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Context: Kinesio taping (KT) is a popular taping technique used in the recovery process; however, in the relevant literature, there is no real consensus on its efficacy. Objective: To investigate whether rectus femoris KT application after delayed onset muscle soreness enhances recovery of muscle soreness, edema, and physical performance. Participants: A total of 22 healthy amateur male athletes participated in this study. Design: Randomized, crossover study. Setting: Human performance laboratory of the university. Interventions: Participants performed an exercise protocol inducing delayed onset muscle soreness. They accomplished 2 distinct trials, with or without KT. The washout period between trials was 6 weeks. For the KT condition, KT inhibition technique was used and applied immediately after exercise bilaterally on rectus femoris. Main outcome measures: Range of motion, muscle soreness, and edema were measured at baseline, 30 minutes, 24, 48, and 72 hours postexercise. Dynamic balance, sprint, and horizontal jump were evaluated at similar time frame except for 30-minute postexercise. Results: The findings showed that there were no significant differences between the KT group (KTG) and control group for all outcome variables (P > .05). Muscle soreness returned to baseline values 72 hours postexercise only within the KTG (P > .05). Although the horizontal jump performance decreased substantially from baseline to 24 and 48 hours postexercise only within the control group (P < .05), the performance increased significantly from 24 to 72 hours postexercise within the KTG (P < .05). Balance increased significantly from baseline to 48 hours postexercise (P < .05) in both groups. Balance also increased significantly from baseline to 72 hours postexercise only within the KTG (P < .05). The effect size of soreness which is our primary outcome was large in both groups (r > .5). Conclusions: KT is favorable in the recovery of muscle soreness after delayed onset muscle soreness. KT has beneficial effects on horizontal jump performance and dynamic balance.
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The Effectiveness of Kinesio Taping in Recovering From Delayed
Onset Muscle Soreness: A Crossover Study
Berkiye Kirmizigil, Jeffry Roy Chauchat, Omer Yalciner, Gozde Iyigun, Ender Angin, and Gul Baltaci
Context:Kinesio taping (KT) is a popular taping technique used in the recovery process; however, in the relevant literature, there
is no real consensus on its efcacy. Objective:To investigate whether rectus femoris KT application after delayed onset muscle
soreness enhances recovery of muscle soreness, edema, and physical performance. Participants:A total of 22 healthy amateur
male athletes participated in this study. Design:Randomized, crossover study. Setting:Human performance laboratory of the
university. Interventions:Participants performed an exercise protocol inducing delayed onset muscle soreness. They accom-
plished 2 distinct trials, with or without KT. The washout period between trials was 6 weeks. For the KT condition, KT inhibition
technique was used and applied immediately after exercise bilaterally on rectus femoris. Main Outcome Measures:Range of
motion, muscle soreness, and edema were measured at baseline, 30 minutes, 24, 48, and 72 hours postexercise. Dynamic balance,
sprint, and horizontal jump were evaluated at similar time frame except for 30-minute postexercise. Results:The ndings showed
that there were no signicant differences between the KT group (KTG) and control group for all outcome variables (P>.05).
Muscle soreness returned to baseline values 72 hours postexercise only within the KTG (P>.05). Although the horizontal jump
performance decreased substantially from baseline to 24 and 48 hours postexercise only within the control group (P<.05), the
performance increased signicantly from 24 to 72 hours postexercise within the KTG (P<.05). Balance increased signicantly
from baseline to 48 hours postexercise (P<.05) in both groups. Balance also increased signicantly from baseline to 72 hours
postexercise only within the KTG (P<.05). The effect size of soreness which is our primary outcome was large in both groups
(r>.5). Conclusions:KT is favorable in the recovery of muscle soreness after delayed onset muscle soreness. KT has benecial
effects on horizontal jump performance and dynamic balance.
Keywords:recovery, pain, edema, physical performance, Kinesio tape
Unaccustomed physical activity with high intensity and eccen-
tric contractions may cause muscle damage that may present itself as
delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS).
Indeed, DOMS is
accepted as a type I muscle strain.
Stiffness, soreness, and tenderness
of muscles are symptoms associated with DOMS.
These symptoms
generally appear within the rst 24 hours postexercise,
peak 24 to
72 hours postexercise,
and disappear from 5 to 7 days postexer-
Recovery techniques may help to expedite the process.
are many causes for the psychological discomfort associated with
DOMS, including muscle spasm, connective tissue and muscle
damages, accumulation of metabolites, an increase in creatine kinase
activity, and other inammatory markers (eg, tumor necrosis factor-
In addition to the muscle soreness, the structural changes in
muscle and connective tissue due to DOMS may impair muscle
functions and jointsmechanical properties.
Consequently, muscle
soreness and structural changes in soft tissues cause a decrease in the
jointsrange of motion (ROM), a swelling of muscles, and limited
functional movements.
Moreover, many researchers showed that
DOMS is associated with a substantial decline in strength and
In conclusion, DOMS adversely affects physical
performance by reducing muscle function and ROM with a concom-
itant increase in psychological discomforts, such as muscle soreness.
Elastic taping is known to be a popular recovery method.
The Kinesio taping (KT) is a type of elastic taping which stretches
up to 140% of its original length.
Many studies showed that KT
would have benecial effects on soreness by ameliorating muscle
inhibiting muscle activity,
increasing blood and lymph
and leading to neurological inhibition.
There are few studies that have investigated the potential
effects of KT on DOMS, which remained underresearched.
According to the relevant published studies, to date, there was no
consensus on how to apply KT. The KT cutting methods, amount
of stretch in the tape, and application techniques may vary.
For example, Boobphachart et al
used the KT facilitation tech-
nique before the exercise protocol on rectus femoris, vastus
medialis, and vastus lateralis muscles by stretching it up to 125%
of its original length. They found that elastic tape application on
quadriceps femoris recovered muscle strength and reduced muscle
soreness after 72 hours postintensive exercise. They proposed that
the reduction in muscle soreness might be due to blood and
lymphatic ow enhancement, and these 2 physiologic responses
along with increased stimulation of skin mechanoreceptors caused
by increased sensory feedback in the taped area might improve
muscle strength.
Similarly, Tajik et al
applied KT before fatigue
protocol, on the same muscles and direction. However, we should
note that the tension applied was different (stretched to 40% of
initial length). They showed that KT application did not have any
signicant effects on balance just after fatigue intervention. How-
ever, the KT group (KTG) had better scores in dynamic balance
compared with the control group (CG). They postulated that KT
Kirmizigil, Iyigun, Angin, and Baltaci are with the Department of Physiotherapy and
Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Sciences, Eastern Mediterranean University,
Famagusta, North Cyprus via Mersin 10, Turkey. Chauchat and Yalciner are
with the Department of Sports Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Eastern
Mediterranean University, Famagusta, North Cyprus via Mersin 10, Turkey.
Kirmizigil (, is cor-
responding author.
Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, (Ahead of Print)
© 2019 Human Kinetics, Inc. ORIGINAL RESEARCH REPORT
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enhances fatigued musclesproprioception, which may decrease
the joint error, and thereby positively affects balance.
Lee et al
applied tape perpendicularly to the biceps brachii muscle after an
intensive exercise. They demonstrated that KT is an effective
method in the recovery of biceps brachii muscle thickness and
strength after 72 hours post-DOMS protocol. According to them,
KT accelerates the recovery of muscle thickness by stimulating
γ-motor neurons. Furthermore, KT, by lifting the skin, facilitates
the removal of waste products and the increase of oxygen supply to
the muscle and thereby may induce a recovery of muscle strength.
Bae et al,
who used maximally lengthened Y-shaped KT on
biceps brachii muscle, and Lee et al
showed that KT decreases
soreness signicantly from 24 to 72 hours after an exercise
inducing DOMS. Both authors indicated that increased metabolic
activity due to muscle contraction reduces soreness.
In addition,
applying stretched KT in muscles pulls them and causes stimula-
tion of Golgi tendon organ, which induces neurologic suppression
resulting in pain reduction.
In contrast to the ndings of studies
reported previously, including Lee et als
ndings, in a crossover
study conducted by Ozmen et al,
KT was found out to be useless
in the recovery of DOMS and short sprint performance 48 hours
postexercise. However, the same study showed that KT maintained
exibility. They applied from origin to insertion of quadriceps
femoris muscle a Y-shaped KT with 25% tension on the tails
immediately before the exercise protocol. Ozmen et al
stated that
benecial effects of KT, such as increase blood and lymphatic
circulation, and stimulation of cutaneous mechanoreceptors might
improve exibility.
When we examined the relevant studies in the literature, we
noticed that the KT inhibition technique was not used on rectus
femoris muscle. This study aims to investigate whether the appli-
cation of rectus femoris KT inhibition technique after DOMS
enhances recovery of muscle soreness, edema, and physical per-
formance. Thus, we hypothesized that the perception of soreness,
level of edema, and athletic performance would be similar in KTG
and CG after an exercise inducing DOMS.
In this study, a priori sample size was calculated using statistical power
analysis by PASS 2005 software (NCSS Statistical Software, Kays-
ville, UT). The power analysis indicated that 20 participants were
needed for 80% power and 0.05 type 1 error (under the assumptions
lower limit = 0, upper limit = 10, true difference = 0.5, SD = 0.6,
alpha = .05, and beta = 0.20). In case of a potential dropout, the
estimated number of participants was increased by 30%. As a result,
the nal sample size was calculated as 26. Participants were randomly
assigned into 2 groups by a simple randomization technique (14 in the
KTG and 12 in the CG). Although there were 26 participants at the
beginning of this study, only 22 of them (mean (SD): age 21.36
[1.68] y; body height 178.14 [6.57] cm; body weight 79.43 [10.07] kg;
body mass index 25.03 [2.85] kg/m
; and sport age 5.73 [3.27] y)
completed the whole study as planned (see Figure 1). All the
participants were recreational athletes (ie, they were participating in
sports activities to be healthy and/or to have fun), and they were
attending aerobic-based activities at least 2 sessions per week. They
were informed to abstain from doing any lower body strength training
or unaccustomed physical exercise at least 1 week before the begin-
ning of this study. Participants who had any neuromuscular, cardio-
respiratory, neurologic diseases, or underwent any musculoskeletal
injuries over the last 6 months were excluded from this study.
The participants were also advised not to consume alcohol, take
nutritional supplements, participate in physical activities, and call on
other recovery techniques, such as analgesic drugs and cryotherapy,
throughout this study. Moreover, they were asked to maintain their
usual nutritional and water intake over the course of this study. Both
written and verbal information was given to all participants, and their
written informed consent was requested. The ethical approval for this
study was obtained from the Eastern Mediterranean University Health
Subcommittee in February 2018 (approval number: 2018/53-04).
This study was conducted in a randomized crossover design,
involving a KT intervention trial and a non-KT control trial with
a 6-week interval (washout) between the trials. While 14 of the
participants started this study in the KTG, the rest began the study
in the CG. Six weeks later, they crossed over to the other group.
Each trial lasted 5 days. To discard the potential effects of learning,
the rst day at least 48 hours prior testing was reserved for a
familiarization session about the different tests. An exercise proto-
col inducing DOMS was held on the second day. The results related
to the evaluation of edema, pain intensity, and ROM were mea-
sured for each group at baseline, 30 minutes, 24, 48, and 72 hours
postexercise. Meanwhile, the outcome variables related to the
assessments of balance, speed, and explosive power were taken
at similar time frame except there was no measurement at
30-minute postexercise. Physical performance tests and DOMS
induction were conducted at the same time of day (2:00 PM) to
avoid uctuations in physiological responses due to differences in
circadian rhythm. They also were conducted indoors in the human
performance laboratory of the university, which allowed for
climate and testing surfaces to remain more consistent. Verbal
encouragement was given to the participants during the physical
performance tests to ensure they were giving their best. All
measurements were performed by the same researcher.
Exercise Protocol Inducing DOMS
To generate DOMS, we used the drop jump that is an eccentric
exercise. Participants successively performed 5 sets of 20 drop
jumps from a 0.6 m high box with 10-second intervals between
each jump. The rest between sets were 2 minutes.
Taping Application
The 5-cm width Kinesio tape (Kinesio
Tex Gold
, Albuquerque,
NM) applied to the participants had a feature of being stretched to
140% of its original length. Moreover, due to its latex-free, cotton,
hypoallergenic, and porous characteristics, comfortable wear over a 3
to 5 days period was possible. Its water-resistant fabric insulated from
moisture and allowed the participants to bathe as usual.
Body hair
may prevent the tape from adhering directly to the skin. To avoid such
a case, the skin was shaved. Moreover, the skin was cleaned with
rubbing alcohol before applying the Kinesio tape. Similar to the study
conducted by Vercelli et al,
a certied physiotherapist applied KT
inhibition technique to the rectus femoris from the insertion to origin
with light tension (15%25% of available tension), to inhibit muscle
tension. We preferred to use this taping technique which may prevent
muscle spasm, a reason of DOMS. To be clear, the tape was cut in a Y
shape. While the rectus femoris was held in the stretching position, it
was surrounded bilaterally with the tails.
The tape was applied
immediately after the DOMS inducing exercise.
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Outcome Measures
Demographic and Anthropometric Evaluation. On day 1, all
demographic and anthropometric assessments were done. Chro-
nological and training ages were asked. Body height was measured
with a tape measure. Body weight was measured by a scale. Body
mass index was calculated by using the following formula: weight
(kg)/height (m)
Perceived Soreness. A visual analog scale ranging from 0 (no
pain)to10(unbearable/worst pain) was used to assess pain level.
Range of Motion. The exibility of quadriceps femoris muscle
was measured by using a goniometer.
The dominant knee
ROM was measured by using a goniometer, and the measure
was taken while the participant laid prone and held his knee at
full exion. The goniometer was positioned so that the goniometer
axis stayed still over the lateral epicondyle of the femur. The
stationary goniometer arm was aligned parallel to the longitudinal
axis of the femur, aligned with the greater trochanter, while the
mobile arm was placed parallel to the longitudinal axis of the bula,
aligned with the lateral malleolus.
Figure 1 Consort ow diagram showing the ow of participants through each stage of the randomized crossover trial. CG indicates control group;
KTG, Kinesio taping group.
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Level of Edema. The level of edema was detected by measuring
the circumference of the middle of rectus femoris. As the described
in the study of Sellwood et al,
we palpated for the anterior
superior iliac spine and the superior margin of the patella, and then
marked with a pen to record the length of the femur by using a tape
measure. Next, we found the midpoint between the anterior super-
ior iliac spine and superior margin of the patella by using a tape
measure again and marked with a pen.
Sprint Performance. Sprint measurements were conducted using
photocells placed at 0 and 20 m (Newtest Oy 20072010, Oulu,
Finland). The participants stood 1 m behind the starting line, started
on a verbal signal, and then ran to complete the 20 m distance as
fast as they could.
All of them completed 3 runs. They rested
1 minute between each run. The mean sprint time was retained for
the analyses.
Horizontal Jump Performance. The horizontal jump perfor-
mance was assessed by using the double-leg hop test. The parti-
cipants started in a standing position with their toes just behind the
starting line. They began the jumping movement by swinging their
arms and bending their knees to provide maximal forward drive.
Subjects were asked to jump as far forward as possible and to land
on 2 feet. The jump-length measurement was determined using a
metric tape measure, from the takeoff line to the nearest point of
landing contact (ie, the back of the heels).
Each subject completed
3 attempts. The rest between attempts was 1 minute. The mean of
the 3 jump distances was taken.
Dynamic Balance. We used a computer-based balance device
(PK200WL; Prokin TecnoBody, Bergamo, Italy) such as the one
used by Birinci and Demirbas.
However, the disequilibrium
assessment was chosen to test dynamic balance on bipedal stance
for 30 seconds (see Figures 2and 3). In this test, the subject sees
some gates that come against, and the aim is to enter into those
gates and to maintain the board as rm as possible. Four difculty
levels are available in the test (monoaxial, easy, medium, and hard).
As the participants were recreational athletes, an easy base was
chosen. This test provides us with the distance medium error
(DME), which shows the participantsability to move themselves
correctly into the gates. If the participants moved away from the
gates, the DME (%) would be high.
Subjects were asked to
complete 3 attempts, interspersed by 1-minute intervals. The mean
of the 3 attempts was recorded.
Statistical Analysis. All statistical analysis was performed by
using IBM SPSS 22 package (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL). Before
statistical tests were used, we checked potential outliers and missing
data. Normal distribution assumptions of the data were checked with
ShapiroWilk test. As P<.05 data were not normally distributed, we
used nonparametric tests. The Friedman test was used to detect
signicant differences within the group. Meanwhile, for multiple
comparisons within the group, we used the post hoc Dunn test. The
MannWhitney Utest was used to detect signicant differences
between groups. Statistical signicance was set at P<.05.
The r=z/p(n×2)formula is used to determine the effect
size of the changes over time in the KTG and CG. Effect sizes were
interpreted as small (r.1), moderate (r= .30), and large (r.5).
The characteristics of the participants were displayed in Table 1.
Figure 2 Dynamic balance test (disequilibrium assessment).
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The results related to the evaluation of edema, pain intensity,
and ROM were displayed in Table 2. Meanwhile, the outcome
variables related to the assessments of balance, speed, and explo-
sive power were shown in Table 3.
Control group muscle soreness remained substantially ele-
vated 30 minutes, 24, and 48 hours postexercise compared with
baseline (P<.001, condence interval [CI] = 1.7 [0.10 to 6.6];
P=<.001, CI = 1.9 [0.10 to 5.4]; P=<.001, CI = 2.7 [0.3 to 9.2],
respectively). In the meantime, muscle soreness remained also
signicantly elevated 24 and 48 hours postexercise compared
with baseline within the KTG (P=<.001, CI = 2.8 [0.2 to 6.2];
P=<.001, CI = 2.8 [0.1 to 6.4], respectively). Even if muscle
soreness remained signicantly elevated 30-minute postexercise
Figure 3 Dynamic balance test (disequilibrium assessment) results.
Table 1 ParticipantsCharacteristics
N Mean (SD)
Age, y 22 21.36 (1.68)
Height, cm 22 178.14 (6.57)
Weight, kg 22 79.43 (10.07)
BMI, kg/m
22 25.03 (2.85)
Sport age, y 22 5.73 (3.27)
Training sessions per week (number) 22 3.77 (1.48)
Abbreviation: BMI, body mass index.
Table 2 Evaluation of Pain, Edema, and Range of Motion
Variables Groups Baseline Post 30 min Post 24 h Post 48 h Post 72 h
VAS (out of 10) CG 0.51 (0.34) 2.17 (1.50)
2.45 (1.84)
3.16 (2.36)
1.98 (2.00)
KTG 0.68 (0.67) 2.35 (1.82)
3.52 (2.02)
3.46 (1.84)
1.76 (1.52)
Mid-thigh circumference, cm CG 60.05 (4.27) 60.57 (4.51) 60.65 (4.20) 60.58 (4.53)
60.58 (4.25)
KTG 59.80 (4.16) 60.16 (4.25) 60.27 (4.28) 60.56 (4.08)
60.11 (4.22)
Knee exion, deg CG 122.68 (6.12) 124.32 (6.23) 121.45 (7.24) 118.64 (8.59) 118.45 (9.47)
KTG 123.23 (7.86) 122.82 (7.29) 123.09 (8.28) 122.50 (8.08) 117.77 (24.87)
Abbreviations: CG, control group; KTG, Kinesio taping group; VAS, visual analog scale. Note: Data are represented by mean (SD).
Signicant difference from baseline.
Signicant difference from 48 to 72 hours postexercise.
Signicant difference from 24 to 72 hours postexercise.
difference from 30 minutes to 24 hours postexercise.
Signicant difference from 30 minutes to 48 hours postexercise.
Signicant difference from 30 minutes to 72 hours
postexercise (P<.05).
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compared with baseline (P= .01) within KTG, CI was 1.7 (0.3 to
4.3). Muscle soreness remained substantially elevated 72 hours
postexercise compared with baseline (P=<.001) within the CG but
CI was 1.5 (0.8 to 6.7). On the other side, it returned to baseline
values 72 hours postexercise within the KTG. Although there was
a signicant drop in muscle soreness from 24 to 72 hours postex-
ercise (P= .01) within the KTG, CI was 1.8 (5.6 to 1.9). Other-
wise, there was a signicant increase in muscle soreness from
30 minutes to 24 hours postexercise in the KTG (P= .03) but CI
was found 1.7 (1.5 to 6.5).
Meanwhile, as shown in Table 2, there was a signicant
increase in the level of edema from baseline to 48 hours postexer-
cise in both groups (P<.001 in CG and P= .01 in KTG). However,
from baseline to 48 hours postexercise, CI was 0.8 (0.4 to 2.4) in
KTG and 0.53 (4.3 to 2.6) in CG.
No signicant time effect was found in the knee-exion ROM
among the KTG (P>.05).
In both groups, speed decreased signicantly only from baseline
to 24 hours postexercise (P= .02 in CG and P= .04 in KTG), but CI
was 0.01 (0.3 to 5) in KTG and 0.1 (0.1 to 0.7) in CG.
There were substantial decreases in the horizontal jump
performance from baseline to 24 and 48 hours postexercise
(P= .04 and P=<.001, respectively) within the CG. However,
CI values were 7(46 to 10) and 7.7 (26 to 2), respectively.
In addition, there was a signicant increase in the horizontal
jump performance from 24 to 72 hours postexercise within the
KTG (P<.001); however, CI was 1.5 (2.2 to 6.1).
The DME in the disequilibrium assessment decreased signi-
cantly from baseline to 48 hours postexercise in both groups
(P= .03 in CG and P= .02 in KTG), but CI was 0.9 (4.1 to
0.5) in CG and 0.6 (1.8 to 0.8) in KTG.
There were no differences between the groups at all times, at
any parameters (P>.05). In addition, the effect size of our primary
outcome (ie, soreness) was found large in both groups (r= .72 in
both groups). Apart from the effect size of KT balance value which
is large (r= .53), all other parameterseffect size were moderate in
both groups (0.1 <r<.5).
This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of rectus femoris
KT application on muscle soreness, edema, and athletic perfor-
mance in recovery from a DOMS inducing exercise in young male
recreational athletes. The results of this study showed that signi-
cant changes occurred in variables, such as muscle soreness;
explosive power (ie, horizontal jump); and balance, in both groups.
However, unlike the CG, recovery of muscle soreness occurred
72 hours postexercise compared with baseline in the KTG.
Although signicant drops in the horizontal jump performance
occurred from baseline to 24 and 48 hours postexercise in CG,
no signicant changes were identied in the KTG. In fact, a
substantial increase in the horizontal jump performance happened
from 24 to 72 hours postexercise in the KTG. While balance
performance increased signicantly in both groups from baseline to
48 hours postexercise, balance performance increased signicantly
from baseline to 72 hours postexercise only within the KTG.
There are different methods inducing DOMS (eg, plyometric
exercise, isokinetic dynamometry, running-based exercises, cycling,
free weight exercises, squat, drop jump, match, or training).
drop jump protocol was used as a method in this study. Many studies
related to DOMS showed that muscle soreness tended to increase
within 24 hours postexercise, peaked at 48 hours postexercise, and
started to decrease 72 hours postexercise.
The results of this
study are in line with the literature.
Muscle soreness began
30 minutes postexercise, gradually increased over time, and peaked
at 48 hours postexercise in both groups. While muscle soreness
returned to its baseline value 72 hours postexercise in the KTG, it
remained signicantly elevated 72 hours postexercise compared
with baseline in the CG. Many studies in the literature investigated
the potential effects of KT on the level of tenderness after a high-
intensive exercise.
Few of the published studies, such as this
study, were about the lower-extremity. Ozmen et al,
who applied
Y-shaped KT on quadriceps femoris muscle from origin to insertion,
demonstrated that muscle soreness increased 48 hours postexercise
compared with baseline in the KTG. No changes were found in the
intergroups. Therefore, they concluded that KT was not an efcient
method to reduce muscle pain.
Likewise, Boobphachart et al,
used KT facilitation technique on supercial muscles of the quadri-
ceps femoris, found out that muscle soreness remained elevated
72 hours postexercise compared with baseline in the elastic taping
group. However, muscle soreness was lower at 72 hours postexercise
in the KTG compared with the placebo group.
In addition, studies
about the effects of KT on upper-extremity DOMS showed that
soreness did not diminish48 or 72 hours postexercise compared with
baseline; however, soreness decreased 72 hours postexercise com-
pared with 24 hours in KTG.
Unlike this study, other studies used
different KT techniques or application tension. Except us, in none of
the published studies, KT provided a recovery in muscle soreness
from baseline to 72 hours postexercise. Several explanations are put
forward to explain the favorable effects of KT on muscle soreness.
First , the accumulation of lymphatic uids may cause increased
pressure on tissue that may consequently cause pain. KT enhances
lymphatic circulation in the application area by lifting the skin away
from the tissue beneath. This lifting action can help to relieve
pressure on nociceptors directly under the skin and to remove the
Table 3 Biomotor Abilities Performance Tests
Variables Groups Baseline Post 24 h Post 48 h Post 72 h
20-m sprint time, s CG 3.34 (0.15) 3.45 (0.20)
3.44 (0.21) 3.39 (0.18)
KTG 3.39 (0.16) 3.48 (0.25)
3.45 (0.20) 3.46 (0.20)
Horizontal jump, cm CG 211.00 (16.47) 204.05 (21.72)
203.32 (18.75)
205.23 (18.78)
KTG 206.41 (18.87) 202.41 (19.58) 205.91 (17.98) 209.59 (18.38)
Disequilibrium assessment/distance medium error, % CG 1.62 (1.84) 0.85 (0.73) 0.69 (0.71)
0.76 (0.82)
KTG 1.20 (0.83) 0.92 (0.68) 0.59 (0.55)
0.50 (0.44)
Abbreviations: CG, control group; KTG, Kinesio taping group. Note: Data are mean (SD).
Signicant difference from baseline.
Signicant difference from 24 to 72 hours postexercise (P<.05).
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accumulated metabolites. Thus, it could decrease muscle soreness
quicker in the early period of DOMS.
Second, the alteration of
muscle soreness could be attributed to the gate control theory. KT
increases the afferent stimulus to large diameter nerve bers, and
therefore, the afferent input received by thin diameter nerve bers,
such as nociceptors is reduced, and less pain is felt.
Third, KT
triggers the Golgi tendon organ by pulling the muscles, which causes
inhibition of the contraction which is called autogenic inhibition.
Fourth, KT is thought to increase blood circulation and muscle
temperature by stimulating the vasomotor reex. This increased
metabolism may decrease pain.
KT stimulates the cutaneous fusi-
motor reex which in turn generates muscle contraction. Lymphatic
and blood circulation is increased when muscle contraction occurs.
In this study, the recovery of muscle soreness occurred 72 hours
postexercise when KT inhibition technique and paper-off tension
were applied. This nding could be attributed to the increased blood
and lymphatic circulation generated by the cutaneous fusimotor and
vasomotor reexes, which in turn increased the removal of meta-
bolites and increased muscle oxygenation. As KT was applied along
the muscle from insertion to the origin, the proprioceptors which are
sensitive to changes in muscle length are thought to be stimulated
and thereby generating inhibition of muscle which could also explain
the recovery of muscle soreness.
Edema limits mobility which is a signicant biomotor ability
in sports. Inammation due to micro tears occurring in muscle
bers or connective tissue damage is likely to be present particu-
larly after the eccentric exercises inducing DOMS.
the likelihood of muscle spasticity and swelling grows, and there-
fore, routine daily activities are adversely affected.
As shown in
the study conducted by Pop et al,
using their own KT method with
%10 tension had positive effects on the level of edema. In fact, KT
reduced by 55% lymphedema after mastectomy. Pop et al
that direction of the tapesapplication (ie, from the most distant part
of the edema limb to the proximal part) has an effect on the
reduction of the volume of lymphedema.
Likewise, ultrasound
muscle thickness measurements conducted by Lee et al
after an
exercise inducing DOMS showed that perpendicular KT applica-
tion was an effective method to decrease the level of edema. They
suggested that stimulation of γ-motor neurons by KT caused a
reduction of edema.
In contrast, the results of another study which
used KT facilitation technique indicated that KT application after
DOMS did not attenuate muscle swelling.
In this study, we used
the inhibition technique. However, KT application did not prevent
the development of edema. Different KT modality used to prevent
edema might be the reason for explaining the discrepancy in the
literature. We could also hypothesize that the amount of edema
generated after DOMS is not as much as lymphedema, which might
be the underlying reason why KT application was less benecial in
the recovery of edema in this study.
Decreased exibility is a relevant risk factor for musculoskel-
etal injuries. Various studies showed that acute KT application
improved the shoulder joint ROM in overhead athletes
healthy sedentary people,
and the ankle joint ROM in duath-
However, we should note that there is inconsistency in the
literature about the potential effects of KT application on ROM
after an exercise. Although Merino-Marban et al
showed that
I-shaped KT application with %10 tension did not affect ankle
ROM in duathletes after an exercise, Eom et al,
who used the
same KT application technique that we also used, indicated that KT
had benecial effects in university students. Moreover, Boobpha-
chart et al
concluded that KT application was not effective in the
recovery of ROM immediately and 24 hours postexercise inducing
DOMS. However, ROM returned to baseline values 48 hours
postexercise. They evoked that lifting the skin in the taped area
reduces the loading of the underlying fascia or connective tissue,
and the circulation and cutaneous mechanoreceptors stimulation
may affect the ROM.
In this study, no signicant effect over time
was observed for ROM in the KTG. In the meantime, even though
edema persisted, we noticed that ROM did not diminish in the
KTG. We applied the KT inhibition technique on rectus femoris
muscle while it was stretched. We thought that the maintenance or
improvement of ROM could be due to the neurologic suppression
generated by the stimulation of Golgi tendon organ. In addition, KT
improves blood and lymphatic circulation which may also improve
The proprioceptive system which is essential for balance is
affected adversely by inammatory substances or metabolites.
Although the way about how KT affected balance was not yet fully
understood, a study demonstrated that KT induced changes in the
skin surface, dermis, and epidermis which could support physio-
logical pathways enhancing balance.
According to Bischoff
et al,
the development of proprioceptive skills might also be
due to this fact. Nonelite soccer playersbalance decreased after
a protocol inducing fatigue in both CG and KTG. However, the
decrease in the KTG was signicantly lower than the CG. Tajik
et al
attributed these results to the plausible effects of KT in
mitigating the adverse effects of fatigue on balance. To be more
precise, KT improves blood ow and thereby oxygen supply to the
tissues. Consequently, this situation helps the removal of metabo-
In this study, we noticed that a substantial decrease of DME
still occurred from baseline to 72 hours postexercise only in the
KTG. The same physiologic mechanism underlined by Tajik et al
may explain why KT had benecial effects on balance in this study.
Delayed onset muscle soreness induced by unaccustomed
physical activities reduced explosive power.
In a study conducted
by Aktas and Baltaci,
the single-leg hop test performance
increased signicantly and progressed the best in the group using
both quadriceps muscle technique and patellar mechanical correc-
tion technique (KT) compared with the brace group and the brace
plus KTG. They postulated that the favorable effects of KT on
performance were assignable to an increase of circulation and a
tactile input enhancement, which modulates the excitability of the
central nervous system resulting in an increase of motor unit ring.
We used the double-leg hop test to assess the horizontal jump
performance, and similarly to Aktas and Baltaci,
we found out that
performance did not decrease in any time frame compared with
baseline and increased signicantly from 24 to 72 hours postexer-
cise only in the KTG. Applying KT on rectus femoris which are
known to generate power to thrust the body forward
may increase
the skin mechanoreceptors stimulation. The improvement of explo-
sive power may be explained by 2 following different reasons: the
mechanoreceptors stimulation rst provides information about
joint position and movement to decrease joint error, and second
increases motor unit ring which is a physiologic mechanism
argued previously by Aktas and Baltaci.
Sprint is a complex sports task with different phases.
running, the highest power is generated by the ankle plantar exors
for the complete stride cycle compared with other lower-extremity
joints. One of the main functions of knee extensors is to maintain
the center of mass height while running. However, the contribution
of knee extensors is negligible during the stance phase of the stride
Instead, Y-shaped facilitation KT technique with paper-off
tension applied on quadriceps muscle improved the 30-yd sprint
performance in a study.
However, same KT cut and technique
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The Effectiveness of KT in Recovering From DOMS 7
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with 120% tension had no effect on 10-m sprint performance in
another study.
Likewise, Y-shaped facilitation KT technique
applied to male athletesgluteal muscles and young healthy adult
womens quadriceps femoris muscle did not have an effect on their
20-m sprint performance after an exhaustive exercise protocol.
In this study, KT application resulted in similar sprint time as the
CG compared with baseline. We thought that the underlying reason
why KT application did not improve sprint performance in this
study was due to the minimal contribution of the quadriceps muscle
group during this complex task.
Finally, there are some limitations in this study. First, the
sample size is small. Second, the ndings of this study should only
be applied to young recreational athletes.
Implications for Practice, Education, and Future
The ndings obtained in this study suggest that KT could be
applied after an unaccustomed or eccentric physical exercise to
reduce muscle soreness. The application of KT can be worthy of
recommendation to improve performance during training based on
explosive power or balance.
Further studies are needed to nd out whether the effects of KT
differ in professional athletes and athletes with chronic symptoms
accompanying knee problems due to the rectus femoris weakness.
Furthermore, additional research is needed to nd out the most
convenient KT application technique for recovery.
Muscle soreness returned to baseline values 72 hours postexercise
only within the KTG. Balance improved from baseline to 72 hours
postexercise only in the KTG. KT had a favorable effect on horizontal
jump performance from 24 to 72 hours postexercise only in the KTG.
The KTG and CG had similar results related to the midbelly
circumference of quadriceps, sprint performance, and ROM.
The authors would like to thank Assist. Professor Levent Eker, MD for the
valuable guidance in statistics of this study. This project was supported by
Kinesio Taping Association International (KTAI) Research Committee.
The authors conrm that there is no conict of interest, nancial, and
personal relationship with other people or organizations that could inap-
propriately inuence (bias) this study.
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The Effectiveness of KT in Recovering From DOMS 9
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... 8 The application of the KT on injured soft tissues has some physiological effects such as improving lymphatic and blood circulation, reducing pain or edema, and facilitating the movement of tendons and fascia. [8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15] To date, NS alone or in combination with other conservative managements has been indicated the most preferred method in the treatment of CTS and, indeed, has been demonstrated superior treatment outcomes. 3,16 However, to the best of our knowledge, the efficacy of KT along with physical therapy intervention has not been investigated for the treatment of bilateral moderate CTS. ...
... 8 Studies proposed that KT could alleviate pain, decrease pressure below the skin, improve muscle activation, and realign joints. [9][10][11][12][13][14] The main mechanism behind the improvements in our study of KT can be explained as follows. First, the fascia correction technique might have created a lifting effect on the superficial fascia that increases the space underneath and thereby reduce the pressure. ...
... 9 Third, the muscle correction technique might have altered the pressure and tension on sensitive mechanoreceptors in muscles fibers and stimulated afferent nerve fibers depending on the direction of application. 11 This may significantly decrease motor neuron activity and muscle tone during movement. The induced activation of mechanoreceptors can be increased through motor muscles and thereby might lessen self-reported disability. ...
Objective: To compare the effects of kinesio taping (KT) and night splinting (NS) along with physical therapy intervention on symptoms in patients with moderate carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) undergoing rehabilitation. Design: In this double-blind, randomized controlled trial, forty-five patients with moderate CTS were included and randomly assigned to three groups: KT Group (n = 15), NS Group (n = 15), and control group (CG) (n = 15). All patients received 20 physical therapy intervention sessions. The primary outcome was self-reported disability status measured by the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire, and secondary outcomes were pain and paresthesia (rest, activity, and night) measured by the Numeric Rating Scale. Outcomes were recorded at baseline and four weeks. Results: All patients showed clinically meaningful improvements for all outcome measures over time (p < 0.05). The intergroup analysis revealed that the KT group demonstrated better results in all measures than the NS (p < 0.05) except for pain during activity (p = 0.054), at night (p = 0.191), and paresthesia at rest (p = 0.575). Additionally, the KT group showed better outcomes than the CG (p < 0.05) except for the activity pain (p = 0.022). However, there were negligible differences between NS and CG (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Kinesio taping in combination with physical therapy intervention is more effective than NS in combination with physical therapy intervention or physical therapy intervention alone and may be recommended.
... For VTG, VT was given after DOMS moulding. For KTG, Y-shaped binding was conducted for 15 min before DOMS moulding (Kirmizigil et al., 2019). After moulding, when VTG performed vibration intervention, KTG sat and rested. ...
... The "Y" ligation of the bilateral knees of KTG and JIG was conducted by a professional physical therapist 15 min before DOMS moulding (Kirmizigil et al., 2019) (KT was provided by the LP Support company, specification: 5 cm × 5 m, color: blue), stretched to 125% of the original length (Boobphachart et al., 2017). (Figure 2). ...
Full-text available
Objective: Kinesio taping (KT) and vibration treatment (VT) can alleviate delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) to some extent. However, the literature reports on the difference between the two treatments, and whether a joint intervention (JI) works better than single treatments remains unknown. This study compares the effects of KT, VT and JI on DOMS in college students. Methods: A total of 88 college students were randomly divided into the KT (KTG, n = 21), VT (VTG, n = 22), JI (JIG, n = 23) and control (CG, n = 22) groups. All subjects underwent DOMS moulding. The baseline; immediate and 24, 48 and 72 h visual analogue scale (VAS) scores and knee extensor maximum isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC) were determined. Results: The intergroup comparison showed the following results. 1) The VAS scores of the four groups peaked at 24 h and gradually decreased. The immediate, 24 h and 48 h VAS scores followed the order: JIG > KTG and VTG > CG. The 72 h VAS score followed the order: KTG < VTG < JIG < CG. 2) The knee extension MIVC in the four groups was lowest at 24 h and then gradually increased. JIG had larger immediate MIVC than CG. KTG, VTG and JIG had larger 24 h MIVC than CG. JIG had larger 48 h MIVC than KTG and CG. Conclusion: KT and VT can reduce muscle pain and strength loss caused by DOMS to varying degrees. VT is better than KT in improving pain. The combined intervention worked better than single interventions.
... KT is adopted to improve function, stability, and proprioception [17][18][19] and enhance muscle contraction and force production in painful musculoskeletal conditions [15,19,20]. By improving proprioception and muscle activation, KT may favorably influence injury risk [19,21,22]. Applying KT at a stretch greater than 50 % can help correct the knee valgus position [19,21] and improve jump performance [18,23]. ...
This study aimed to measure the acute effects of Kinesio taping at different stretches on tuck jump performance in active individuals. Seventy-five males (23.01 ± 2.24 years, 178.35 ± 8.12 cm, 72.47 ± 6.58 kg) were randomly distributed into three groups: (1) Kinesio taping without stretch, (2) Kinesio taping with approximately 50% stretch, and (3) Kinesio taping with approximately 75% stretch. The tuck jump performance of all participants was determined at baseline, immediately after applying Kinesio taping, and 24 and 72 hours later. The participants' tuck jump performance did not improve immediately after the Kinesio taping application, 24 hours and 72 hours after the application. No significant differences were found between the Kinesio taping groups at any time point (p>0.05). This study demonstrated no effects of Kinesio taping on neuromuscular performance.
... delayed onset muscle soreness by elevating the skin and thus improving the muscle oxygenation [14][15][16] . KT has also been shown to be highly effective in improving the performance of countermovement jumping tasks 17 and in alleviating the effects of muscle fatigue 18,19 when applied to the gastrocnemius muscle in healthy subjects. ...
Full-text available
Kinesio taping (KT) is widely used in sports for performance improvement and injury prevention. However, little is known of the behavior of the muscle region beneath the KT with movement, particularly when the muscle is fatigued. Accordingly, this study investigated the changes in the medial gastrocnemius muscle architecture and fascia thickness when using KT during maximum isometric plantar flexion (MVIC) and badminton lunges following heel rise exercises performed to exhaustion. Eleven healthy collegiate badminton players (4 males and 7 females) were recruited. All of the participants performed two tasks (MVIC and badminton lunge) with a randomized sequence of no taping, KT and sham taping and repeated following exhaustive repetitive heel rise exercise. In the MVIC task, the fascia thickness with the medial gastrocnemius muscle at rest significantly decreased following fatigue induction both without taping and with KT and sham taping (p = 0.036, p = 0.028 and p = 0.025, respectively). In the lunge task, the fascia thickness reduced after fatigue induction in the no taping and sham taping trials; however, no significant change in the fascia thickness occurred in the KT trials. Overall, the results indicate that KT provides a better effect during dynamic movement than in isometric contraction.
... Therefore, as it takes part in generating energy for the posterior sural muscle unit, pressure there decreases, and, consequently, that of the plantar fascia due to its integration with GAPS [15]. These data are consistent with the benefits obtained in previous research [31][32][33]. ...
Full-text available
Background: Plantar fasciitis is a painful disorder that affects the plantar fascia of the foot, with a multifactorial aetiology. Dorsal flexion deficiency in the ankle is a risk factor for it. The provisional use of taping is described as part of conservative treatment. Dynamic Tape® is a type of tape that, adhered to muscles, allows for potential elastic energy to accumulate and dissipate later, optimizing its function. Therefore, it can offer immediate benefits while the patient awaits definitive treatment depending on the cause. Objective: To verify the effectiveness of Dynamic Tape® and the low-dye taping technique on pain intensity, ankle range of motion, and foot posture index. Method: A randomised, double-blind clinical trial was conducted. A total of 57 subjects from the Clinical Podiatry Area of the University of Seville (Spain), clinically diagnosed with plantar fasciitis, were randomized into two groups. For one week, in the gastrocnemius-Achilles-plantar system, one group was treated with Dynamic Tape® and another group with low-dye taping. Pain, degrees of movement of dorsal flexion, and the foot posture index were measured in both groups before the intervention and one week after the intervention. A repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to explore the differences between groups. Results: Significant differences in the decrease in pain intensity using Dynamic Tape® were found when comparing the treatments (p = 0.015) and the foot posture index was more normal in low-dye taping (p < 0.001). In both cases, the treatment showed similar behaviour with respect to the dorsal flexion ankle movement. Conclusion: The effectiveness of Dynamic Tape®, compared to that of the low-dye taping, has a major benefit with regard to pain intensity from fasciitis, although it does not produce changes in the ankle range of motion and foot posture index. Consequently, Dynamic Tape® can be considered a taping technique with beneficial effects on pain intensity in the provisional approach to plantar fasciitis.
... KEYWORDS athletes, delayed muscle soreness, vibration, pain index, peak torque, serum index Introduction Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) easily occurs after the performance of unaccustomed sports or unaccustomed movements. DOMS occurs within 8-24 h after intense centrifugal movement, it peaks within 72 h, gradually eases and recovers within approximately 1 week (1,2). Several hypotheses for the mechanisms of DOMS development exist and are based on lactic acid accumulation, muscle spasms, connective tissue and muscle injuries, inflammation and enzyme loss (3,4). ...
Full-text available
Background The effect of stimulation with different vibration frequencies on delayed muscle soreness (DOMS) has not yet been determined. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of medium- and high-frequency vertical vibration stimulation on DOMS in track and field athletes. Methods A total of 38 elite men's track and field athletes were recruited during the off-season. Through the digital randomization method, the participants were divided into three groups. Two-knee DOMS modeling was performed on the medium-frequency group (MFG, 25 Hz, n = 13), high-frequency group (HFG, 50 Hz, n = 12) and control group (CG, 0 Hz, n = 13). The three groups were matched in age, height and body mass. Vertical vibration stimulation was performed for 10 min on the MFG and HFG. Visual analog score (VAS); interleukin-6 (IL-6), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) levels and knee extension peak torque (PT) were determined immediately and at 24, 48, and 72 h after vibration. Results The 48 and 72 h VASs of the HFG were lower than those of the MFG and CG. The immediate and 24 and 48 h IL-6 concentrations in the HFG were lower than those in the CG. The 24 h IL-6 concentration in the HFG was lower than that in the MFG and that in the MFG was lower than that in the CG. LDH concentrations at different time points did not differ amongst groups. Immediate and 24 h CK concentrations were lower in the HFG than in the CG. The immediate and 24, 48, and 72 h knee extensions at 60°/s PT were lower in the HFG than in the CG. The immediate and 24 and 48 h knee extension at 60 °/s PT in the MFG were lower than those in the CG. The 24 h knee extension (240°/s peak torque) value in the HFG was lower than that in the CG. Conclusion Stimulation with 50 Hz (amplitude of 3 mm) vibration can reduce the muscle pain, IL-6 and CK concentrations and knee extension loss caused by DOMS. However, stimulation with 25 Hz (amplitude of 3 mm) vibration had poor effects. Results suggested that high-frequency vibration training is an effective strategy for relieving DOMS after intensive training.
Full-text available
Study aim : The aim of this study was to present the Support Your Recovery Needs (SYRN) recovery system based on scientifically confirmed methods, addressing the needs of athletes based on their subjective feelings of fatigue after training or competition. Material and methods : The literature on supporting post-exercise recovery was reviewed. This was followed by an analysis of the effectiveness of selected methods. A time factor was imposed on the selected methods for which efficacy was confirmed. Depending on the type of stimulus and the time of its application, regenerative effects were assigned point values. Results : Within the SYRN approach over a dozen treatments and actions promoting post-exercise recovery have been identified. Conclusions : A methodical and organized approach should allow for the selection of recovery support methods based on their effectiveness, appropriate timing, and the combination of various methods to enhance post-exercise recovery and performance.
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[Purpose] In the Kinesio Taping® (KT) method, no objective method has been established to measure the length of tape to be cut based on the elongation percentage. Therefore, a method using a simple regression model was devised and verified. [Participants and Methods] Two types of KT were cut in the range of 10 to 50 cm. The six single regression models used to calculate the length of KT to be cut with the release paper attached were created based on elongation data and the required elongation percentage. [Results] All simple regression models were 100% predictive. [Conclusion] The six simple regression models controlling for elongation percentage proved to be a useful method.
Purpose: Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is characterized by pain around the patella during functional actıvıty. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the new method of applying the patellar Kinesio taping (KT). Materials and methods: Participants with PFP were randomly assigned to a Kinesio star taping (n = 14), placebo taping (n = 12), or control group (n = 13). Knee pain intensity during activity, resting, at night-time and during buckling were measured using the visual analogue scale under both KT, placebo taping, and home exercising before and after six weeks. Oedema, performance, knee function, and muscle strength were assessed with circumferential measurement, the Kujala questionnaire, vertical jumps, a 10-step down test, squat test, triple jump test, respectively, in all groups before and after taping. Results: Decreases were detected in pain in each group (p < 0.05) but there were no differences in pain during activity, and buckling in the three groups before and after taping (p > 0.05). Performances and knee functions showed similar results in all groups before and after taping (p > 0.05). The outcomes of all tapings showed that there were no differences between the groups in terms of oedema (p > 0.05), the knee functions (p > 0.05), and muscles strength on the affected and unaffected sides, there were no significant differences between inter and intra groups (p > 0.05). Conclusions: A 6-week new technique star taping together with home-based exercises have similar effects with placebo taping and home exercise groups on oedema, pain, performance, function in PFP. The effects of star taping technique may be determined in future studies as long- and short-term in different types of injuries.
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Purpose Although Kinesio Taping has been extensively used, evidence about the effect of Kinesio Taping is still insufficient. The aim is to determine the effect of Kinesio Taping on elbow joint torque and muscle activity in time and frequency domains. Materials and Methods Thirty-eight healthy subjects were (27 females and 11 males) randomly divided into control and Kinesio Taping groups. Kinesio Taping was applied over biceps brachii muscle in Kinesio Taping group, whereas no taping was applied to control group. Maximum elbow joint torque and electromyography activity in time and frequency domains were assessed during maximum isometric contraction of biceps brachii muscle at baseline, after 10 min, 30 min, and 24 h. Repeated measure ANOVA and mixed ANOVA tests were used for in-group and between-group comparisons, respectively. Results Elbow joint torques among four assessment sessions were statistically altered in Kinesio Taping group and greater in Kinesio Taping group than in control group (F(3,57)= 3.317, p = 0.026, ηp2 = 0.149; F(3,108)=3.325, p = 0.022, ηp2 = 0.085; respectively). No difference was found in time domain muscle activity among assessment sessions in each group and comparison of groups (p > 0.05). Low-gamma band activity was changed among assessment sessions in Kinesio Taping group (F(3,57)= 6.946, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.268) while group × time interaction was not determined. Conclusions Kinesio Taping may influence joint torque of elbow more than without Kinesio Taping condition in 24th hour but the interpretation of this effect as a muscle strength enhancement compared with baseline can be arguable. Even if Kinesio Taping could not affect muscle activity in time domain, low-gamma band activity which is closely related to somatosensorial input may reach highest magnitude 24 h after Kinesio Taping.
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IntroductionThe use of Kinesio tape (KT) to improve proprioception is a matter of considerable debate. In comparison, the rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament is a sufficiently well-investigated injury with a proven compromise of proprioception. The objective of the present study was to assess a supportive effect on proprioception after KT application, taking the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture as an example. Materials and methodsForty-eight patients who had suffered an ACL rupture, confirmed clinically and by magnetic resonance imaging, and who were treated conservatively or were awaiting surgery were included in this study. In all patients, a gait analysis was performed on the affected leg before and after KT application. In addition, the IKDC score, the Lysholm score, stability using the Rolimeter, and the angle reproduction test were determined. ResultsThirty-nine men and nine women who had had an ACL rupture for at least 3 weeks were included in the study. Significant improvements were achieved on the affected knee joint for the gait analysis parameters touchdown and unrolling, cadence, stability and stance phase as well as an extension of the hip joint. The Lysholm score improved from 79.3 to 85.8 (p < 0.001) and the IKDC score from 60.2 to 71.3 points (p < 0.001). Significant improvements were achieved in the Rolimeter and angle reproduction test. Conclusions The use of KT has a positive effect on proprioception in patients with an anterior cruciate ligament rupture. Therefore, the application may improve gait pattern as well as the subjective function of the affected knee joint.
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The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two different mixed training programs (optimum power load [OPL] + resisted sprints [RS] and OPL + vertical/horizontal plyometrics [PL]) on neuromuscular performance of elite soccer players during a short-term training preseason. Eighteen male professional soccer players took part in this study. The athletes were pair-matched in two training groups: OPL + RS and OPL + PL. Unloaded and resisted sprinting speeds at 5-, 10-, 20-, and 30-m, change of direction (COD) speed, and performance in the squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), and horizontal jump (HJ) were assessed pre- and post- a 5-week training period. Magnitude based inference with the effect sizes were used for data analysis. A possible increase in the SJ and CMJ heights and a likely increase in the HJ distance were observed in the OPL + PL group. Meaningful improvements were observed in the COD speed test for both training groups comparing pre- and post-measures. In both unloaded and resisted sprints, meaningful decreases were observed in the sprinting times for all distances tested. This study shows that a mixed training approach which comprises exercises and workloads able to produce positive adaptations in different phases of sprinting can be a very effective strategy in professional soccer players. Moreover, the possibility of combining optimum power loads with resisted sprints and plyometrics emerges as a novel and suitable option for coaches and sport scientists, due to the applicability and efficiency of this strength-power training approach.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate how compression garments, applied after eccentric exercise, can affect delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and inflammatory markers. Sixteen healthy male university students enrolled in this study and were randomly assigned to either the compression garment group (CG, n=8) or control group (CON, n=8). All participants performed two sets of eccentric exercise using elbow flexor with 25 repetitions per set on a modified preacher curl machine. Maximal isometric strength was measured before exercise and immediately, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr after eccentric exercise. Muscle soreness was measured before exercise and 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr after eccentric exercise. Creatine kinase (CK) activity and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels were also measured before exercise and 3, 6, 24, and 48 hr after exercise. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used for statistical analysis. The CG group reported faster recovery of maximal isometric strength following exercise (P<0.001) and lower muscle soreness during the recovery period than the control group (P<0.05). However, there were no significant differences in either CK activity or TNF-α levels between the two groups (P>0.05). In conclusion, wearing compression garments during the postexercise period can be an effective way to reduce DOMS and accelerate the recovery of muscle function.
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Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the medial longitudinal arch mobility and static and dynamic balance. Methods: A total of 50 subjects (25 female, and 25 male; Mean age: 22.2 ± 1.3 years; BMI: 22.8 ± 3.8 kg/m(2)) were included in this study. The relative arch deformity (RAD) was calculated with both 10% and 90% weight bearing (WB). Static balance was evaluated with Single Leg Stance Test and dynamic balance with TechnoBody PK 200WL computerized balance device. Subjects were evaluated for goniometric measurements of lower extremity joints, leg dominance and leg-length discrepancy. Results: Bipedal dynamic balance was correlated with both feet length at 10% WB and 90% WB. There was a correlation between the dynamic balance on dominant foot and RAD value on the aspect of Medium Speed (r = -0.32, p = 0.02), Perimeter Length (r = -0.32, p = 0.02) and Anterior-Posterior Sway (r = 0.36, p = 0.01). Static balance was unaffected by RAD value when the visual system was eliminated. Conclusion: Our results suggest that decrease of arch mobility on the dominant foot is associated with posterior sway by causing knee or hip strategy and preventing ankle strategy even in small perturbations. The rate of deviation from the equilibrium point and the degree of total swaying increase when arch mobility decreases.
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Background: There is limited information in the literature that shows whether scapular taping has an effect on the acromiohumeral distance (AHD) and shoulder functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of scapular kinesiotaping on shoulder internal rotation (IR) and external rotation (ER) strength, IR and ER range of motion (ROM) and AHD in asymptomatic overhead athletes. Methods: Forty-one volleyball athletes [24 men, 17 women; (Mean±SD) age: 16.1±1.5 yrs, body mass: 66.5±9.6 kg, body height: 179.6±8.4 cm, body mass index: 20.5±2.3 kg/m2, time participating in overhead sports activity: 6.2±1.4 h/wk, experience in sport: 4.1±2.4 years] were included in this study. Shoulder IR and ER ROM, total rotation ROM, AHD, shoulder isometric IR and ER strength and ER:IR strength ratio of the dominant side were tested before and after taping. Results: Scapular taping increased the shoulder IR (p<0.001) and total ROM (P<0.001), AHD (P<0.001), shoulder IR (P=0.002) and ER (P=0.006) strength. ER ROM and ER:IR ratio did not change after taping (P=0.26, P=0.98, respectively). Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that scapular taping could be an effective method for enhancing the acromiohumeral distance, shoulder rotator strength and range of motion. Therefore, scapular taping could be recommended for not only in the asymptomatic athletes' shoulder exercise training but also in the prevention of subacromial impingement syndrome.
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Background: Evaluating the effect of kinesio taping of quadriceps femoris muscle on some physical fitness indices including maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), vertical jump, agility and sprint in healthy collegiate athletes. Methods: Forty-four (23 male and 21 female) healthy collegiate athletes voluntarily participated in this study. The MVIC of quadriceps muscle (N) of the dominant leg was assessed by digital Dynamometer. vertical jump, agility and sprint was assessed using Sargent vertical jump, shuttle run agility and 30-yard sprint tests, respectively. All measures were obtained in 4 trails: control (without taping), two trials with 24 hours interval, immediately and 24 hours after tape application. Two conditions of with and without taping measures were performed by one week interval. Everybody was compared to themselves during different situations. Data was analyzed using SPSS software and ANOVA with repeated measure statistical test. Results: MVIC, jumping and sprint performance significantly improved immediately and 24 hours following KT application compared to non KT conditions(P<0.05). Agility was improved 24 hours following taping (P<0.05), but KT caused no significant immediate effect on agility (P>0.05). 24 hours KT caused significant improvement in MVIC, jumping and agility performance, but caused no significant effect on sprint compared to immediately following taping. Conclusions: KT influenced positively MVIC, jumping, agility and sprint and the major effect was achieved by maintaining KT for 24hours in healthy athletes .. Although, regarding the study limitations, future studies are recommended for clarification.
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Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of ankle Kinesio taping on range of motion and agility during exercise in university students. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Thirty subjects were randomly allocated to two groups: taping group (n
Despite claims of functional benefits of kinesio tape application, little mechanistic evidence exists to support physiological pathways to achieve these benefits. As kinesio tape is adhered directly to the skin, it can be supposed that any pathway needs to first achieve effects at this level. To address this, two layers of the skin, the epidermis and dermis, as well as the hypodermis were studied. Specifically,-kinematic measures of skin surface stretch and retraction, as well as ultrasound measures of skin thickness, were made along all edges of kinesio tape applied over the low back. Results demonstrated that the more superficial skin layer (combined epidermis and dermis), but not the deeper hypodermis, was significantly stretched (p = 0.0001) and thinner (p = 0.0016) at either end of the tape, and significantly retracted (p < 0.0001) and thicker (p = 0.0001) along the lateral edges of the tape. These results were partly dependent upon spine posture; skin retraction along the tape edges was only apparent in neutral and flexed (but not extended) spine postures, while skin thinning at the tape ends was only apparent in neutral and extended (but not flexed) spine postures. Hypodermal thickness was not affected by kinesio tape application at any location or in any posture. In summary, measured deformations at the skin surface and within the epidermal and dermal regions provide plausible pathways through which kinesio tape could achieve its claimed benefits.
The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of elastic tape (Kinesio tape) to placebo tape or static stretching on delayed onset muscle soreness. Fifty-one untrained female healthy volunteers were randomly assigned into three groups (n = 17/group), elastic tape, placebo tape and stretching group. Muscle soreness was induced by 4 sets of 25 maximal isokinetic (60°.s(-1)) eccentric contractions of dominant quadriceps on an isokinetic dynamometer. Compared with placebo tape, the elastic tape participants had less muscle soreness at 72 h post-exercise (p = 0.01). The elastic tape also increased isometric strength at 72 h post-exercise compared with the placebo (p = 0.03) and stretching group (p = 0.02). However, there was little effect between groups for changes in thigh circumference, jumping, pressure pain threshold, rate of perceived exertion, creatine kinase activity and joint motion. Elastic taping increased muscle strength recovery and reduced muscle soreness after intensive exercise.