Article

What do core practices offer in preparing novice science teachers for equitable instruction?: KANG and ZINGER

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

This study explores the affordances and constraints of using the four core practices of ambitious science teaching (AST) as the main curriculum of science methods courses in preparing novice teachers for equitable instruction. Employing a longitudinal qualitative case study approach, this study follows three novice secondary science teachers' trajectories over 3 years, from their preparation to their second year of teaching. Participants were three White women who taught primarily Latinx, English learners, exceptional learners, and/or those who live in poverty. The contemporary vision of science learning promoted by the Next Generation Science Standards and critical race theory guide our analysis of novice teachers' instruction. Findings suggest that using AST practices as the main curriculum of science methods courses can help prepare novice teachers for equity if the approximation of these practices facilitates novices in problematizing their normalized views, expectations, and practices of disciplinary teaching and learning. The core practices are limited, however, in their ability to develop novice teachers' critical consciousness about racism and systemic inequity, which profoundly affects interactions with marginalized youth in classrooms.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Thus, such teaching has the potential to combat systemic marginalization of students of color in science classrooms. But stereotypes and negative actions of teachers toward marginalized students are deeply embedded and must be shed (Kang & Zinger, 2019). Thus, in my research, I am interested not only in whether PSTs took up the new teaching practices of AST, such as eliciting student thinking and particular discourse moves aligned with them to engage in NGSS teaching, but also how and whether these new practices were enacted in ways that altered the marginalization of traditionally underserved students in their classrooms. ...
... It is defined as providing all students, particularly those from groups traditionally marginalized in science classrooms, equitable opportunities to participate in learning science. However, equitable teaching also requires that teachers be aware of and work to counteract the racialized and privileged nature of classroom interactions and schooling that perpetuate the alienation of minoritized students in science (Kang & Zinger, 2019). Later in the dissertation, I will delve into whether the perspective of equity and diversity in the NGSS and AST adequately addresses this. ...
... Equity and diversity as well as social justice teaching are often confined to multicultural courses (Kang & Zinger, 2019) or seen as needed only in classrooms with racial/ethnic diversity. In contrast, science classrooms should be exposing all students, regardless of their social identities, to social justice science issues globally, nationally, and locally. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The goal of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) is to move away from traditional science teaching that has been based on the transmission of ideas and memorization of concepts and vocabulary. However, teaching science differently is challenging because teachers tend to teach the way they were taught, and preservice teachers enter teacher preparation programs with a set of teaching practices acquired during their many years of being in classrooms and observing teachers. Thus, becoming a science teacher means developing new skills and acquiring new ways of thinking. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how NGSS teaching, ambitious science teaching, equitable science teaching, and social justice science teaching, which were taught in a science teaching methods course, were enacted by preservice teachers during student teaching. The course was designed to utilize the practices of ambitious science teaching to promote NGSS teaching, as well as equitable teaching and social justice teaching. The study followed three preservice teachers through a yearlong science teaching methods course and into their student teaching classrooms. Data sources included classroom observations and video recordings, interviews, focus groups, teaching artifacts, and course assignments. Using the theoretical framework of habitus, structure and agency, the study examined affordances and constraints to the enactment of new science teaching practices. The findings show that, despite all being in the same science teaching methods course, the preservice teachers were on different trajectories in enacting NGSS and AST teaching, equitable science teaching, and social justice science teaching, thus making evident the power of affordances and constraints outside the university course in shaping their science teaching habitus. The findings suggest that change of habitus requires the support of multiple structures simultaneously and that all affordances and constraints are not equally powerful. Overall, the preservice teachers made more movement toward NGSS teaching than toward equitable science teaching and social justice science teaching. Previous science teaching that they experienced and their cooperating teachers during student teaching were found to be particularly strong structures in affording and constraining change of habitus. The concepts of habitus, structure and agency were shown to be useful in understanding why there was differential enactment of science teaching practices advocated for in the course. This research distinguishes between equitable teaching and social justice teaching and applies these to science teaching in ways that have not been seen in the literature. Taken together, the findings have implications for how teacher educators, teacher preparation programs, and science education policymakers may more effectively support changes in science teaching.
... PTs themselves actively reformulate their own opportunities to learn in a local setting by selectively using the curricular resources and tools provided by their program (Horn et al., 2008;Kang, 2017). Furthermore, a recent study points to the students in a classroom as main agents of PT learning, highlighting the significant impact of PTs' interactions with students on their development of equitable teaching practices (Kang & Zinger, 2019). PTs try their ideas and decide whether or how to keep trying based first and foremost on how students respond. ...
... The final coding schemes for MT-mediated experiences and PTs' discourses were generated iteratively while examining the data and reviewing the literature for a 9-month period. As for the analysis of PTs' practices, I used the coding scheme developed in prior studies (Kang & Windschitl, 2018;Kang & Zinger, 2019). Finally, I conduct closed coding alongside one research assistant using the final coding schemes. ...
Article
This study aims to better understand the role of mentor teacher–mediated experiences in preservice teachers (PTs)’ progress toward the vision of teaching advocated by their programs. Data were collected from multiple cohorts of preservice science teachers at two university-based teacher preparation programs. Employing a qualitative, multiple case study approach, a total of 35 cases were analyzed focusing on the quality of mentor teacher–mediated experiences (i.e., modeling program-advocated vision of teaching, supporting PTs’ experimentation, and providing feedback), and its relationship to PTs’ progress over time. The analyses show that mentor teachers’ supportiveness for PTs’ experimentation played a critical role in facilitating PTs’ desirable changes. Well-structured experimentation created conditions for PTs to notice, leverage, and expand students’ sense-making repertoires in classrooms. Mentors’ modeling of program-recommended practices was not necessarily related to PTs’ progress. This study raises questions about prevalent perceptions of a good mentor teacher as someone who models program-recommended practices.
... The majority of training workshops and professional development opportunities for novice teachers now pay attention to preparation done by the teacher through self-study (Goodwin et al., 2014). Similarly, teachers are observed to pay keen attention to their routines and curriculum and maintain an individualistic focus to develop relative behavior (DeAngelis, Wall, & Che, 2013;Kang & Zinger, 2019). This focus on self-reflection is based on the idea that any teacher who lacks self-understanding cannot retrieve the behavior of students (Kukla-Acevedo (2008). ...
... Many teachers work in specialized professional contexts in which they struggle to focus their attention on the classroom routines and curriculum and also struggle to focus on their behavior concerning the thinking of the students. It is crucial to understand and address this struggle because a teacher's qualification and content exposure have a remarkable effect on their students' achievements (Kang & Zinger, 2019). However, the practice of teacher training remains neglected due to a small number of educational institutions (Celik, 2011) and to several other factors (Youngs, Odden, & Porter, 2003). ...
... According to Prakash (2010), explicit constructivism is fundamental in enhancing the effectiveness of the lecture method. This will enable teachers to present learning materials in ways that expand students' understanding of concepts and processes (Kang & Zinger, 2019;Maphosa & Ndebele, 2014). ...
Book
Full-text available
We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website http://www.ijlter.org. We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue. We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration. The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers. We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal with this issue.
... The NGSS (2013) aim to engage all students in conceptual thinking by "doing science" involving the content and the process of science learning (Kang & Zinger, 2019;Penuel & Reiser, 2018). The NGSS (2013) demonstrate a comprehensive vision of inclusive science for underrepresented groups, including students with disabilities and preparing all students for STEM-related college studies or careers. ...
Article
Full-text available
Increased student diversity in classrooms and the need for equitable STEM opportunities for all, creates an impetus for educators to establish inclusive and equitable environments and use teaching practices that facilitate meaningful learning for all students in science education. This article offers a three-part framework for combining inclusive philosophy, the science and engineering practices, and Universal Design for Learning (UDL). The article is intended to help teachers and teacher educators universally design science education to level the science learning field through access and equity for all students, including students with disabilities. We advocate for the use of four practices: creating an inclusive community of science learners, planning for big ideas over time, engaging students in sense-making through model-based inquiry, and engaging students in cooperative learning and science talk. Science teachers can use these practices to universally design science education and enhance science learning and STEM interest for underrepresented students. In the article, we provide visuals and tools for teachers to support implementation of the universally designed science practices.
... According to Prakash (2010), explicit constructivism is fundamental in enhancing the effectiveness of the lecture method. This will enable teachers to present learning materials in ways that expand students' understanding of concepts and processes (Kang & Zinger, 2019;Maphosa & Ndebele, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
The teaching and learning of science subjects at secondary schools in Sub-Saharan Africa is currently dominated by application of the lecture method in delivering learning material. In the Lecture Method, the teacher discusses and shows the learning material. Studies showed that the lecture method can be made interactive, and, hence, more effective if teachers appropriately integrate constructivist ideas in the method. Therefore, this study aims to examine the BEd (Science) students’ integration of constructivist’s learner-oriented instructional practices in the lecture method during teaching practice (TP). Data were collected from 107 BEd(Science) students, their Head of Subjects in the TP schools and the university supervisors at the onset and towards the end of a 14-week TP. The instruments used to collect data were questionnaires and interview schedules. The data were analysed descriptively and inferentially. Descriptive statistics focused on frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviation which summarised the variables in terms of demonstration of instructional practices, supervision and assessment practices. Findings revealed that the BEd(Science) students faced difficulties in their attempt to integrate constructivist ideas in the lecture method. T-test showed a positive effect of teaching practice on the integration of constructivists’ ideas in the lecture method. The study provides several recommendations based on the findings.
Article
These narratives explore what it might entail to begin school–university partnerships towards the goal of transformative social changes through the voices of two women scholars of color. Using two school–university partnerships as focal cases, we unpack the complexity, tensions, and possibilities that arise through collaborations driven by the objective to promote new and more just forms of science learning within public schools. In this article, we use three key dimensions of participatory design research (namely, critical historicity, power, and relationality) as analytical lenses through which to reflect upon school–university partnerships that we are in the beginning stages of forming. Through this methodology, we shed light on: (a) the historical genealogies of equity‐oriented work and (b) the tensions that we encountered as we strived for beginning partnerships with K‐12 schools. These narratives unveil the dynamic and contentious nature of forming school–university partnerships that always occurs within a sociopolitical landscape impacted by intersecting and powered identity markers, including those around race, gender, language, culture, and status. We provide specific recommendations for supporting education researchers who aspire to transform the learning of sciences at schools through a collaborative and sustainable partnership. These recommendations include ideas around how to collectively generate goals with schools centered on transformative science learning; attention to the role of language and race in shaping partnership role‐remediation; and creating infrastructure for developing school–university partnerships toward transformative social changes, including financial, human and relational resources, as well as new forms of recognition systems.
Article
Full-text available
In efforts to better prepare students for a technology-driven workforce, many states and districts have pushed for clustered teaching of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in K-12 schools, yet science and mathematics remain the cornerstones upon which broader opportunities in STEM education are built. Teachers serve as boundary spanners—connecting knowledge, experiences, and opportunities for access—and for that reason, we focus on teachers as the most promising change agents in science and mathematics education in urban schools. This qualitative study explores the potential for both initial preparation and continued development of practicing teachers to occur simultaneously through a co-learning university-school-community partnership model, summer residency, and coursework, using critical and culturally relevant outdoor experiential learning. Findings suggest that there was a clear shift with practicing teachers to be more open-minded about both the effectiveness and applicability of experiential outdoor learning in urban spaces, and the richness of urban schools and spaces themselves. Future Teachers were able to incorporate critical and culturally relevant experiential learning into their coursework and master’s project, and engage with their students and mentors in meaningful ways. The article suggests pathways for partnership development and implications for urban education classrooms.
Article
Gender inequities in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields persist and calls have been made for continued efforts to challenge systemic sexism in STEM. In response to these calls, we examined the experiences of undergraduate and graduate STEM students who participated in an intergroup dialogue (IGD) focused on gender and sexism in STEM. We conceptualize IGD as a form of “justice-centered” STEM pedagogy (Morales-Doyle, 2017), designed to bring together individuals from different social identity groups with a history of tension between them (in this case, women and men in STEM) for sustained, face-to-face communication. The goals of the dialogue included: (1) building relationships and understanding across genders, (2) developing a critical awareness of male privilege and systemic oppression (i.e., sexism), and (3) promoting capacities to work toward gender equity in STEM. The dialogue followed a modified version of an empirically validated model of IGD. Eight students participated in the IGD and post-IGD interviews. Through grounded theory analyses of these interviews, four themes emerged including: Barriers to Dialogue, Facilitative Factors, Cognitive and Attitudinal Outcomes, and Behavioral Outcomes. Ultimately, we engaged in theoretical integration around a core theme of Perspective-Taking to characterize these young scientists’ experiences in IGD. We explore the implications for STEM education and research and practice of IGD and conclude that IGD on gender, sexism, and intersecting forms of privilege and oppression in STEM has potential to challenge inequitable cultures.
Article
Preparing preservice teachers (PSTs) to enact socially just instruction, especially in fieldwork contexts, remains a challenging, understudied goal addressed by this research. Analysis of data from two qualitative studies reveals how Daybook conversations served as pedagogical and discursive spaces that helped PSTs negotiate conflicts, or sticking points, which emerged in their fieldwork. Their rehearsals during these conversations enabled PSTs to create space for instructional experimentation to enact socially just instruction. The article offers possibilities for modeling with and for PSTs how their teaching can work to disrupt systems of inequity across relationships, diverse teaching contexts, and time.
Article
Full-text available
The disparity between the race and ethnicity of teachers and students is expected to increase as our nation and classrooms continue to become more racially, ethnically , linguistically, and economically diverse. It is extremely important to think about not only the educational needs of such a diverse student population within schools but also who will teach these students. However, when looking at subject-matter specificity for the retention of Teachers of Color, such as science teachers, the picture becomes extremely serious when we understand teachers' paths into and out of science and teaching. The purpose of the study is to analyze the experiences of preservice Teachers of Color (PTOC) enrolled in an elementary science methods course as they gain access to science as White property. Our analysis provides evidence that PTOC can break the perpetual cycle of alienation, exclusion, and inequity in science when they are given opportunities to engage in science as learners and teachers. In addition, we also offer insights regarding the role science teacher educators may play in preparing teachers and especially TOC for urban schools.
Article
Full-text available
Early career teachers rarely receive sustained support for addressing issues of diversity and equity in their science teaching. This paper reports on design research to create a 30 hour professional development seminar focused on cultivating the interpretive power of early career teachers who teach science to students from historically non-dominant communities. Interpretive power refers to teachers’ attunement to (a) students’ diverse sense-making repertoires as intellectually generative in science and (b) expansive pedagogical practices that encourage, make visible, and intentionally build on students’ ideas, experiences, and perspectives on scientific phenomena. The seminar sought to integrate student sense-making, scientific subject matter, teaching practice, and matters of equity and diversity on the same plane of professional inquiry by engaging participants in: (a) learning plant science; (b) analyzing classroom cases; (c) experimenting with expansive discourse practices in their classrooms; and (d) analyzing their classroom experiments in relation to student sense-making and expansive pedagogy. Twenty-eight teachers participated in two cycles of design research. An interview-based transcript analysis task captured shifts in teachers’ interpretive power through their participation in the seminar. Findings showed that the teachers developed greater attunement to: complexity in students’ scientific ideas; the intellectual generativity of students’ sense-making; student talk as evidence of in-process, emergent thinking; and co-construction of meaning in classroom discussions. Findings also showed that participants developed deeper understanding of the functions of expansive teaching practices in fostering student sense-making in science and greater commitment to engaging in expansive practices in their classroom science discussions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach XX:XX-XX, 2015.
Article
Full-text available
Federal education policy reports in science and mathematics education have treated Students of Color consistently over the past two decades, addressing the underrepresentation of minorities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields with little regard to actual issues of race and ethnicity. We examine how 17 federal education policy briefs focusing on STEM have addressed issues of equity with regard to Students of Color. We use a critical race theory lens to interpret and understand our findings. We find that the documents used broadly defined, racially essentializing terms; that discourse surrounding race fluctuated, perhaps cyclically, over time; and that arguments for inclusive STEM education were made predominantly from a one-sided economic perspective, favoring the owners and operators of STEM enterprises.
Article
Full-text available
In this special issue, the structure–agency dialectic is used to shift the analytic frame in science education from focusing on youth as in need of remediation to rethinking new arrangements, tools, and forms of assistance and participation in support of youth learning science. This shift from “fixing” the individual to re-mediating and transforming the functional system is key to reimagining new forms of learning and doing science that are tied to the imaginings of new futures, trajectories, and identities. In this manuscript, we discuss the major contributions of these studies in the special issue. In so doing, we seek to lay out both the possibilities and limits of the structure–agency dialectic in advancing science for all. We suggest that social and pedagogical imaginaries enable one to move the structure–agency dialectic towards transformative ends. We further suggest that to account more actively for how position and power shape the ways in which individuals seek to take action, the meanings they ascribe to such action, symbolically and otherwise, we must be ready to interrogate the relation between structure and agency and issues of equity and consequential and valued forms of science learning in local environments and in larger educational systems. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 52: 574–583, 2015
Article
Full-text available
Currently, the field of teacher education is undergoing a major shift-a turn away from a predominant focus on specifying the necessary knowledge for teaching toward specifying teaching practices that entail knowledge and doing. In this article, the authors suggest that current work on K-12 core teaching practices has the potential to shift teacher education toward the practice of teaching. However, the authors argue that to realize this vision we must reimagine not only the curriculum for learning to teach but also the pedagogy of teacher education. We present one example of what we mean by reimagined teacher education pedagogy by offering a framework through which to conceptualize the preparation of teachers organized around core practices. From our perspectives, this framework could be the backbone of a larger research and development agenda aimed at engaging teachers and teacher educators in systematic knowledge generation regarding ambitious teaching and teacher education pedagogy. We conclude with an invitation to the field to join with us in imagining approaches to generating and aggregating knowledge about teaching and the pedagogy of teacher education that will move not only our individual practice but also our collective practice forward.
Article
Full-text available
Calls for the improvement of science education in the USA continue unabated, with particular concern for the quality of learning opportunities for students from his-torically nondominant communities. Despite many and varied efforts, the field contin-ues to struggle to create robust, meaningful forms of science education. We argue that 'settled expectations' in schooling function to (a) restrict the content and form of science valued and communicated through science education and (b) locate students, particu-larly those from nondominant communities, in untenable epistemological positions that work against engagement in meaningful science learning. In this article we examine two episodes with the intention of reimagining the relationship between science learning, classroom teaching, and emerging understandings of grounding concepts in scientific fields – a process we call desettling . Building from the examples, we draw out some key ways in which desettling and reimagining core relations between nature and culture can shift possibilities in learning and development, particularly for nondominant students. Because of [the sea's] fluid capacity to link the smallest microorganism to the largest eco-system, the ocean is a medium through which to explore shifting limits of the category life in the biological sciences. [Helmreich, 2009, p. 5] Many tribes speak either of periodic renewal … or of periodic cleansing of the planet with some disruption of landscape and destruction of life followed by the appearance of new life-forms and new networks of responsibility. [Deloria, Deloria, Foehner, & Scinta, 1999, p. 25] Despite continuing calls for improvement [National Research Council, 2007, 2011], the field of science education has struggled to create robust, meaningful forms of education that engage nondominant students in complex learning as empowered
Article
Full-text available
The underrepresentation of girls from nondominant backgrounds in the sciences and engineering continues despite recent gains in achievement. This longitudinal ethnographic study traces the identity work that girls from nondominant backgrounds do as they engage in science-related activities across school, club, and home during the middle school years. Building a conceptual argument for identity trajectories, the authors discuss the ongoing, cumulative, and contentious nature of identity work and the mechanisms that foster critical shifts in trajectories. The authors argue that the girls view possible future selves in science when their identity work is recognized, supported, and leveraged toward expanded opportunities for engagement in science. This process yields layered meanings of (possible) selves and of science and reconfigures meaningful participation in science.
Article
Full-text available
Accounts of how culture constitutes the learning activities we accomplish with others are flourishing. These accounts illustrate how participants draw upon, adapt, and contest historically situated social practices, tools, and relations to accomplish their learning goals [Vygotsky: Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1978]. Yet, they often lack attention to the ways that these social features reify and are reified by broader power structures and hierarchies. One way that power plays out in everyday social interaction is through the stories, narratives and ideologies that serve as resources for interpreting and organizing ongoing activity. Individuals become attuned to, coordinate and mobilize around these broader narratives through the frames they engage in moments of interaction. We offer frame analysis as a means of investigating both access to learning environments and opportunities to learn within them. To situate learning opportunities within and across different components of multilevel systems, a distinction is proposed between framing within a classroom or learning environment and framing access to educational processes and institutions. This paper recommends that researchers analyze, and design for, framing that disrupts predominant power structures and expands the possibilities for learning within more equitable social practices. Copyright (C) 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel
Article
Full-text available
Social psychologists are persuaded that researchers as well as laymen tend to overestimate the influence of personal traits and underestimate the influence of situations on observed behavior. The author of this article suggests that education researchers and policy makers may be overestimating the role of personal qualities in their quest to understand teaching quality. In their effort to understand classroom-to-classroom differences in student learning, they may focus too much on the characteristics of teachers themselves, overlooking situational factors that may have a strong bearing on the quality of the teaching practices we see. The author reviews some of these situational forces.
Article
Full-text available
In the midst of discussions about improving education, teacher education, equity, and diversity, little has been done to make pedagogy a central area of investigation. This article attempts to challenge notions about the intersection of culture and teaching that rely solely on microanalytic or macroanalytic perspectives. Rather, the article attempts to build on the work done in both of these areas and proposes a culturally relevant theory of education. By raising questions about the location of the researcher in pedagogical research, the article attempts to explicate the theoretical framework of the author in the nexus of collaborative and reflexive research. The pedagogical practices of eight exemplary teachers of African-American students serve as the investigative "site." Their practices and reflections on those practices provide a way to define and recognize culturally relevant pedagogy.
Article
Full-text available
This article explores how schools reproduce race, class, and gender inequality through the regulation of students' bodies. Using ethnographic data from an urban school, I examine how assumptions guiding bodily discipline differed for different groups of students. First, adults at the school tended to view the behaviors of African American girls as not "lady-like" and attempted to discipline them into dress and manners considered more gender appropriate. Second, school officials tended to view the behaviors of Latino boys as especially threatening, and members of this group often received strict, punitive discipline. Third, school officials tended to view the behaviors of white and Asian American students as nonthreatening and gender appropriate and disciplined these students less strictly. To conclude, I discuss the importance of viewing race, class, and gender in schools simultaneously and the problems associated with disciplinary reform in education. © 2005 by Pacific Sociological Association. All rights reserved.
Article
Full-text available
This longitudinal study followed 10 beginning teachers from their last year of preservice education into their first 3 years of full-time teaching. Using sociocultural theory, we describe how these teachers appropriated a set of pedagogical tools for teaching writing. Data sources included approximately 5 interviews and at least 5 classroom observations a year, as well as observations and interviews with cooperating teachers, supervisors, and mentor teachers. The analysis suggests that teachers drew on pedagogical tools introduced during teacher education to develop their classroom practice. Conceptual tools that were buttressed with practical strategies proved to be most influential. The settings in which teachers taught also shaped teachers' developing understanding and practice. Finally, pedagogical tools developed during teacher education were even more evident during the teachers' 2nd year of teaching, as they tried to approximate their goal of good language arts instruction. The results of this study suggest the danger of making claims about what teachers do and do not learn during teacher education based only on data from their 1st year of teaching.
Article
Background/Context Teacher preparation suffers from a lack of evidence that guides the design of learning experiences to produce well-prepared beginners. An increasing number of teacher educators are experimenting with practice-embedded approaches to prepare novices for ambitious instruction. This study examines the role of core instructional practices introduced during preparatory experiences in shaping novices’ first-year teaching. Research design Employing a mixed-methods approach, we compare the first-year teaching of two groups of individuals with secondary science certification, one of which comprises graduates from a practice-embedded preparation program, and the other graduates from programs that did not feature practice-embedded preparation. A total of 116 science lessons taught by 41 first-year teachers were analyzed, focusing on the quality of student opportunities to learn (OTL) observed during the lessons. Research questions This study sought answers to two research questions: 1) What are the characteristics of students’ OTL from first-year teachers, one group of whom learned a set of core instructional practices during their preparation program and the other group of whom were not exposed to core practices? 2) Who provides opportunities for students to engage in meaningful disciplinary practices as outlined in the Next Generation Science Standards, during the first year of teaching, if any? How did they create such opportunities? Findings Independent-sample t-tests showed that there are significant mean differences between the two groups (t=3.1∼8.9; p <.001), on four metrics associated with their students’ opportunities to learn. In-depth qualitative case studies reveal two ways that core practices shape instruction in new teachers’ classrooms: (a) they support novices in formulating an actionable curricular vision as advocated by the science education community, and (b) they appear to help novices notice, attend to, and build upon students’ ideas in classrooms with the use of strategies and tools recommended by the program. Conclusions/Recommendations A focus on a set of strategic and intentional practices, designed to help teachers achieve rigorous and equitable learning goals, has potential as a curricular frame for teacher preparation. But the emphasis should be placed on the vision and pedagogical goals that underlie the core practices, rather than the ungrounded use of strategies or tools themselves.
Article
While current science teacher education frameworks designed to support high‐quality teaching have the potential to promote equitable science learning, they do not substantively engage with how racism organizes science teaching and learning. In this critical qualitative inquiry grounded in critical race theory and sociopolitical perspectives on teaching and learning, I analyzed the contradictions that emerged in science teaching practices that were both intended to support Student of Color science learning and engaged science‐specific colorblind ideologies. The critical race theory analysis demonstrated how science teaching practices such as connecting to students’ experiences, creating interests in science, representing scientists as role models, and scaffolding doing science maintain unequal racialized power relations between students and science when historical and contemporary legacies of racism are not directly confronted. I also propose a science teaching practice of “grappling with racism” as a possible transformative solution to disrupt racism in and through science teaching.
Article
Rehearsal is an increasingly important teacher education pedagogy. We explore how 3 science teacher educators thought about and used pauses within rehearsals to support secondary science teacher candidates in learning to facilitate sense-making discussions. Video data indicated that the most common purposes for pausing a rehearsal were to provide feedback about the candidate’s practice and to problem solve with the candidates. Substantively, the most common foci were attending to student thinking and attending to the use of language. Interview data indicated that teacher educators responded to candidates’ needs when making decisions about pauses. These findings suggest that rehearsals can provide rich learning opportunities for teacher candidates in ways that are interactive and responsive to students’ ideas.
Article
This study explores how and under which conditions preservice secondary science teachers (PSTs) engage in effective planning practices that incorporate intellectually challenging tasks into lessons. Drawing upon a situative perspective on learning, eight PSTs’ trajectories of participation in communities of practice are examined with a focus on planning throughout student teaching. Data include 32 sets of teaching artifacts, interviews with PSTs, interviews with methods course instructors, and interviews with mentor teachers. The analyses show that instructional tasks observed at the beginning of lessons link to the ways in which PSTs engage in the three interrelated processes of (a) framing instructional goals, (b) constructing a lesson scenario, and (c) addressing problems of practice. The consistencies and changes observed in the PSTs’ trajectories of planning reveal the dynamic, responsive, and contentious nature of planning situated in local contexts. Three implications for designing productive learning opportunities for PSTs are discussed.
Article
Objets fronti_re = s'adaptent pour prendre en compte plusieurs points de vue et maintenir une identité entre eux Cet espace de travail se construit grâce à des objets-frontières tels que des systèmes de classification, qui relient entre eux les concepts communs et les rôles sociaux divergents de chaque groupe professionnel. Les objet-frontière contribuent à la stabilité du système de référence en offrant un contexte partagé pour la communication et la coopération. Les objets peuvent être considérés comme frontière (Star et Griesemer, 1989) en tant qu’ils contribuent à la stabilité du système de référence en offrant un contexte partagé pour la communication et la coopération.
Article
Following Suchman, (1985), Lave, (1988), Lave and Wenger (1991), Hutchins, (1995a), Engeström, (1999), and others, we take a situative perspective in our research and, in this chapter, regarding opportunity to learn (OTL). Conducting analyses of learning with this perspective involves defining activity systems as the unit of analysis, which includes one or more persons interacting with each other and with material and informational resources that are present in the setting. The main emphasis of the situative perspective is on how learning by individuals and groups is accomplished through interaction between elements of an activity system. Of course there are changes in the participating individuals' mental structures, including schemata, but these are not the primary focus of our analyses. In this view, learning by an individual in a community is conceptualized as a trajectory of that person's participation in the community – a path with a past and present, shaping possibilities for future participation. Learning by a group or community is also conceptualized as a trajectory – a path that corresponds to change in the community's practices. A SITUATIVE PERSPECTIVE ON LEARNING Individuals Learning in a Community Lave and Wenger (1991) outlined a situative framework on learning by considering the trajectories of individuals' participation as they become members of a community of practice. As individuals initially join a new activity, their involvement is limited to peripheral participation.
Article
This article explores how a small group of white middle– and upper–middle–class female student teachers constructed an image of what it means to be a “white” teacher. Through the use of qualitative participatory action research methods, the participants in this study critically reflected on their understandings of multicultural education and their positions as white student teachers involved in a teacher education program. The participants were invited to be researchers about their daily lives, to pose problems that arose from the complexities of their own racial identities, and to develop realistic solutions for dealing with racism in their classrooms. Through initial one-to-one interviews, and during eight two-hour group sessions, the participants were provided with opportunities to view themselves as “white”—an experience that was relatively new to them. It also provided them with a challenging and highly provocative way to view their roles as white teachers. The data presented in this article suggest that by white educators’ questioning and confronting their white identities and challenging the meaning of being “white” teachers, they can more effectively pursue teaching practices that significantly alter the way white students are educated about themselves and about multicultural education.
Article
In this article, Paris explores the deep linguistic and cultural ways in which youth in a multiethnic urban high school employ linguistic features of African American Language (AAL) across ethnic lines. The author also discusses how knowledge about the use of AAL in multiethnic contexts might be applied to language and literacy education and how such linguistic and cultural sharing can hell) us forge interethnic understanding in our changing urban schools. The article not only fosters an understanding of how AAL works in such multiethnic urban schools, but also sheds light on opportunities for a pedagogy of pluralism-a stance toward teaching both within and across differences.
Article
In recent years, a small but growing strand of research has investigated ways of focusing teachers’ professional education on “core” or “high leverage” practices of teaching. These efforts are easily conflated with other initiatives to develop “practice-focused” teacher education, raising questions about what these terms even mean. This article investigates what can be learned by comparing and contrasting teacher education focused on core practices with other approaches that might also be called “practice-based,” including those dating back to the 19th century. It focuses on three important periods in the history of teacher education: the heyday of the normal schools in the late 1800s, the period of scientific efficiency in the 1920s and 1930s, and the era of competency-based teacher education in the 1960s and 1970s.
Article
This book reveals the author's dedication to learning and teaching as it reveals her belief in the potential of each individual. She demystifies aspects of today's technological society, questions taken-for-granted notions of social justice and equality, and elucidates conflicts between youth and age, poor and middle-class, minorities and whites, male and female.
Article
After Brown v. Board of Education was decided, Professor Herbert Wechsler questioned whether the Supreme Court's decision could be justified on the basis of "neutral" principles. To him Brown arbitrarily traded the rights of whites not to associate with blacks in favor of the rights of blacks to associate with whites. In this Comment, Prof. Derrick Bell suggests that no conflict of interest actually existed; for a brief period, the interests of the races converged to make the Brown decision inevitable. More recent Supreme Court decisions, however, suggest to Professor Bell a growing divergence of interests that makes integration less feasible. He suggests the interest of blacks in quality education might now be better served by concentration on improving the quality of existing schools, whether desegregated or all-black.
Article
This article describes a two-year longitudinal study that tracked seven students through a one-year, full-time, university-based secondary mathematics method course and into their first year of teaching in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The purpose of the study was to describe the recontextualizing from the mathematics method course by these beginning teachers. Qualitative analysis of the teacher education course, of students' positioning in relation to this course, and later of their positioning in relation to teachers and learners in schools, was conducted. The results showed that beginning teachers drew in two ways from the method course: they reproduced a small number of discrete tasks that had been introduced to them there, and they also deployed a professional argot--a way of talking about teaching and learning mathematics. This recontextualizing was shaped by the beginning teachers' educational biographies and school contexts, but most particularly by access to recognition and realization rules.
I want to talk about learning the lessons that the decision in Brown v. Board of Education 1 could not teach. I note that the title of the symposium, "Brown Is Dead? Long Live Brown!," places a ques-tion mark after "Brown Is Dead." I would like to replace the ques-tion mark with a period. The Brown decision, as far as the law is concerned, is truly dead and beyond resuscitation. The question is why on its fiftieth anniversary Brown is not only remembered, but hailed as a landmark? Why, unlike thousands of other cases de-cided by the Supreme Court, its fiftieth anniversary is being cele-brated and commemorated in the media, and in dozens of conferences and symposiums. In 1970, courts finally began ordering enforceable school de-segregation orders that went beyond the "grade-a-year" and "free-dom of choice" plans that reflected a determination to retain segregated schools as long as possible.
Article
Scientific work is heterogeneous, requiring many different actors and viewpoints. It also requires cooperation. The two create tension between divergent viewpoints and the need for generalizable findings. We present a model of how one group of actors managed this tension. It draws on the work of amateurs, professionals, administrators and others connected to the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology at the University of California, Berkeley, during its early years. Extending the Latour-Callon model of interessement, two major activities are central for translating between viewpoints: standardization of methods, and the development of `boundary objects'. Boundary objects are both adaptable to different viewpoints and robust enough to maintain identity across them. We distinguish four types of boundary objects: repositories, ideal types, coincident boundaries and standardized forms.
Article
The discourse of urban science education is often framed by discussions of achievement gaps and limited resources. Although these realities are part of the urban education landscape, they focus on deficits—what urban youth and their teachers and schools lack. We argue that it is more productive to frame urban science education as a function of place. Place, in the urban classroom, accounts not only for the physical spaces of the community but also for the historical and sociocultural dimensions that play out as people interact with and in place. We argue that becoming an insider within the multidimensions of place is critical to science teaching environments that value and sanction their students' unofficial and often non-dominant ways of knowing.
Article
Recent calls for teacher preparation to become more grounded in practice prompt the questions: Which practices? and perhaps more fundamentally, what counts as a model of instruction worth learning for a new professional—i.e., the beginner's repertoire? In this report, we argue the following: If a defined set of subject-specific high-leverage practices could be articulated and taught during teacher preparation and induction, the broader teacher education community could collectively refine these practices as well as the tools and other resources that support their appropriation by novices across various learning-to-teach contexts. To anchor our conversation about these issues, we describe the evolution, in design, and enactment, of a “candidate core” and a suite of tools that supported the approximation of equitable and rigorous pedagogy for several groups of beginning science teachers. Their struggles and successes in taking up ambitious practice informed not only our designs for a beginner's repertoire but also a system of tools and socioprofessional routines that could foster such teaching over time. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Sci Ed 96:878–903, 2012
Article
Current work to identify the core teaching practices that should be included in teacher education curriculum is a part of a long-standing tradition of reform in American teacher education. This article situates the proposals of Hiebert and Morris and the contemporary work to which it is linked within this historical tradition and identifies several issues that need to be addressed by this current work. These include the task of developing a system that unlike performance-based systems in the past is evidence-based, manageable, and sustainable, and that does not ignore important aspects of good teaching.
Article
For several historical and cultural reasons, the United States has long pursued a strategy of improving teaching by improving teachers. The rarely questioned logic underlying this choice says that by improving the right characteristics of teachers, they will teach more effectively. The authors expose the assumptions on which this logic is built, propose an alternative approach to improving teaching that engages teachers (and researchers) directly in the work of improving teaching, present some indirect evidence to support this approach, and examine the cultural traditions and beliefs that have kept the conventional approach in place for so long.
Article
The achievement gap is one of the most talked-about issues in U.S. education. The term refers to the disparities in standardized test scores between Black and White, Latina/o and White, and recent immigrant and White students. This article argues that a focus on the gap is misplaced. Instead, we need to look at the “education debt” that has accumulated over time. This debt comprises historical, economic, sociopolitical, and moral components. The author draws an analogy with the concept of national debt—which she contrasts with that of a national budget deficit—to argue the significance of the education debt.
Article
In this article, the authors examine two distinct but closely related fields, research on teaching and research on teacher education. Despite its roots in research on teaching, research in teacher education has developed in isolation both from mainstream research on teaching and from research on higher education and professional education. A stronger connection to research on teaching could inform the content of teacher education, while a stronger relationship to research on organizations and policy implementation could focus attention on the organizational contexts in which the work takes shape. The authors argue that for research in teacher education to move forward, it must reconnect with these fields to address the complexity of both teaching as a practice and the preparation of teachers.
Article
This article describes and analyzes a program of work in elementary mathematics teacher education at the University of Michigan that has, for a decade, been a site for the development of approaches to preparing beginning K-8 mathematics teachers that are both aimed at practice and centered in content. Among the products of this work are video records, instructional tasks, and assessments, as well as structures for collective work on our courses. These materials and ways of working comprise a collection of resources for both the systematic improvement of the knowledge base for teacher education and the professional development of teacher educators. This practice-based approach to the development of both our courses and their instructors has enabled us to improve professional instruction and to build knowledge that is useful beyond a particular course or the individuals who work in it. We begin by discussing 2 central problems of teacher education that our group has tried to address and then describe the types of materials and ways of working that we have developed. We analyze the features of the professional curriculum produced from this work, relate them to the problems, and consider issues about transferability to contextsbeyond our own.
Article
Many science educators, in the US and elsewhere, suppport the idea that all students should have fair and equal opportunities to become scientifically literate through authentic, real problem-based science education. However, this challenge requires teachers to find ways to help all students feel comfortable with, and connected to, science. Despite the general consensus around the ideal of science for all, science teacher education programmes have had little or no impact on preservice teachers' philosophies of teaching and learning, especially as it relates to serving underserved populations in science. In this paper, I explore community service-learning as one way of addressing the multicultural dimension of preservice education with the following three questions: In what ways does involving pre-service science teachers in community service-learning influence their views on multicultural science education, in theory and practice? What qualities of community service-learning make multicultural science education a realistic objective? How might service-learning be used to push our collective understanding of what an inclusive and liberatory multicultural science teaching practice could be? I explore these questions and propose further areas of research by using a case study involving service-learning from my own teaching-research with preservice students.
Article
This article explicates the diversity within the Asian American community by focusing on Southeast and South Asian American students. Focusing on these two groups is important given their recent migration (relative to other groups) and tenuous position within Asian American research, discourse, and representation. In particular, this article contends that the image of Asian American success masks the contexts—economic, social, and cultural challenges—that mark the educational experiences of many Southeast Asian and South Asian American students. It explores (1) issues of cultural capital; (2) negotiations of identity, gender and generation; and (3) experiences of racism. By highlighting the social and cultural contexts of the education of Southeast and South Asian students, it reveals the many ways students are learning from the margins and the price of ‘success’ that is often diminished by the image of Asian American achievement.
Article
Lisa Delpit uses the debate over process-oriented versus skills-oriented writing instruction as the starting-off point to examine the "culture of power" that exists in society in general and in the educational environment in particular. She analyzes five complex rules of power that explicitly and implicitly influence the debate over meeting the educational needs of Black and poor students on all levels. Delpit concludes that teachers must teach all students the explicit and implicit rules of power as a first step toward a more just society. This article is an edited version of a speech presented at the Ninth Annual Ethnography in Education Research Forum, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, February 5-6, 1988.
Article
This longitudinal case study focused on the learning trajectories of two novice bilingual education teachers in urban schools. We traced changes in and relationships between these teachers' knowledge, beliefs, and interactive thinking about teaching culturally diverse learners. Multiple data collection strategies were used, including concept maps, in-depth interviews, surveys, and stimulated recall interviews. Data were collected before and after a multicultural education course in which the teachers were enrolled during their 1--year MEd and credential program. Data were also collected during their first and second years of inservice teaching. Results suggest that the relationship between teachers' knowledge, beliefs, and decision making is complicated and dynamic. Classroom and school contexts affected teachers' attempts to enact constructivist and social justice education principles. Moreover, prior beliefs as well as the teacher education program (TEP) and teachers' own developmental needs contributed to the ways in which these teachers learned to teach. The findings suggest that if we are to prepare teachers to teach culturally diverse learners, we must design TEPs that provide both resources and opportunities to master and appropriate the components of good teaching for diverse learners.