Article

Enable Advanced QoS-Aware Network Slicing in 5G Networks for Slice-Based Media Use Cases

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Abstract

Media use cases for emergency services require mission-critical levels of reliability for the delivery of media-rich services, such as video streaming. With the upcoming deployment of the fifth generation (5G) networks, a wide variety of applications and services with heterogeneous performance requirements are expected to be supported, and any migration of mission-critical services to 5G networks presents significant challenges in the quality of service (QoS), for emergency service operators. This paper presents a novel SliceNet framework, based on advanced and customizable network slicing to address some of the highlighted challenges in migrating eHealth telemedicine services to 5G networks. An overview of the framework outlines the technical approaches in beyond the state-of-the-art network slicing. Subsequently, this paper emphasizes the design and prototyping of a media-centric eHealth use case, focusing on a set of innovative enablers toward achieving end-to-end QoS-aware network slicing capabilities, required by this demanding use case. Experimental results empirically validate the prototyped enablers and demonstrate the applicability of the proposed framework in such media-rich use cases.

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... Figure 15: Implementing a topology with physical servers (brown blocks) and DSAF components (blue blocks with solid lines representing logical communication paths) [58]. [59]. This testbed ( Figure 16) proposes a QoS-aware network slicing for multiple services with distinct QoS requirements. ...
... With the help of PHY abstraction mode of oaisim in OAI RAN, emulating practical network scenarios with numerous UEs and eNBs is conceivable. In particular, the Figure 16: E2E network slicing approach in SliceNet platform [59]. ...
... (ii) The second category encompasses the implementations which satisfy all of the primary and the majority of secondary attributes from the design criteria explained in Section 3. The testbeds such as those in [43], [48], [49], [52], [53], [59], [64], [67] deliver E2E network slicing with MANO privilege in their architectures along with multi-tenancy and multi-RATs support. The testbeds in [59], [64] also incorporate ML-enabled capability in their architectures, and the testbed in [64] is open-source. ...
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Developing specialized cloud-based and open-source testbeds is a practical approach to investigate network slicing functionalities in the fifth-generation (5G) mobile networks. This paper provides a comprehensive review of most of the existing cost-efficient and small-scale testbeds that partially or fully deploy network slicing. First, we present relevant software packages for the three main functional blocks of the ETSI NFV MANO framework and for emulating the access and core network domains. Second, we define primary and secondary design criteria for deploying network slicing testbeds. These design criteria are later used for comparison between the testbeds. Third, we present the state-of-the-art testbeds, including their design objectives, key technologies, network slicing deployment, and experiments. Next, we evaluate the testbeds according to the defined design criteria and present an in-depth summary table. This assessment concludes with the superiority of some of them over the rest and the most dominant software packages satisfying the ETSI NFV MANO framework. Finally, challenges, potential solutions, and future works of network slicing testbeds are discussed.
... The cloud is considered as an interface with doctors and for more accurate inference, though no further details are provided. In [9], a media-centric eHealth use case is considered within the context of 5G network slicing. The scenario is based on a connected ambulance for pre-hospital care in e.g. ...
... Results show the number of simultaneous processing request can doubled with the selection of appropriate scaling-out triggers. • In this work, as in [9] NFV and network slicing are considered for health data analytics. Nonetheless, unlike in [9] a hybrid Edge/Cloud architecture is proposed. ...
... • In this work, as in [9] NFV and network slicing are considered for health data analytics. Nonetheless, unlike in [9] a hybrid Edge/Cloud architecture is proposed. Namely, Cloud is used for the training of the DL prediction algorithm and for protecting the privacy of the patients in the training dataset. ...
Article
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Telemedicine, or the ability granted to doctors to remotely assist patients has been greatly benefited by advances in IoT, network communications, Machine Learning and Edge/Cloud computing.With the impeding arrival of 5G, virtualized infrastructures and cloud-native approaches enable the execution of unprecedented procedures during such patient/doctor interactions, allowing medical professionals to e.g. request higher granularity metrics from patients’ telemetry equipment, or perform on-demand data mining/processing of patient’s stored data in order to provide a more educated diagnostic or prediction. In this work we coalesce the virtues of virtualized infrastructures and IoT into a solution able to satisfy increasing data processing demands for eHealth, e.g. for telemedicine applications, remote assistance or patient pre-screening procedures. The proposed platform, CURATE, leverages Network Functions Virtualisation Management and Orchestration (NFV MANO) for the on-demand instantiation of the required virtual resources on the operator’s infrastructure, as well as the concept of 5G Network Slices to guarantee efficient resource allocation and tenant isolation. Results show the proposed platform is able to efficiently make use of the available hardware resources via Network Slices, as well as provide cost-effective service guarantees employing dynamic scaling operations.
... In these scenarios, the total number of slice requests allocated in DSAF is greater or equal than the FCFSFA scheme. [59]. This testbed (Figure 16) proposes a QoS-aware network slicing for multiple services with distinct QoS requirements. ...
... (ii) The second category encompasses the implementations which satisfy all of the primary and the majority of secondary attributes from the design criteria explained in Section 3. The testbeds such as those in [43,48,49,52,53,59,64,67] deliver E2E network slicing with MANO privilege in their architectures along with multi-tenancy and multi-RAT support. The testbeds in [59,64] also incorporate MLenabled capability in their architectures, and the testbed in [64] is open-source. ...
... (ii) The second category encompasses the implementations which satisfy all of the primary and the majority of secondary attributes from the design criteria explained in Section 3. The testbeds such as those in [43,48,49,52,53,59,64,67] deliver E2E network slicing with MANO privilege in their architectures along with multi-tenancy and multi-RAT support. The testbeds in [59,64] also incorporate MLenabled capability in their architectures, and the testbed in [64] is open-source. ...
Article
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Developing specialized cloud-based and open-source testbeds is a practical approach to investigate network slicing functionalities in the fifth-generation (5G) mobile networks. This paper provides a comprehensive review of most of the existing cost-efficient and small-scale testbeds that partially or fully deploy network slicing. First, we present relevant software packages for the three main functional blocks of the ETSI NFV MANO framework and for emulating the access and core network domains. Second, we define primary and secondary design criteria for deploying network slicing testbeds. These design criteria are later used for comparison between the testbeds. Third, we present the state-of-the-art testbeds, including their design objectives, key technologies, network slicing deployment, and experiments. Next, we evaluate the testbeds according to the defined design criteria and present an in-depth summary table. This assessment concludes with the superiority of some of them over the rest and the most dominant software packages satisfying the ETSI NFV MANO framework. Finally, challenges, potential solutions, and future works of network slicing testbeds are discussed.
... Many works have proposed frameworks for network slicing for 5G services [106], [107], [110]- [112]. For instance, the work of [111] presented an end-to-end network slicing framework for 5G IoT networks in a MEC ecosystem. ...
... Each tenant can request an amount of computing, storage or networking resources related to the desired slice, and the framework is responsible for admitting the slice request and instantiating the network slice. In [112], authors proposed a novel SliceNet framework, based on recent advances on network slicing to address challenges regarding the migration of eHealth telemedicine services to 5G networks. Authors highlighted the design and the prototype of a media-centric eHealth use case, considering a set of innovative enablers in order to achieve end-to-end QoS-aware network slicing. ...
Article
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Multi-access Edge Computing (MEC) is a key solution that enables operators to open their networks to new services and IT ecosystems to leverage edge-cloud benefits in their networks and systems. Located in close proximity from the end users and connected devices, MEC provides extremely low latency and high bandwidth while always enabling applications to leverage cloud capabilities as necessary. In this article, we illustrate the integration of MEC into a current mobile networks’ architecture as well as the transition mechanisms to migrate into a standard 5G network architecture. We also discuss SDN, NFV, SFC and network slicing as MEC enablers. Then, we provide a state-of-the-art study on the different approaches that optimize the MEC resources and its QoS parameters. In this regard, we classify these approaches based on the optimized resources and QoS parameters (i.e., processing, storage, memory, bandwidth, energy and latency). Finally, we propose an architectural framework for a MEC-NFV environment based on the standard SDN architecture.
... Prehospital healthcare is involved when a patient is attended by medical professionals, mostly paramedics, at the scene of emergency [3]. The prehospital staff are required to ensure quick and safe delivery of patients to the hospitals with provision of initial medical care. ...
... The presented model covers the cellular connectivity possibilities and requirements in a 5G network environment. The authors in [3] present a design and prototype for enabling eHealth use case in a 5G network slicing environment. Network slicing is used to connect an ambulance to a remote physician and the aim is to allow prehospital treatment to avoid any severity in patient's symptoms. ...
... Better performance 9 Irazabal et al. 11 AQM techniques in 5G networks Achieving the maximum possible throughput Anttila 14 showed the ultimate attention from the METIS-II project of the fifth generation control plane functions. The characteristic of the 5G system being capable in managing a broader range of situations and higher demanding service requirements than earlier methods. ...
... Wang et al. 9 introduced a SliceNet framework for eHealth telemedicine services. The proposed framework was established on innovative and customizable network slicing. ...
Article
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Background Smart vision of the world is the latest challenge believing that 5G networks could feed all of our internet device needs. The exchange of information (data) needs not to go through backhaul because lots of capabilities will be available close to where it is needed. Presently, the majority of communications are based on single‐mode transmission. Communications will be more responsive and interactive due to 5G technology. The implementation of 5G faces various problems. It is necessary to improve the network capacity by densification, increasing spectrum, and measuring the spectral efficiency. And it also needs to reduce the latency, and it must be energy efficient. Purpose It is fit for inter‐access service network (ASN) (asynchronous) communications due to the incapability to maintain vertical handoff communications. The need for vertical handovers hinges on various factors that need to be analyzed concurrently with the signal strength in heterogeneous wireless environment. Methodology Thus, it proposed to utilize a vertical handover decision algorithm centered on the priority and speed of the subscriber. Implementation confirms the claim of the proposed method to achieve better channel utilization and maintains the QoS requirements of the mobile users. Findings Time latency calculation, evaluation of energy utilization between different nodes, and performance analysis packet loss are evaluated. Conclusion Better efficiency is attained for data transmission among the users that is one mobile node to other with commercial event management and appropriate processing in each node.
... A novel network slicing framework for 5G networks is presented and evaluated in [16]. The authors address specific challenges of media use cases, through an End-to-End QoS-aware slicing intended to support migration of mission critical services (eHealth tele-medicine services) to 5G networks. ...
... This last stage begins when the service starts to be used (16) and its network traffic reaches a data-path point that has been programmed to satisfy the slice specific requirements. When a packet arrives at the Flow Agent, it is deeply inspected to extract data from the encapsulated inner headers (17 and 18). ...
Article
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The Fifth Generation (5G) mobile networking coupled with Internet of Things (IoT) can provide innovative solutions for a wide range of uses cases. The flexibility of virtualized, softwarized and multi-tenant infrastructures and the high performance promised by 5G technology are key to cope with the deployment of the IoT use cases demanded by various vertical businesses. Such 5G IoT use cases incur challenging Quality of Service (QoS) requirements especially connectivity for millions of IoT devices to achieve massive Machine-Type Communication (mMTC). In addition, network slicing is a key enabling technology in 5G multi-tenant networks to create logical virtualized networks for delivering customised solutions to meet diverse QoS requirements. This work presents a 5G IoT framework with network slicing capabilities able to manage a vast number of heterogeneous IoT network slices dynamically on demand. The proposed solution has been empirically tested and validated in five realistic vertical-oriented IoT use cases. The achieved results demonstrate a excellent stability, isolation and scalability while being able to meet extreme QoS requirements even in the most congested and stressful scenarios.
... In addition, the SDN can be incorporated into the network function virtualization (NFV) [3,4], by which virtual network functions (VNFs) are interconnected into different delivery operations. For applications based on the 5G network and beyond [5] such as eHealth, smart poles, and smart cities [6][7][8], SDN and NFV for QoS could play important roles for efficient allocations of network resources for communication services. ...
... The OpenFlow protocol [3] is used for the de- ing the ERAB to service quality y by (6). For the search space B for each service, we set the step size ∆ = 0.25 Mbps in (7). Furthermore, both Link 1 and link 2 have the same maximum bandwidth B 1 = B 2 = 40 Mbps. ...
Article
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An effective System-on-Chip (SoC) for smart Quality-of-Service (QoS) management over a virtual local area network (LAN) is presented in this study. The SoC is implemented by field programmable gate array (FPGA) for accelerating the delivery quality prediction for a service. The quality prediction is carried out by the general regression neural network (GRNN) algorithm based on a time-varying profile consisting of the past delivery records of the service. A novel record replacement algorithm is presented to update the profile, so that the bandwidth usage of the service can be effectively tracked by GRNN. Experimental results show that the SoC provides self-aware QoS management with low computation costs for applications over virtual LAN.
... Researchers [12][13][14] utilize data plane programmability to develop Quality of Service (QoS) management solutions using Programming Protocol-Independent Packet Processors (P4) switches. The study [12] proposes a customized P4 pipeline for strict bandwidth limitation and UDP stream guarantees. ...
... As such, they proposed TCP-friendly meters that can achieve up to 85% in target rate. The work in [14] utilizes the P4 NetFPGA reference implementation to develop a QoS-aware data plane for slicing that classifies traffic flows and schedules them to multi-level priority queues, but the study only considers the effects of network slicing on media-rich applications. ...
Article
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Network slicing is considered a key technology in enabling the underlying 5G mobile network infrastructure to meet diverse service requirements. In this article, we demonstrate how transport network slicing accommodates the various network service requirements of Massive IoT (MIoT), Critical IoT (CIoT), and Mobile Broadband (MBB) applications. Given that most of the research conducted previously to measure 5G network slicing is done through simulations, we utilized SimTalk, an IoT application traffic emulator, to emulate large amounts of realistic traffic patterns in order to study the effects of transport network slicing on IoT and MBB applications. Furthermore, we developed several MIoT, CIoT, and MBB applications that operate sustainably on several campuses and directed both real and emulated traffic into a Programming Protocol-Independent Packet Processors (P4)-based 5G testbed. We then examined the performance in terms of throughput, packet loss, and latency. Our study indicates that applications with different traffic characteristics need different corresponding Committed Information Rate (CIR) ratios. The CIR ratio is the CIR setting for a P4 meter in physical switch hardware over the aggregated data rate of applications of the same type. A low CIR ratio adversely affects the application’s performance because P4 switches will dispatch application packets to the low-priority queue if the packet arrival rate exceeds the CIR setting for the same type of applications. In our testbed, both exemplar MBB applications required a CIR ratio of 140% to achieve, respectively, a near 100% throughput percentage with a 0.0035% loss rate and an approximate 100% throughput percentage with a 0.0017% loss rate. However, the exemplar CIoT and MIoT applications required a CIR ratio of 120% and 100%, respectively, to reach a 100% throughput percentage without any packet loss. With the proper CIR settings for the P4 meters, the proposed transport network slicing mechanism can enforce the committed rates and fulfill the latency and reliability requirements for 5G MIoT, CIoT, and MBB applications in both TCP and UDP.
... With the continuous integration of artificial intelligence technology and big data analysis technology with human life, as an important part of cloud intelligence algorithm, deep learning technology has gradually played more and more roles in many fields [1]. At present, most We-media data protection systems are mainly based on traditional data storage and protection strategies [2]. If the deep learning algorithm is introduced into the self-media privacy data protection system, the self-media data protection system will hopefully obtain more protection strategies [3]. ...
Article
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In recent years, with the in-depth research on the privacy protection methods of We-media network, various types of big data analysis technologies gradually protect the network privacy data, but there are still problems of low intelligence and poor protection in the existing research. Based on this, this paper first uses big data technology and artificial intelligence deep learning algorithm to complete the construction of different types of self-media control databases. Then, it analyzes the common privacy data types of We-media network, constructs an optimization protection model based on secondary identification and verification strategy, and forms a data query system. Finally, simulation experiments are conducted to verify whether the constructed network privacy protection model can realize the intelligent protection of network privacy algorithms from different dimensions. In the process of privacy protection of experimental data at different stages, the internal correlation differences of different types of protection algorithm strategies are obvious in the multidimensional analysis of specific databases. For different types of factor data in different types of We-media networks, the protection rate of the We-media network privacy protection model designed in this study has reached more than 95%. The research results show that the self-media network privacy protection model based on big data and artificial intelligence deep learning technology can realize protection from the aspects of gateway verification and data encryption and has high accuracy and reliability.
... The 5G technology provides a completely new vision of mobile networks, where vertical industries can join to unify and simplify the management of networks [13,16]. lt will revolutionize the way network services being provided and consumed. ...
Conference Paper
With network slicing technology, 5G changes the classical mobile network business model from a network-operator-oriented business to a more open system with multiple stakeholders. In this context, a network slice broker plays the role of agency between network resource providers and vertical service providers, to lease and provide on-demand network slice services. In practice, a single network slice broker normally owns limited types of network slices. And a collaboration infrastructure could be built up to enable network slice sharing among multiple network slice brokers, so as to improve user experience, and enhance the resource utilization rate. However, a major challenge with such an infrastructure is how to support fair and secure slice trading process among multiple un-trusted network slice providers. Blockchain technology, on the other side, brings in high opportunities to implement a fair and secure trading system without a trusted third-party. In view of this observation, this paper proposes a design of blockchain-enabled collaboration infrastructure for network slice brokers, where a group of registered brokers can trade their network slices in a fair and secure manner. To enhance the accountability of slice trading records, transactions are verified and sorted by each broker node, which are further packed into blocks and appended to a shared ledger maintained by each member in the collaboration network. More specifically, we design a Proof-of-Majority (PoM) consensus protocol to sort slice trading transactions before packing transaction blocks of the shared ledger. Furthermore, an optimization for the Permission to make digital basic PoM protocol is discussed, with dependency resolving strategy to improve system performance. Experiments are conducted to verify the feasibility of our proposal.
... Many reference from different standardization bodies and stakeholders like ITU, 5G-PPP, ETSI, and NGMN analyze the role of 5G services and UCs in detail [6][7][8]. The UCs that support 5G services fall into three categories according to ITU-R [9]. ...
Chapter
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Cellular communications have evolved to Fifth Generation (5G) to accommodate versatile use cases (UCs) requirements. These UCs are ensured to provide higher data rates, massive connection density and ultralow latencies into a new era of Internet of Things (IoT) and smart cities. ITU-R has classified UCs into three categories: Enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB), Massive machine-type communication (mMTC) or mIoT (massive IoT), and Ultra-reliable and low-latency communications (URLLC). It is very important to plan the network based on different UC requirements using 5G new radio (NR). In this paper, we design the numerology and corresponding bandwidth parts (BWPs) to support the desired requirements. Exercise of coverage and capacity dimensioning of the network is performed to determine the required cell sites. We then propose mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) based cost optimization model and heuristic. Finally, we evaluate and compare MILP and heuristic topology solutions for network planning in the context of cost minimization.
... Over time, as WDM technology has matured it has migrated from long-haul networks to metro networks, and more recently into access and data center networks [12]. The right choice for 5G transport is driven by rigorous technical requirements and the vast array of use cases that 5G technology enables, balanced with real world economic and operational considerations [13]. ...
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The 5G cellular network aims at providing three major services: Massive machine-type communication (mMTC), ultra-reliable low-latency communications (URLLC), and enhanced-mobile-broadband (eMBB). Among these services, the URLLC and eMBB require strict end-to-end latency of 1 ms while maintaining 99.999% reliability, and availability of extremely high data rates for the users, respectively. One of the critical challenges in meeting these requirements is to upgrade the existing optical fiber backhaul network interconnecting the base stations with a multigigabit capacity, low latency and very high reliability system. To address this issue, we have numerically analyzed 100 Gbit/s coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) transmission performance over 400 km single-mode fiber (SMF) and 100 km of multi-mode fiber (MMF) links. The system is simulated over optically repeated and non-repeated SMF and MMF links. Coherent transmission is used, and the system is analyzed in a linear and non-linear regime. The system performance is quantified by bit error ratio (BER). Spectrally efficient and optimal transmission performance is achieved for 400 km SMF and 100 km MMF link. The results designate that MMF links can be employed beyond short reach applications by using them in the existing SMF infrastructure for long haul transmission. In particular, the proposed CO-OFDM system can be efficiently employed in 5G backhaul network. The multi-gigabit capacity and lower BER of the proposed system makes it a suitable candidate especially for the eMBB and URLLC requirements for 5G backhaul network.
... In 5G ESSENCE, the mission critical vertical application was focused on the use of 5G slicing and SLA management capabilities for priority users [157] [158][159] [160]. SLICENET validated its 5G provisioning, control, management and orchestration approach also in a remote water level monitoring use case and in remote ultra-HD video services for eHospital connected ambulance [161]. NRG5 focused on 5G security, resilience and high availability in the smart energy sector, and addressed aerial monitoring and incident localization with sensing [162] [163]. ...
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Today, legacy PMRs continue to be the only group of tested, verified and certified technologies for the Public Protection and Disaster Relief (PPDR) sector. For the fifth generation (5G) to follow suit, substantial hands-on experimentation with functional, architectural and deployment aspects is required, and further test trials need to take place in order to inform and enable future verification and certification procedures for 5G to become a proven PPDR technology. This paper studies 5G PPDR experimentation associated with novel virtualized and cloud-native 5G technologies, architectures and deployment options, as well as feasibility studies and field performance and verifications trials involving vertical-specific 5G infrastructures and applications. Key enabling technologies, such as massive multiple input multiple output (MIMO), device-to-device (D2D), network slicing and multi-access edge computing (MEC) are discussed and 5G PPDR architecture and deployment options are investigated. A dedicated 5G PPDR experimentation facility is presented, and a case study of hands-on experimentation is provided. Two distinct scenarios are discussed, i.e., emergency augmentation of the terrestrial 5G PPDR network with rapidly deployable on-site capacities in the area of a public safety incident, and availability and reliability of decision-support PPDR applications on the field. Experience with the deployment and verification insights are accompanied by the results of quality of service (QoS) and non-functional key performance indicators (KPI) assessment that were exhibited during the experiment. The experimentation outcomes confirm the ability of the facility to support emulated laboratory experimentation specifically designed to tackle 5G challenges for this particular vertical as well as field studies recreating realistic public safety operations.
... The priorities of the slice and user per service within the slice will be changed based on the state of the network in an unexpected situation such as disasters time that needs an emergency contact [117]. Furthermore, most of the published work in literature identifies three types of slices and many types of services for each slice [17], [40], [42], [82]. ...
Article
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In-network softwarization, Network Slicing provides scalability and flexibility through various services such as Quality of Service (QoS) and Quality of Experience (QoE) to cover the network demands. For the QoS, a set of policies must be considered in real-time, accompanied by a group of functions and services to guarantee the end-user needs based on network demand. On the other hand, for the QoE, the service’s performance needs to be improved to bring an efficient service to cover the demands of the end-user. The 3G Partnership Project (3GPP) defined the slice as a component of resources used to process a set of packets. These resources need to be flexible, which means the resources can be scaled up or down based on the demand. This survey discusses softwarization and virtualization techniques, considering how to implement the slices for future networks. Specifically, we discuss current advances concerning the functionality and architecture of the 5G network. Therefore, the paper critically evaluates recent research and systems related to mobility management as a service in real-time inter/intra slice control by considering the strengths and limitations of these contributions to identify the research gaps and possible research directions for emerging research and development opportunities. Moreover, we extend our review by considering the slice types and their numbers based on the 3GPP Technical Specification (3GPP TS). The study presented in this paper identifies open issues and research directions that reveal that mobility management at a service level with inter/intra slice management techniques has strong potential in future networks and requires further investigation from the research community to exploit its benefits fully.
... In this use-case, we illustrate how eXP-RAN can emulate two network slices, from different tenants with different QoS demands, and analyze how they are affected as workload increases. Scenarios with two network slices are commonly used in the literature to illustrate the benefits of using network slicing [37], [38]. ...
Article
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Radio Access Networks (RAN), Edge Computing (EC), and Network Slicing are some of the critical components in 5G networks used to provide different transport services over the same infrastructure and to enable new features, e.g., low latency and context awareness. It is important to have tools for evaluating present and future applications over these components; however, there is a gap between theoretical work on resource allocation and its deployment in simulated, emulated, or real-world experiments. This paper addresses these issues through a new emulation software named eXP-RAN, which enables experimenting with network slicing in virtualized RAN nodes and EC scenarios. In this version, we have focused on the computing part of RANs. Experiments can be created manually or imported from an optimization model. We describe the software architecture and its advantages over traditional tools such as ns-3 and Mininet, as well as more recent tool targets to EC simulations such as EdgeCloudSim. We also illustrate how two use-cases, a virtual RAN (vRAN) / Multi-Access Edge Computing (MEC) orchestration and a network slicing for video service providers can be emulated and explored using eXP-RAN.
... A Tabela 1 apresenta as principais características dos trabalhos analisados. Considerando as estratégias de QoS empregadas pelos autores, podemos destacar quatro em comum, independentemente do foco da pesquisa: (i) protocolos de escalonamento [Samanta and Misra 2018, Iranmanesh and Rizi 2018, Venkatesh et al. 2019]; (ii) priorização de dados , Guezguez et al. 2018, Iranmanesh and Rizi 2018, Wang, Q. et al. 2019, Al-Tarawneh 2019, Venkatesh et al. 2019, Khalil et al. 2019, Goyal et al. 2020]; ...
Conference Paper
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Com a utilização de sensores inteligentes em hospitais, tomadas de decisões críticas podem ser realizadas baseadas no monitoramento em tempo real de pacientes e equipamentos. Porém, erros na geração e transmissão de dados podem causar falhas no resultado de aplicações que processam esses dados. Neste contexto, esse artigo propõem HealthStack, um middleware para salas cirúrgicas com estratégias de qualidade do serviço (QoS) e suporte a transmissão de dados em tempo real. O artigo propõe uma estratégia de QoS baseada em neurônios artificiais para seleção dos componentes do middleware com baixa performance. Foi desenvolvido e testado um protótipo do modelo em uma sala de cirurgia real possibilitando redução de jitter médio em até 90,3%.
... 3GPP is introducing multicast and broadcast support in 5G New Radio and 5G Core in Rel-17, while the 5G broadcast up to Rel-16 is LTE-based [4]. There has been a vast array of studies contributing to the development of efficient media delivery for 5G [9], [10], [11], [12], [13], [14]. ...
Article
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The European Commission requires all European Union (EU) Member States to use telecommunications networks to alert the population of an ongoing crisis or an upcoming threat by June 2022. Public Warning System in Long Term Evolution (LTE) and 5G System currently supports a text-based warning using Cell Broadcast technology. Cell Broadcast does not support multimedia warning message delivery. This paper analyses requirements that need to be fulfilled to support multimedia warning message delivery in the 5G System and describes trials of a broadcast multimedia public warning alert system. The trials demonstrate delivery of multimedia public warning messages using Evolved Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service (eMBMS), dynamic spectrum management and bonded connections. By using eMBMS the public warning messages can be sent with additional robustness and in multicast mode, resulting also in less congestion to the network as the messages do not need to be sent separately to each user. Dynamic spectrum management system allows to dynamically obtain spectrum resources for the public warning system messages and the bonded connections improves the throughput and reliability of the delivery by combining the capacity of several different networks.
... Also, the EU project SliceNet had the objective of provide a E2E cognitive network slicing and slice management framework in virtualised multi-domain, multi-tenant 5G networks. An overview of the SliceNet framework based on flexible and customise network slicing is presented in [5]. This contribution emphasises on the design and prototyping of an eHealth use case, focusing on the achievement of the E2E QoS-aware network slicing capabilities required, such as low latency and high reliability. ...
... In M&E use cases, broadcast and multicast transmissions facilitate the distribution of audio-visual media content and services, particularly to cover popular live events for a very large number of concurrent users [17] [18]. ...
Preprint
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This work presents eight demonstrators and one showcase developed within the 5G-Xcast project. They experimentally demonstrate and validate key technical enablers for the future of media delivery, associated with multicast and broadcast communication capabilities in 5th Generation (5G). In 5G-Xcast, three existing testbeds: IRT in Munich (Germany), 5GIC in Surrey (UK), and TUAS in Turku (Finland), have been developed into 5G broadcast and multicast testing networks, which enables us to demonstrate our vision of a converged 5G infrastructure with fixed and mobile accesses and terrestrial broadcast, delivering immersive audio-visual media content. Built upon the improved testing networks, the demonstrators and showcase developed in 5G-Xcast show the impact of the technology developed in the project. Our demonstrations predominantly cover use cases belonging to two verticals: Media & Entertainment and Public Warning, which are future 5G scenarios relevant to multicast and broadcast delivery. In this paper, we present the development of these demonstrators, the showcase, and the testbeds. We also provide key findings from the experiments and demonstrations, which not only validate the technical solutions developed in the project, but also illustrate the potential technical impact of these solutions for broadcasters, content providers, operators, and other industries interested in the future immersive media delivery.
... For example, network slices for time-sensitive applications require the deployment of 5G network functions close to the users that require ultralow latency and high availability [14]. Similarly, network slices for multimedia streaming require high bandwidth capabilities, mobility support, and the deployment of content delivery network (CDN) resources [15]. ...
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... Maintaining the reliability in the slice for mission-critical sevices is a challenging task which is addressed in [8] with media use-case applications and proposed a SliceNet model for customized and advanced network slicing framework to resolve highlighted challenges in migrating e-Health telemedicine application services in 5G networks. ...
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... In M&E use cases, broadcast and multicast transmissions facilitate the distribution of audio-visual media content and services, particularly to cover popular live events for a very large number of concurrent users [17], [18]. ...
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... Based on these streams, three network slice service types (SST) are defined in 5G standards [8] as shown in Table 1. Several advancements have already been made where the slicing technique is implemented at the transmission and core part of the network [9,10]. Slice implementation at the radio access network (RAN) is still an active area of research. ...
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... A study conducted in network slicing environment using facilities at the 5G Prototyping Lab at Dell EMC facilities Ireland and SliceNet reported an average round trip latency of 296.91 ms from client to core, an average round trip time of 50.68 ms from client to edge, and an average packet loss of 7.2% for the core and 0.1% at the edge [65]. Another study was carried out in [64] using the same experimental tools with the added features like QoS control based on the data plane programmability and low-latency cloud-based mobile edge computing (MEC) platform. Throughput was evaluated for the coordinated and uncoordinated network slicing strategies and ranged from 0 to 18 Mbps. ...
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... In particular, the paper analysed the business case and Return on Investment for mobile operators and health care providers. Authors in [30] summarised work conducted under EU H2020 project; it proposed a SliceNet framework to address challenges in migrating eHealth services to 5G network. The slicing includes RAN and CN with APIs to facilitate slicing with a plug and play control framework which allows runtime slice customisation. ...
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Network slicing has emerged as a major new networking paradigm for meeting the diverse requirements of various vertical businesses in virtualised and softwarised 5G networks. SliceNet is a project of the EU 5G Infrastructure Public Private Partnership (5G PPP) and focuses on network slicing as a cornerstone technology in 5G networks, and addresses the associated challenges in managing, controlling and orchestrating the new services for users especially vertical sectors, thereby maximising the potential of 5G infrastructures and their services by leveraging advanced software networking and cognitive network management. This paper presents the vision of the SliceNet project, highlighting the gaps in existing work and challenges, the proposed overall architecture, proposed technical approaches, and use cases.
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Although the radio access network (RAN) part of mobile networks offers a significant opportunity for benefiting from the use of SDN ideas, this opportunity is largely untapped due to the lack of a software-defined RAN (SD-RAN) platform. We fill this void with FlexRAN, a flexible and programmable SD-RAN platform that separates the RAN control and data planes through a new, custom-tailored southbound API. Aided by virtualized control functions and control delegation features, FlexRAN provides a flexible control plane designed with support for real-time RAN control applications, flexibility to realize various degrees of coordination among RAN infrastructure entities, and programmability to adapt control over time and easier evolution to the future following SDN/NFV principles. We implement FlexRAN as an extension to a modified version of the OpenAirInterface LTE platform, with evaluation results indicating the feasibility of using FlexRAN under the stringent time constraints posed by the RAN. To demonstrate the effectiveness of FlexRAN as an SD-RAN platform and highlight its applicability for a diverse set of use cases, we present three network services deployed over FlexRAN focusing on interference management, mobile edge computing and RAN sharing.
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The demand-led growth of datacenter networks has meant that many constituent technologies are beyond the budget of the wider community. In order to make and validate timely and relevant new contributions, the wider community requires accessible evaluation, experimentation and demonstration environments with specification comparable to the subsystems of the most massive datacenter networks. We demonstrate NetFPGA, an open-source platform for rapid prototyping of networking devices with I/O capabilities up to 100Gbps. NetFPGA offers an integrated environment that enables networking research by users from a wide range of disciplines: from hardware-centric research to formal methods.
Government 'unlikely' to scrap delayed 4g esn
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OpenAirInterface: A flexible platform for 5G research
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Four business models for mobile broadband public safety communications
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