENDA
RESEARCH SUMMARY
FINDINGS US NAVAL
MEDICAL RESEARCH
INSTITUTE (NMRI) 1971
The number of citations exceed 2300 papers
Changes in physiologic function
Changes in the oxidative processes in tissues and organs
Altered sensitivity to drug stimuli
Decreased spermatogenesis (decreased fertility, to sterility)
Altered foetal development
Altered renal function
Changes in conditioned reflexes
Altered blood flow rate
Alterations (EEG) of the cerebral cortex
Electrocardiographic (EKG) changes
Alterations In sensitivity to light, sound, and olfactory stimuli
Re d t e x t = S y m pto m s t y p i c a l l y fo und i n e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c h y p e r sensitiv e (EH S ) suf f e r s
PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS
Central nervous system effects
Headaches
Insomnia
Restlessness (awake and during sleep)
Electroencephalographic (EEG) changes
Autonomic nervous system effects
Neuro-vegetative disorders (e.g., alteration of heart rhythm)
Fatigue
Structural alterations of the synapses
Stimulation of parasympathetic nervous system (bradycardia)
Peripheral nervous system effects
Effects on locomotor nerves
NERVOUS SYSTEM EFFECTS
Psychophysiologic (and psychosomatic) responses
Neurasthenia (general "bad" feeling)
Depression
Anxiety
Lack of concentration
Dizziness
Sleepiness
Insomnia
Increased irritability
Loss of memory
Scalp sensations
Increased fatigability
Chest pain
Tremor of the hands
Behavioural changes
PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL/BEHAVIOURAL
EFFECTS
Blood Disorders
Changes in:
Blood and bone marrow
Phagocytic (polymorphs) and bactericidal functions
Number of erythrocytes (decrease)
Blood glucose concentration (increase) (type 2 diabetes)
Blood histamine content (allergies)
Cholesterol and lipids (cardiovascular disease)
Albumin/globulin ratio (decrease)
Gamma (also αand β) globulin, and total protein concentration
Leukopenia (increase in number of white cells), and leukocytosis
Vascular disorders (stroke)
BLOOD/VASCULAR DISORDERS
Blue text = Suggested to have a potential role in a number of diseases found in today’s society
Genetic and chromosomal changes
Chromosome aberrations
Mutations
Somatic alterations (changes in cell not involving nucleus or
chromosomes, cellular transformation)
Neoplastic diseases (e.g., tumours)
Endocrine gland changes
Altered pituitary function
Decreased corticosteroids in blood
Decreased glucocorticoidal activity
Hypogonadism (usually decreased testosterone production)
Histological changes
Changes in tubular epithelium of testicle
Changes in circadian rhythms
OTHER SIGNIFICANT EFFECTS
DEFENCE INTELLIGENCE
AGENCY (DIA) REPORT
1976
If the more advanced nations o f the West are strict in the
enforcement of stringent exposure standards (safety
regulations), there could be unfavourable ef fects on industrial
output and militar y functions . (page vii)
“Animal experiments reported in open literature have
demonstr ated the use of low level microwave signals to
produce death by hear t seizure or by neurological pathologies
resulting from breaching of the blood -br ain barrier. (page viii)
Personnel (military) exposed to microwave radiation below
thermal levels experience more neurological, cardiovascular,
and haemodynamic disturbances than do their unexposed
counterpar ts. (page 6)
Some of the cardiac and circulator y ef fects attributed to
exposure include bradycardia, hypotension, and changes in
EKG indices. = High and low blood pressure (page 6)
US DEFENCE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY (DIA)
REPORT 1976
S u b j e cts ( military personnel) exposed to microwave exhibited a variety
of n e u r asthen i c disorder s against a b a c k gro u n d of angiodysto n i a
(abnormal changes in the tonicity of the blood vessels) . The m o st
common subjective c o m p l a i nt s we r e headache, f a t igue, pe r s piri n g ,
dizziness , menst rual d isorders, irr i t a b i l i t y, agitat ion, t e n s i on ,
drow s i ne ss, s l e e p l e ss ness, d e p r e s sion, a n x i e t y, forgetfulness and lack
of c o nce n t r a t i o n . (page 8)
L o ng term n o n -thermal microwav e irradiation o f male mice e vo ked
diff u se changes i n the testes . Subsequent m a t i n g of the animals
resulte d in reduction in the size o f t h e lit ter s (page 13)
Re co g n i t i o n of the . 01mW/cm2 s tandard ( s tringent s a f ety r egulations)
could a l s o lim i t the a pplication o f new e lectro n i c technol o g y by m a king
the c omm er c i a l exploi t at io n of some p r o d u c t s unattractive b e c a u se of
increased c o s t s imposed by the n e ed f o r ad d i t ional s afe gu a r d s . (page
24)
“A n o t he r possibility i s alteration o f the permeability o f t h e blood -br a i n
ba r r i e r. This c ould allow neurotoxins in the b l o od to c r o s s . As a r e s u l t ,
an i n d i v i d u a l cou l d deve l o p seve r e neuropathologica l symptoms , either
die, o r b e c o me seriously i m p a i r e d neurologically. (page 26)
US DEFENCE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY (DIA)
REPORT 1976
INFLUENCE OF MICROWAVE
RADIATION ON MAN AND
ANIMALS (1970) - NASA
TRANSLATION
RF (Microwaves) may have both pathogenic effects
and, under certain conditions, a therapeutic action on
the human organism
Many aspects of this pressing problem remain almost
totally neglected; in particular, our information on the
mechanism by which microwaves affect the human
organism is inadequate
Microwave radiation on the organism can be dealt
with successfully (and the literature material
critically generalized) in its present state only by a
team of scientists representing various specialties
It was established from study of the nonthermal
(specific) action of radio waves that the changes that
appear in the organism cannot be explained solely in
terms of the amount of heat formed in it
* S o u r c e : I n fluen c e o f M i c r o w ave R a d i a t i o n o n M a n a n d A n i m a l s ( 1 970) - N A S A Tra n s la t i o n
BIO EFFECT RESEARCH 1970 CONCLUSIONS*
RF BIO EFFECT FINDINGS
2000 PRESENT DAY
&
POTENTIAL HEALTH
IMPLICATIONS
Cancer is now the leading cause of death surpassing
cardiovascular disease as the nations top killer (Jan 2017)
WHO in 2014 reported that a cancer tidal wave is approaching
Neurodegenerative diseases are becoming more prevalent with a
40% increase from 2006 to 2016.
Dementia is one of Australia's top three leading causes of death with an
increasing mortality rate
Mental health problems are plaguing society
This is evident as anxiety based disorders and behavioural problems are
become more prevalent, severe, and in many cases disabling
Mental illnesses are the third leading cause of disability burden in Australia
Neurobehavioral disorders are the major health burden in children
A significant proportion of the population is suf fering from one or
more allergies in developed countries and allergic d i s e ases are
among t he fastest g r o w i n g chronic c o n d i t i o n in devel o p e d
countri es, Austr alia is n o exc eption
About half of all Australians have a chronic disease, around 20%
have at least two and 40% of Australians aged 45 and over have
two or more of the eight chronic diseases identified:
Arthritis, asthma, back problems, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and mental health conditions
CHRONIC DISEASES THAT PLAGUE MODERN
SOCIETY DOES EMR HAVE A ROLE TO PLAY?
Exposure to microwaves produce distinct changes in the
functions of various biological systems
Changes are not only occurring at a level below where there
are no pronounced thermal changes assumed to be occurring,
but also at lower levels
The nature of these changes depend strongly on the duration
and number of repeated exposures
Many studies that are finding effects at very low levels are
well conducted research (methodology is sound)
BIOEFFECTS OCCURRING AT LEVELS WELL
BELOW RPS3 RF BASIC RESTRICTIONS
Incr ease per mea bil ity of blo od brai n b arr ier a nd gut
Open the bl ood -br ain bar rie r to vir use s an d t oxi ns
Heat hea d an d e ar
Ind uce ri ngi ng i n t he e ar s, i mpa ir sens e o f s mell
Incr ease excita bil ity at neur ona l s yna pses
Dama ge ner ves wit hin the sca lp
Cau se d iv erse n eu ropsyc hia tri c cha ng es , inc lu din g
dep ression
Disr upt bra in a cti vit y, a lter br ain wav es (EEG
read ing s), alt er b rai n ch emi stry and alt er the bra in s
elec trical act ivi ty d uri ng s leep
Lowe r le vels o f n ight t ime mela ton in; sl ee p
dis rup tio n an d in so mni a
Cau se m em ory l os s an d m ent al c onfus ion
Beha viou ral ch ang es; Po or exp lor atio n o f t he l oca l
envi ronment , m oti vati on inhibi tin g
Cau se h ea dach es a nd i nd uce s ex tre me fa ti gue
Rever se cel l membr ane po lar ity (RBC s form
Roul eaux f orm ation)
Alte red chr onob iol ogy leadi ng to stre ss r espo nse
Cre ate joi nt p ai n, musc le s pa sms a nd t re mor s
Prec ipi tate cat ara cts, re tina da mag e an d e ye c anc er
Immu ne d isr upt ion lead ing to ove r a ctiv e, unde r
acti ve, and au toim mun e co ndi tio ns.
Cre ate bur nin g se ns atio n an d/ or ra sh o n t he ski n
Redu ce t he n umbe r a nd e ffic iency of whi te b loo d
cell s
Stim ula te a sth ma by p rodu cin g & rele asi ng
hist ami ne in mast cel ls
Cau se d ig esti ve p rob lem s
Stre sses the en docr ine sys tem, es peci all y p anc reas ,
thyr oid , ov ari es a nd tes tes
Caus e si ngl e st ran d and do ubl e strand bre aks in
cell ula r DN A ( via ox idat ive str ess pat hwa ys) can
lead to can cer and neu rod egen era tion
Incr ease in tu mour gen esis du e t o fr agi lit y a nd
alte red exp ress ion of RNA and DN A
Alte red hor mone an d sex ste roi d l evel s
Impl ica ted in both ma le a nd fema le inf ert ili ty
Lea ds t o ch an ges t o t he ele ctr ica l co ntr ol o f t he
hea rt r esu lti ng i n t ac hyca rdi a (r api d he art beat ),
arr hyt hmi a and can re sult in sud den car diac ar rest
Per iph eral ne uro log ic al ef fe cts l ea din g to nox io us
and ab nor mal s en sat ion s or dy ses thes ia
RECOGNISED EFFECTS OF EVEN MI NUTE LEVELS OF
MICROWAVE RADIATION EXPOSURE HAVE BEEN SHOWN TO :
Source: ORSAA Database as of 24/05/2017: Date Range 1/1/2000 to present day
RF-EMR BIOEFFECTS IN
MORE DETAIL
The CNS is highly sensitive to microwave irradiation and
leads to functional changes
Some changes may be adaptive in nature
Can have a regulatory influence on endocrine glands
Changes in cortical excitability
Some CNS effects can be temporary in nature
EEG changes
Short term cognitive/behavioural effects
Or long term and depends on the nature of the exposure
and duration
Neurodegeneration
ADHD exposure during pregnancy and when child's brain is
developing
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS)
Studies link RF exposure to:
Structural and functional changes of the brain
Neurodegeneration
Histopathological changes and neuronal damage
Morphological changes, shrunken cytoplasm
Increased oxidative stress
Pyramidal cell loss (hippocampus) - memory
Increased apoptosis (cell death)
Expression rates of microRNAs and gene expression in cells
Decreased number of Purkinje cells in cerebellum motor control
EEG changes provides the most convincing evidence of a direct impact
on brain by RF exposure mechanism remains to be studied
Mitochondrial dysfunction
DNA damage, fragmentation, micronuclei induction
Altered neurotransmitter (NT) levels and NT receptor expression
Blood brain barrier (BBB) breaches and albumin leakage
Cognitive function, behavioural and spatial memory deficiencies
RF EXPOSURE AFFECTS BRAIN
Some studies suggest RF exposures are linked to:
Degenerative diseases like Alzheimers, dementia, Parkinsons Disease,
Huntington's Disease etc. (Bas, 2009, Dasdag 2012, Zao 2015, Barnes &
Greenebaum 2016)
Neurodevelopment and behavioural problems
Autism, ADHD etc. (Sage and Herbert 2009, Aldad et al 2012).
Other mental illnesses that are linked to metabolic/chemical imbalances
in the brain
Depression, anxiety
Bipolar disorder/schizophrenia
Addictive/compulsive behaviour
Intolerance and increased aggression
All of the above are on the rise and parallels the deployment of wireless
transmitters in our society
NEURODEGENERATION AND ALTERED
BEHAVIOUR
ORSAA DATABASE NEURONAL DAMAGE
AND BEHAVIOUR EFFECTS
Source: ORSAA database as of 23/05/2017
Circadian rhythm disruption (normal 24 -hour cycle of biological
processes in animals and plants) (Wever 1970, Vangelova 2002,
Chaturvedi 2011, Qin 2013, Cao 2015)
Ultradian rhythm effects (a recurrent period or cycle repeated
throughout a 24-hour circadian day) (Mohammed 2012)
Time of exposure influences the magnitude of disruption (Qin
2013)
Downstream effects include hormone release dysregulation,
inflammatory and haematological disorders, sleep disorders etc.
The majority of research papers investigating this endpoint show
RF exposures effect circadian rhythm and endocrine function
Health implications if persistent and long term:
Increased risk of diabetes
Increased risk of cancer
Increased risk of cardiovascular disease
Increased risk of obesity
Increased risk of stroke
CHRONOBIOLOGICAL EFFECTS
Biochemical actions induced by EMR exposures lead to
adverse changes in hormones essential in male and female
reproduction
Testosterone level decreases
Luteinising hormone (LSH) levels increased
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) level increased
Estrogen level changes
Progesterone level changes
Prolactin levels decreased
Corticosterone level increases
Corticosterone is a main glucocorticoid, involved in regulation of
energy, immune reactions, and stress responses.
Adrenaline and Noradrenaline levels (catecholamine) change
and is more dramatic with length of exposure
Thyroid hormone levels change (TSH, T3, T4)
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels decreased
Melatonin level decreases
ENDOCRINE EFFECTS
ORSAA DATABASE ENDOCRINE PAPERS
No Effects Funding
Government Funders
Department of Defence
Korea Communications Commission
UK MTHR programme
Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, Japan
Hungarian Ministry of Welfare (Joint Funding with Hungarian Telecommunication Co)
Industry
Deutsche Telekom/T
-Systems, Germany
Mobile Manufacturers Forum (MMF)
Supported by T
-NOVA Deutsche Telekom Innovations-gesellschaft mbH
UK MTHR programme
Motorola Corporation
Forschungsgemeinschaft
Funk e.V
. (FGF) (Research Association for Radio Applications),
Hungarian Telecommunication Co. (Joint funding with Hungarian Ministry of Welfare)
Source: ORSAA database as of 23/05/2017
Hippocampus injured by long -term exposure to microwaves
leads to impairment of cognitive function due to
neurotransmitter disruption (Zhao 201 2)
Microwaves influences monoamine neurotransmitter levels and
their key regulating enzymes (Megha 2015)
Many studies looking at learning and spatial memory
deficiencies also find neurotransmitter profiles changed
(Shtemberg 2000, Zhao 2012, Maaroufi 2014, Qin 2014, Wang 2015 etc.)
Impacts brain, heart and digestive system
GABA, dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine (noradrenaline),
epinephrine (adrenaline), glutamate, acetylcholine levels are
all impacted by RF
NEUROTRANSMITTER EFFECTS
Serotonin
Serotonin is produced both in the Central Nervous System (CNS) and
in the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS).
Serotonin produced in the CNS is associated with anger regulation,
body temperature, mood, sleep, pain modulation and appetite
Dopamine
A natural amphetamine and controls energy, excitement about new
ideas and motivation
GABA
An inhibitory neurotransmitter of the nervous system and is linked
with relaxation, anti-anxiety and anti-convulsive effects
Acetylcholine
Promotes excitatory actions for cognition, memory and arousal
NEUROTRANSMITTER FUNCTION
GABA imbalances
Anxiety
Difficulty turning the mind off
Restless mind
Inner tension and excitability
Tinnitus
Blurred vision
Chest discomfort
Irritability, oversensitivity
Dopamine imbalances
Depression
Fatigue
Learning disorders
Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)
Irritability and outbursts
Distracted easily
NEUROTRANSMITTER IMBALANCE
SYMPTOMS
Serotonin imbalances
Migraines/headache
Rapid heart rate/irregular heart
beat
Tremor
Strong sugar cravings
Insomnia
Fatigue
Depression
Reduced emotional control
Acetylcholine imbalances
Learning disabilities
Memory lapses
Diminished comprehension
Slowed mental responsiveness
Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)
A long-term study conducted in Germany to investigate
the influence of base station RF emissions on
neurotransmitters under true-to-life conditions;
24 out of 60 participants were exposed to a power density
of < 60 µW/m², 20 participants to 60 - 100 µW/m², and
16 participants to more than 100 µW/m² ;
The levels of stress hormones adrenaline and
noradrenaline grew significantly during the first 6 months
after starting the GSM base station;
The levels of the precursor substance dopamine
substantially decreased in this time period;
The initial condition was not restored even after 1.5
years;
The effects showed a dose-effect relationship and are
situated well under public exposure limit values.
A REAL LIFE EXPOSURE CONDITION
(BUCHNER ET AL. 2011)
ORSAA DATABASE NEUROTRANSMITTER
PAPERS
No Effect Funders
Government
Department of Defence
Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, Japan
UK MTHR programme
Industry
UK MTHR programme
Source: ORSAA database as of 23/05/2017
Chronic exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic
radiation of cell phone leads to:
Defective and degenerative testicular function;
Increased oxidative stress;
Atrophy of the seminiferous tubules;
Degenerative changes in the epithelium of the testes;
Reduction of serum testosterone levels;
Reduction in the number of sertoli cells;
Malformed sperm;
Reduced sperm count and quality;
Reduced sperm viability;
Reduced sperm motility;
Increased sperm DNA damage.
SPERM AND TESTICULAR EFFECTS
FERTILITY IMPLICATIONS
Source: ORSAA database as of 23/05/2017
Inflammation
Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) levels increased (Eser 2012, Megha 2012)
Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels increased (Megha 2012)
Neuroinflammation (Bouji 2012)
Changes in Cytokine profile (Gapeev 2010)
Lymphocyte percentage and total white blood cell counts changes
IgM and IgG levels significantly changed (Yuan 2004, El-Gohary 2017)
Pancytosis (an increase in RBCs, WBCs, and platelets) (Otitoloju 2012)
Leukocyte cell surface antigens (CD antigens) expression changes
Skin disorders/dermatitis (Johansson 2001)
Migration of mast cells towards the uppermost dermis
Mast cell degranulation
Histamine release
Autoimmune changes (Grigoriev 2010*)
Supressed phagocytic activity of neutrophils (Kolomytseva 2002)
Increased allergies and asthma (Saravanamuttu 2016)
*Re p lic a t e d Sovie t s t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d bet w e e n 1 9 74 a n d 1 9 91 t h a t s h o w e d immuno l o g ic al e f f e c ts
IMMUNOLOGICAL REACTIVITY CHANGES
Cytogenotoxic damage in immature rats was statistically
higher than the mature rats (Sekeroglu 2013)
8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) test show DNA Base
Damage (from increased oxidative stress) (Guler 2010, B urlaka
2013, Liu 2013, Gurler 2014 etc.)
Studies link RF exposures to
Single Strand DNA Breaks
Double Strand DNA Breaks
Micronuclei Induction (MN)
Chromosomal Aberrations
Acentric fragments and dicentric chromosomes
Synergistic effects with mutagenic chemicals i.e. mitomycin C
(Maes 1996, Zhang 2002, Wang 2005, Baohong 2005)
DNA/CHROMOSOMAL DAMAGE
ORSAA DATABASE DNA DAMAGE
PAPERS
No Effect Funders
Government
United States Air Force
National Natural Science Foundation of China
Ministry of Education and Human Resources
Development, Korea
Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications.
Ministry of Science and Technology
Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and
Innovation TEKES
STUK (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority)
National Research Council
Industry
Motorola
France Telecom
Association of Radio Industries and Businesses
(ARIB)
GSM Association
Mobile Manufacturers Forum (MMF)
Finnish mobile phone manufacturers and operator
Telecommunications Advancement Organization of
Japan
Fondation sante
́et radio- fre ́quences’
Cellular Telecommunications & Internet Association
Source: ORSAA database as of 23/05/2017
Exposed rats show more tumours and they live longer
NTP study (2016)
Long-term, low-level microwave irradiation of rats (CK Chou et al. 1992)
More than 80% of people who die in Belo Horizonte (Brazil) by
specific types of cancer live less than 500m from 300
identified cell phone antennas in the city (Dode 2011)
Animal studies show low level RF exposure is a tumour
promotor (Tillman 2010, and repeat study by Lerchl 2015)
Recent Epidemiological studies are showing a stronger link
between mobile phone usage and aggressive forms of brain
tumours (GBM) ( H a r d ell 2015, Ya n g 2 016, Bor t k i ewicz 2017 , Prasad 2 017 )
Incidence of malignant neoplasms of the central nervous
system associated with mobile phone usage is increasing in
young adults (Sato 2016)
STUDIES SHOW MORE NEOPLASIA IN
EXPOSED HUMANS AND ANIMALS
The impact of GSM 900 MHz radiation is greater on the visual
memory than on the olfactory one. RF may have a disastrous
impact on a wide range of insects using olfactory and/or
visual memory, i.e. on bees. (Cammaerts 2012)
Mobile phone-induced honeybee worker piping (Favre 2011)
Bee populations are in decline with mobile phones and base
stations being implicated (Sainudeen 2011 , Sharma 2010)
Spatial variation in the number of house Sparrow males was
negatively and highly significantly related to the strength of
electric fields from both the 900 and 1800 MHz downlink
frequency bands (Everaer t 2007)
http://www.dnaindia.com/mumbai/report -10-reasons-why-
the-sparrow-is-fast-disappearing-from-mumbai-2190510
HUMANS ARE NOT THE ONLY SPECIES
EFFECTED BY MAN MADE RF
MECHANISM FOR
POTENTIAL HARM
OXIDATIVE STRESS
223 studies investigating oxidative stress from
1/1/2000 to present day for microwave RF
Source: ORSAA database as of 23/05/2017
FREE RADICAL DAMAGE
Source: Cell Phones and Male Infertility: A Review of Recent Innovations in Technology and Consequences. Agarwal 2011
Source: Oxidative stress-induced biological damage by low-level EMFs: mechanism of free radical pair electron spin-polarization and
biochemical amplification, Georgiou 2010
Source: Oxidative stress and neurodegeneration: where are we now? Halliwell 2007
Source: Free radicals, metals and antioxidants in oxidative stress-induced cancer, Valko 2006
POTENTIAL
CONFOUNDERS
Differential responses to microwaves depending on part
of the brain being exposed (Kim 2017)
Different cell types respond differently to exposure
Real vs simulated signals
Genetic differences
Time of day exposure occurs and when biochemical
measurements are taken (during, immediately after or
hours later)
Methods for measuring effects (e.g. assays of differing
sensitivity to measure DNA damage)
Length of exposure time and number of exposures
Many studies are based on short term acute exposure(s)
Give very little insight to potential health implications of chronic
long term exposures
INCONSISTENCIES IN FINDINGS?
Research shows that bio-effects have a dependency on EMF
parameters such as:
Intensity, frequency, signal waveform, and/or repetition frequency
of impulses
Bio Effects also have a dependency on:
Exposure time (effects of different EMF are additive), cell type (how
differentiated they are), specific point in cell growth cycle and cells
homeostatic abilities
Age dependent effects
Heat shock protein (HSP) expression differences in young and old
rats (Walters 2001)
Much higher and irreversible cytogenotoxic damage observed in
immature rats than in mature rats (Sekeroglu 2010)
DIFFERENT CELL TYPE RESPONSES,
WINDOW EFFECTS, NON LINEAR EFFECTS
There appears to be an adaptive response seen in
organisms exposed to EMR and is highlighted in many
studies
However, such adaptation do not appear to be highly
reliable, since serious functional disturbances can make
an appearance sooner or later
2 types of changes occur when an organism is acted upon
by microwaves:
adaptive reactions; and
pathological changes
Systematic and long-term exposure results in adaptive
failure and the appearance of neurasthenic vegetative,
cardiovascular, and other disturbances*
ADAPTIVE RESPONSES
*Source: Influence of Microwave Radiation on Man and Animals (1970) - NASA Translation
It is known that different cell types that were exposed to an
extremely small adaptation dose of a genotoxic agent are less
susceptible to the induction of a genetic damage when given
a higher challenge dose of the same or similar genotoxic
agent. (Jang 201 3)
Negative outcomes of an adaptive response relate to
antibiotic resistance forming in micro -organisms under EMR
exposure (Taheri 2017) findings such as this have implications
for the management of serious infectious diseases especially
in hospitals (Wi-Fi, wireless enabled equipment and super
bugs i.e. golden staph.)
ADAPTIVE RESPONSES
IS EHS REAL OR
IMAGINARY?
THE VIEW HELD BY AUTHORITIES
What Western Protection Agencies and
their cohorts are suggesting EHS is:
A possible communicated syndrome
(psychosomatic Nocebo effect)
A possible pre-existing underlying health
issue
Not proven to be linked to EMR
Source: www.wigle.net
A label classifying people who claim to experience symptoms
after exposure to electromagnetic radiation
Associated with a range of frequencies - ELF (power
frequencies i.e. 50Hz) to UHF (radio wave/microwave
frequencies)
Affects an estimated 2-5% of the worlds population and is
increasing
Also referred to as:
Idiopathic Environmental
Intolerance
Radiowave Sickness
Microwave Sickness
ELECTROMAGNETIC HYPERSENSITIVE (EHS)
From Merriam Webster's medical dictionary:
Microwave Sickness: a condition of impaired health reported
especially in the Russian medical literature that is characterized
by headaches, anxiety, sleep disturbances, fatigue, difficulty in
concentrating and by changes in the cardiovascular and central
nervous systems
that is held to be caused by prolonged exposure to low -intensity
microwave r adiation.”
DEFINITION OF MICROWAVE SICKNESS
Exposures related to
Smart Meters
Mobile Phone Base Stations
WiMax (WiFi on steroids)
WiFi/Bluetooth Devices
Mobile/Cordless Phones
Computers and Monitors
Power Lines, Transformers etc.
Digital Communications
Other Electrical Devices
..leads to the development of symptoms
CAUSATIVE AGENTS
Genetic Predisposition
An over exposure event
Toxin overload leading to over sensitisation
Concomitant environmental factor (chemicals, heavy metals
etc.)
Essential mineral and or vitamin deficiency (genetic, leaky gut
or diet)
Immune system dysregulation
Damage from EMR exposure may be cumulative over time and
additive when considering multiple different frequencies
Oxidative Stress
All of the above and more
POSSIBLE FACTORS LEADING TO EHS
WE HAVE KNOWN FOR MORE
THAN 50 YEARS!
The objective condition of physical sensitivity was discovered
in 1932 (Germany) and convincingly established in detail in
the 1960s.
Dr Allan Frey was an early pioneer on Radio frequency
research
Dr Frey was the first American to publish (1961) on the
microwave hearing effect
In his experiments, the subjects were discovered to be able to hear
appropriately pulsed microwave radiation, from a distance of 100
metres from the transmitter
This was accompanied by side effects such as dizziness, headaches,
and a pins and needles sensation
Many studies are not designed to demonstrate causation i.e.
survey based studies, subjective tests etc.
Most studies look at short term one off acute exposures and lack
longitudinal design
Many provocation studies are subjective and do not include
objective biological and/or neurological tests
Limited research looking at genetic differences, metabolic
disorders, biological, neurological and immunologic responses
between sensitive and non sensitive people
Very few clinical studies looking at RF workers health vs less
exposed general population
Very few cohort studies only looking at mobile phones not
chronic long term exposures to base stations, smart meters and
Wi-Fi
Very limited biological and controlled exposure testing on
humans
People who have health problems are excluded from tests how
do we determine whether people whose health is compromised
are not especially vulnerable to this type of exposure?
EHS RESEARCH ISSUES
Most provocation studies suffer experimental design,
methodological and statistical deficiencies. Some examples
include:
Not representing real life exposure situations as studies focus on a single
or narrow frequency range, power level and often lack signal variability
Symptoms may not be tracked for long enough and symptoms may vary
between test subjects by type, onset time, intensity and duration
The way the symptoms are recorded and the method for constructing a
numerical differential score can introduce bias
Environments are not always controlled - EMR leakage from the
environment or even the test device can contaminate testing
Other confounders are not considered many EHS people have also been
found to be sensitive to odours and noise as well as different chemicals
(not controlled)
Are subjective tests that are often not supplemented with useful objective
tests (HRV, blood and urine chemistry changes, skin voltage, nerve
conductivity etc.)
Do not always identify and test genuine EHS sufferers separately (pooling
of data tends to wash out potential findings)
Affected by memory recall issues when comparing feelings to past
exposures
WHY PROVOCATION STUDIES ARE NOT THE
GOLD STANDARD FOR EVALUATING EHS
The psychological paradigm is unproven and s