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International Migration and Development in South Asia

Abstract

In migration studies, the nexus between migration and development in the global South has been meticulously debated. However, a unanimous resolution to this debate has not been found, due to the ever-changing nature of international migration. This book advances knowledge on the global debate on the migration-development relationship by documenting experiences in a number of countries in South Asia. Drawing on the experiences of global South Asians, this volume documents the impact of migration on the social, economic, and political fields in the broader context of development. It also presents a regional experience by looking into the migration-development nexus in the context of South Asia, and analyses the role South Asian migrants and diaspora communities play in the South Asian society. Contributions from a variety of disciplinary backgrounds, including sociology, anthropology, political science, international relations and economics, document the development implications of South Asian migration. Broad in scope in terms of contents, timeline of migration, and geographical coverage, the book presents empirically-based case studies involving India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, and Nepal and their emigrants living and working in different parts of the world. Going beyond reporting the impacts of migration on economic development by highlighting the implications of ‘social development’ on society, this book provides a fascinating contribution to the fields of Asian Development, Migration Studies and South Asian Studies.
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... Earlier, the destination of out-migration of Nepali people was not far than India or from the nearest countries. Rahman and Yong (2015) mention the early wave of Nepali people's movement started from the Sikkim (Now a province of India) and Bhutan, the first Nepalese migrants are believed to be the group of soldiers and workers who went to work for British-India during the mid-nineteenth century. The recruitment of the Nepalese people as British soldiers can be taken as a second wave of out-migration for work of Nepalese people. ...
... The recruitment of the Nepalese people as British soldiers can be taken as a second wave of out-migration for work of Nepalese people. The third wave began during the 1970s; when the GCC regions, Southeast countries, Europe and North America opened the door for foreigners (Rahman & Yong, 2015). Realising the classification of Rahman and Yong (2015), I considered the fourth wave of out-migration of Nepali people started with the demand of workforces from the different countries of the world and worldwide permission for work and overwhelming acknowledgement of such act of the people by the country. ...
... The third wave began during the 1970s; when the GCC regions, Southeast countries, Europe and North America opened the door for foreigners (Rahman & Yong, 2015). Realising the classification of Rahman and Yong (2015), I considered the fourth wave of out-migration of Nepali people started with the demand of workforces from the different countries of the world and worldwide permission for work and overwhelming acknowledgement of such act of the people by the country. In the current context, the temporary out-migration of Nepalese youths for various works is covering worldwide as the government has allowed to work and stay in more than 140 countries of the world. ...
Article
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This literature-based paper has concentrated on the transnational work migration of Nepali youths. The high poverty, minimum opportunities and shifting nature of the profession of the country and desired options, income differences and feeling of the secured mentality of the migrants have been analysed through the perspective of push and pull model and its continuity through the lens of network theory. Concurrently, the remittances have become a prominent resource for the country and its total share of gross domestic product (GDP) has reached more than 29 per cent. Increasing remittance itself clarifies that the out-migration of Nepali youths is towering and consistent. Escalating abroad migration for work has become a contemporary issue and buzzword. At the same time, foreign employment is amplifying the educational gap. Accordingly, government initiation towards the sector has centralised highly even though it is not sufficient. The fear of ‘brawn drain’ as well as 'brain drain' is broadening and deepening in a rapid pace in general, and the adverse impact of it in the country to some extent is reverberating in particular. Nevertheless, comparatively less work has been done to utilise the achieved skills of the migrated youths.
... The third f inding of the book is that even for South Asian migrant populations that have lived for long periods in new homes, there is a constant process of rethinking and reconsidering their place in the world. Many migrant and diaspora communities retain connections with distant relatives for decades through remittances and the performance of identity in their new society in relation to other groups (Rahman and Yong 2015). These contested visions of place, homeland, and identity are often evident in poetry and prose, as well as in how past events are memorialized and remembered by diasporic communities. ...
... The third f inding of the book is that even for South Asian migrant populations that have lived for long periods in new homes, there is a constant process of rethinking and reconsidering their place in the world. Many migrant and diaspora communities retain connections with distant relatives for decades through remittances and the performance of identity in their new society in relation to other groups (Rahman and Yong 2015). These contested visions of place, homeland, and identity are often evident in poetry and prose, as well as in how past events are memorialized and remembered by diasporic communities. ...
Chapter
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The world is experiencing one of the largest movements of people in history with 65 million people displaced by conflict in 2015, the majority of which were from Asia. This book brings a deep engagement with individuals whose lives are shaped by encounters with borders by telling the stories of a poor Bangladeshi women who regularly crosses the India border to visit family, of Muslims from India living in Gulf countries for work, and the harrowing journey of a young Afghan man as he sets off on foot to Germany. The international and interdisciplinary work in this book contributes to this moment by analyzing how borders are experienced by migrants and borderlanders in South Asia, how mobility and diaspora are engaged in literature and media, and how the lives of migrants are transformed during their journey to new homes in South Asia, the Middle East, North America, and Europe.
... The third f inding of the book is that even for South Asian migrant populations that have lived for long periods in new homes, there is a constant process of rethinking and reconsidering their place in the world. Many migrant and diaspora communities retain connections with distant relatives for decades through remittances and the performance of identity in their new society in relation to other groups (Rahman and Yong 2015). These contested visions of place, homeland, and identity are often evident in poetry and prose, as well as in how past events are memorialized and remembered by diasporic communities. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The world is experiencing one of the largest movements of people in history with 65 million people displaced by conflict in 2015, the majority of which were from Asia. This book brings a deep engagement with individuals whose lives are shaped by encounters with borders by telling the stories of a poor Bangladeshi women who regularly crosses the India border to visit family, of Muslims from India living in Gulf countries for work, and the harrowing journey of a young Afghan man as he sets off on foot to Germany. The international and interdisciplinary work in this book contributes to this moment by analyzing how borders are experienced by migrants and borderlanders in South Asia, how mobility and diaspora are engaged in literature and media, and how the lives of migrants are transformed during their journey to new homes in South Asia, the Middle East, North America, and Europe.
... The impact of international migration on the sending countries has been broadly studied under the rubric of the migration-development nexus by debating whether migration triggers development in the source country (for a review, see De Haas, 2010;Hammar, Brochmann, Tamas, & Faist, 1997;Hjorth, 2011;Papademetriou & Martin, 1991;Rahman & Tan, 2015). The relationship has been traditionally explained from two contrasting theoretical approaches: the convergence school and the divergence school (Faist, 2008). ...
Article
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An increasing number of male migrants are taking part in intra- and inter-regional migration in Asia, leaving their wives behind at home. Their wives, whom we call emigrant wives, often adapt to new roles and responsibilities and thus undergo empowerment in the migration process. This paper examines the impact of male migration on the empowerment of emigrant wives by comparing and contrasting the experiences of emigrant wives vis-à-vis non-emigrant wives. The research identifies and describes four major areas where emigrant wives tend to engage in the absence of their migrant husbands: access to economic resources, physical mobility, residential independence and decision-making role in key family affairs. Empirically, this study draws on fieldwork at two migration-source villages in Bangladesh. The study reports that emigrant wives gain new experiences in dealing with family and wider society in comparison with non-emigrant wives, and thus that migration exposes them to processes of greater empowerment.
... The third f inding of the book is that even for South Asian migrant populations that have lived for long periods in new homes, there is a constant process of rethinking and reconsidering their place in the world. Many migrant and diaspora communities retain connections with distant relatives for decades through remittances and the performance of identity in their new society in relation to other groups (Rahman and Yong 2015). These contested visions of place, homeland, and identity are often evident in poetry and prose, as well as in how past events are memorialized and remembered by diasporic communities. ...
Book
Full-text available
The world is experiencing one of the largest movements of people in history with 65 million people displaced by conflict in 2015, the majority of which were from Asia. This book brings a deep engagement with individuals whose lives are shaped by encounters with borders by telling the stories of a poor Bangladeshi women who regularly crosses the India border to visit family, of Muslims from India living in Gulf countries for work, and the harrowing journey of a young Afghan man as he sets off on foot to Germany. The international and interdisciplinary work in this book contributes to this moment by analyzing how borders are experienced by migrants and borderlanders in South Asia, how mobility and diaspora are engaged in literature and media, and how the lives of migrants are transformed during their journey to new homes in South Asia, the Middle East, North America, and Europe.
... Remittances, defined as the money, goods, and sharing of knowledge sent back by migrants to their families left behind in the villages of origin (Adams & Cuecuecha, 2010;Deshingkar & Grimm, 2005;Rahman & Yong, 2015), are an increasingly important livelihood strategy within developing countries. Monetary remittances in particular are argued tocontribute not only to national development, but are an integral aspect of the global development process. ...
Chapter
The chapter argues that the credit and insurance markets in the least-developed countries are also under-developed. In the absence of a formal or informal market for credit or insurance, households have no insurance and limited or no opportunity to self-finance production or investment in agriculture and non-agriculture sectors. The analysis of interviews with 36 migrant households revealed that remittances enable households to overcome missing or incomplete credit by providing landless and small migrant households access to capital to lease agricultural land for production which contributes to removing stresses and worries about their food security and buying back mortgaged land to re-establish the rights of the individual to cultivate the land. Remittances also enable households to take strategic decisions to invest in a variety of income-generating agricultural and non-agriculture-related activities so as to minimize risk from loss of crops or sudden loss of income. The chapter also highlights that remittances enable households to invest for purchasing housing land and construction so that they can secure their properties against floods or riverbank erosion, plan for a return to the village, and to enhance their social prestige and status in their local village. For each of the households, remittances translated into increasing the household’s social resilience and social capital.
... Remittances, defined as the money, goods, and sharing of knowledge sent back by migrants to their families left behind in the villages of origin (Adams & Cuecuecha, 2010;Deshingkar & Grimm, 2005;Rahman & Yong, 2015), are an increasingly important livelihood strategy within developing countries. Monetary remittances in particular are argued tocontribute not only to national development, but are an integral aspect of the global development process. ...
Article
This book examines how migrant remittances contribute to household social resilience in rural Bangladesh. Using a mixed methods approach, the authors show that remittances play a crucial role in enhancing the life chances and economic livelihoods of rural households, and that remittance income enables households to overcome immediate pressures, adapt to economic and environmental change, build economic and cultural capital, and provide greater certainty in planning for the future. However, the book also reveals that the social and economic benefits of remittances are not experienced equally by all households. Rural village households endure a precarious existence and the potentially positive outcomes of remittances can easily be undermined by a range of external and household-specific factors leading to few, if any, benefits in terms of household social resilience.
Article
Temporary international labour migration from rural areas of low‐income countries is an important international phenomenon, which causes agricultural labour to be diverted from farming to other activities. In labour‐intensive agricultural systems, loss of labour can lead to an increase in the opportunity cost of farm labour, which can create incentives to change the mix of livelihood strategies, farm inputs and investments. At the same time, short‐term international migration may generate remittances, which can finance agricultural intensification and business investments. Using nationally representative data from Nepal, combined with empirical methods that allow causal inference, we investigate the effect of labour out‐migration on farmland fallowing, adoption of agricultural‐intensification technologies and livelihood diversification. We find that households with international migrants are over 50% more likely (based on PSM estimates) to have fallow land, compared with households without migrants. The result is robust to alternative specifications and estimation techniques. We also find that temporary international migration promotes adoption of some technologies that intensify agriculture and causes rural households to diversify their livelihoods. Land fallowing may increase food insecurity, while agricultural intensification may improve it, with uncertain net effect. We offer some indicative results on the effect of labour out‐migration on food insecurity, especially in the remote rural areas.
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