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Student Profile for Enhancing Engineering Tutoring Data Mining tool for Academic Data Exploitation Literature review and first arquitecture proposal, Version 1.0

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This document that aims to reflect the necessary aspects implied into the characterisation of a student profile: pedagogical characteristics, teaching learning attitudes, description of the different situations that may reflect problems regarding a normal progress. Also the characterisation the scenario that concerns the application of educational data mining techniques. The data that a student generates while progressing on his/her studies will be synthesised and related to potential profile features. As per the SPEET project concern, the definition of an IT architecture that is aimed at dealing with such student profile characterisation is also outlined.
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Student Profile for
Enhancing Tutoring Engineering INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1
Student Profile
for Enhancing
Engineering Tutoring
ERASMUS + KA2 / KA203
Data Mining tool for Academic Data Exploitation
Literature review and first arquitecture proposal, Version 1.0
M. Barbu (Coordinator), R. Vilanova, J. Lopez Vicario,
M.J. Varanda, M. Popdora, M.A. Prada, A. Torreburno
and S. Marin, R. Tocu
October 2018
ISBN: 978-972-745-228-6
ERASMUS + KA2 / KA203 INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1
October 2018
Data Mining tool for Academic Data
Exploitation
Literature review and first arquitecture proposal, Version 1.0
M. Barbu (Coordinator)
Automatic Control and Electrical Engineering Department
"Dunarea de Jos" University of Galati
Domneasca 47, 800008
Galati, Romania
R. Vilanova, J. Lopez Vicario
Dept. de Telecomunicacio i Enginyeria de Sistemes
Escola d’Enginyeria, UAB
Carrer de es Sitges 08193 Bellaterra
Barcelona, Spain
M.J. Varanda
Escola Superior de Tecnologia e Gestao
Instituto Politecnico de Braganca
Braganca, Portugal
M. Popdora
Faculty of Electrical Engineering Automatic Control and Informatics
Technical University of Opole
Opole, Poland
M.A. Prada
Escuela de IngenierÃŋas
Universidad de Leon
Leon, Spain
A. Torreburno
Scuole di Ingegneria
Politecnico di Milano
Milano, Italy
S. Marin, R. Tocu
Department of Pedagogical Personnel Training
"Dunarea de Jos" University of Galati
Domneasca 47, 800008
Galati, Romania
Final Report
ISBN: 978-972-745-228-6
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 ii
ERASMUS + KA2/KA203
Prepared for SPEET Intellectual Output #1
Under 2016-1-ES01-KA203-025452
Monitored by SEPIEE
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 iii
Disclaimer: The European Commission support for the production of this publication does not constitute an endorsement of
the contents which reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which
may be made of the information contained therein.
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 iv
Table of Contents
1 Executive Summary .................................................................................... 2
2 Current Landscape ...................................................................................... 4
2.1 Student Big Data vs. Big Data for Students............................................. 4
2.1.1 Higher Education Institutions Data....................................................... 5
2.1.2 Goals for Big Data in Education........................................................... 6
2.2 Intelligent Tutoring Systems.................................................................. 7
3 Privacy and Data Protection Considerations................................................... 10
3.1 Privacy ........................................................................................... 10
3.2 Student Data Protection and the EU Data Protection Directive ................. 10
3.3 Student Data Protection and the EU General Data Protection Regulation.... 12
4 Educational Data Mining and Learning Analytics............................................ 13
4.1 Educational Data Mining.................................................................... 13
4.2 Learning Analytics ............................................................................ 14
4.3 Visual Analytics ............................................................................... 16
4.4 Resources and Goals .. ... .. ... ... ... .... ... ... ... .. ... ... ... .. ... ... ... .... ... ... .... ... ... ... 18
4.5 Methods for Learning Analytics ........................................................... 20
4.6 Advanced Classification Methods.......................................................... 21
5 Student Profiles and Tutoring action............................................................. 23
5.1 Teaching Learning Attitudes and Methods ............................................. 23
5.2 On Defining Different Profiles and Identified Label Flags .......................... 30
5.2.1 On Definying Psycho-Pedagogical Profiles of Students.. ............. .. ........... .. 32
5.2.2 On Definying the Profiles of Students with a Dropout Risk.. .. ............. .. .... 35
6 Software application .................................................................................. 38
6.1 Proposal for data set format................................................................ 38
6.2 Proposed software architecture ............................................................ 39
6.3 Preliminary classification methods ... ... ... ... ... .... ... ... ... ... ... .... ... ... ... ... ... ... 41
6.3.1 Clustering....................................................................................... 41
6.3.2 Clustering explanation ...................................................................... 42
6.3.3 New student classification .................................................................. 42
6.4 Advanced classification methods for grouped data.................................... 42
6.4.1 Generalized linear mixed-effects models (GLME) .......... .. ............. .. ......... 43
6.4.2 Classification and regression tress (CART) ......... .. ............. .. ........... .. .. ... 43
6.4.3 Resulting estimation method (RE-EM Tree) . ........... .. ............. .. ........... .. 44
6.4.4 Support Vector Machines ................................................................... 44
References..................................................................................................... 45
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 1
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 2
1 Executive Summary
Using data for making decisions is not new; companies use complex compu-
tations on customer data for business intelligence or analytics. Business in-
telligence techniques can discern historical patterns and trends from data and
can create models that predict future trends and patterns. Analytics, broadly
defined, comprises applied techniques from computer science, mathematics,
and statistics for extracting usable information from very large datasets
Data itself is not new. Data has always been generated and used to in-
form decision-making. However, most of this was structured and organised,
through regular data collections, surveys, etc. What is new, with the invention
and dominance of the internet and the expansion of digital systems across all
sectors, is the amount of unstructured data we are generating. This is what
we call the digital footprint: the traces that individuals leave behind as they
interact with their increasingly digital world. Data analytics is the process
where data is collected and analysed in order to identify patterns, make pre-
dictions, and inform business decisions. Our capacity to perform increasingly
sophisticated analytics is changing the way we make predictions and decisions,
with huge potential to improve competitive intelligence. These examples sug-
gest that the actions from data mining and analytics are always automatic,
but that is less often the case.
Educational Data Mining (EDM) and Learning Analytics (LA) have the
potential to make visible data that have heretofore gone unseen, unnoticed,
and therefore unactionable. To help further the fields and gain value from
their practical applications, the recommendations are that educators and ad-
ministrators:
Develop a culture of using data for making instructional decisions.
Involve IT departments in planning for data collection and use.
Be smart data consumers who ask critical questions about commercial
offerings and create demand for the most useful features and uses.
Start with focused areas where data will help, show success, and then
expand to new areas.
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 3
Communicate with students and parents about where data come from and
how the data are used.
Help align state policies with technical requirements for online learning
systems.
This report documents the first steps conducted within the SPEET1ERAS-
MUS+ project. It describes the conceptualization of a practical tool for the
application of EDM/LA techniques to currently available academic data. The
document is also intended to contextualise the use of Big Data within the
academic sector, with special emphasis on the role that student profiles and
student clustering do have in support tutoring actions.
It will be described the promise of educational data mining (seeking pat-
terns in data across many student actions), learning analytics (applying pre-
dictive models that provide actionable information), and visual data analytics
(interactive displays of analyzed data) and how they might serve the future
of personalized learning and the development and continuous improvement of
adaptive systems. How might they operate in an adaptive learning system?
What inputs and outputs are to be expected? In the next section, these ques-
tions are addressed by giving a system-level view of how data mining and
analytics could improve teaching and learning by creating feedback loops.
Finally, the proposal of the key elements that conform a software applica-
tion that is intended to give support to this academic data analysis is presented.
Three different key elements are presented: data, algorithms and application
architecture. From one side we should have a minimum data available. The
corresponding relational data base structure is presented. This basic data can
always be complemented with other available data that may help either to
decide or/and to explain decisions. Classification algorithms are reviewed and
how they can be used for the generation of the student clustering problem.
A convenient software architecture will act as an umbrella that connects the
previous two parts.
The document is intended to be useful for a first understanding of academic
data analysis. What we can get and what we do need to do. This is the first of
a series of reports that taken all together will provide a complete and consistent
view towards the inclusion of data mining as a helping hand in the tutoring
action.
1Student Profile for Enhancing Tutoring Engineering (www.speet-project.eu)
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 4
2 Current Landscape
Data has always been a significant asset for institutions, and has been used to
inform their day-to-day operational decisions as well as longer-term business
and strategic decisions. On a strategic scale, data is used to inform senior
management’s business planning and overall strategy for their institutions.
Student enrolment data, both historical and projected, as well as estates data,
will influence the plans institutions make to build new buildings or refit current
buildings to meet projected need. Financial data influences strategic decisions
on expanding or reducing particular faculties or services provided.
Data has always been a significant asset for institutions, and has been used
to inform their day-to-day operational decisions as well as longer-term business
and strategic decisions. On a strategic scale, data is used to inform senior
management’s business planning and overall strategy for their institutions.
Student enrolment data, both historical and projected, as well as estates data,
will influence the plans institutions make to build new buildings or refit current
buildings to meet projected need. Financial data influences strategic decisions
on expanding or reducing particular faculties or services provided.
Data has always been a significant asset for institutions, and has been used
to inform their day-to-day operational decisions as well as longer-term business
and strategic decisions. On a strategic scale, data is used to inform senior
management’s business planning and overall strategy for their institutions.
Student enrolment data, both historical and projected, as well as estates data,
will influence the plans institutions make to build new buildings or refit current
buildings to meet projected need. Financial data influences strategic decisions
on expanding or reducing particular faculties or services provided.
From a more purely educational point of view, the available academic data
can be collected, linked together and analyzed to provide insights into student
behaviours and identify patterns to potentially predict future outcomes. In
this section, usually available data will be described as well as its potential use
for the benefit of students. The use of academic data for supporting tutoring
action is where we will put the focus on. On that respect, the so called
Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) are also presented and main characteristics
revisited.
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 5
2.1 Student Big Data vs. Big Data for Students
Since the definition of big data is still developing, we will start with our use
of the term. In [Lan01] big data is described with a collection of "v" words,
referring to (1) the increasing size of data (volume), (2) the increasing rate
at which it is produced and analyzed (velocity), and (3) its increasing range
of sources, formats, and representations (variety). To this other authors have
added veracity to encompass the widely differing qualities of data sources, with
significant differences in the coverage, accuracy, and timeliness of data.
Figure 1. Big Data as Volume-Velocity-Variety
2.1.1 Higher Education Institutions Data
Higher education institutions are not an exception and the use of analyt-
ics in education has grown in recent years for four primary reasons [SB12]: a
substantial increase in data quantity, improved data formats, advances in com-
puting, and increased sophistication of tools available for analytics. In recent
years, the sophistication and ease of use of tools for analysing data make it
possible for an increasing range of researchers to apply data mining methodol-
ogy without needing extensive experience in computer programming. Many of
these tools are adapted from the business intelligence field. Higher education
institutions have always operated in an information-rich landscape, generating
and collecting vast amounts of data each day. A coarse classification of the
types of data that higher education institutions deal with every day:
Student record data: A typical student record may include the details of
the student’s name, age, address, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, school,
level results, course undertaken, modules studied, examination results, de-
gree awarded and degree classification.
Staff data: Institutions hold data on their staff, including the number of
people employed full-time and part-time, the number at each level and
within each faculty, and staff equal opportunity data.
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 6
Admissions and applications data: These records will include details of
the number of students who applied to the institution, the acceptance rate,
and any widening participation data such as ethnicity and socioeconomic
status.
Financial data: Universities hold data on their finances, including income
streams, expenditure, and predicted profits and/or losses, held both at an
institutional level and by faculty and school.
Alumni data: The university will hold data on its alumni including grad-
uate destinations (i.e. employment or further study), current address and
contact details. This is becoming increasingly important as institutions
look to diversify their income streams.
Course data: Includes data on students enrolled in each course and per
module.
Facilities data: Includes data on the number and type of rooms across the
campus (lecture theatres, classrooms, computer labs, science laboratories),
room capacity, equipment, accommodation, facilities and retail.
2.1.2 Goals for Big Data in Education
In commercial fields, business and organizations are deploying sophisticated
analytic techniques to evaluate rich data sources, identify patterns within the
data and exploit these patterns in decision making. Recently researchers and
developers from the educational community started exploring the potential
adoption of analogous techniques for gaining insight into online learners ac-
tivities. Even the list of goals and objectives that can be pursuit with the
application of analytics to students big data can be very long - see more de-
tailed (scientific) presentation in the next section - it is possible to categorize
the goals in terms of the students benefits as follows:
Improve Student Results: The overall goal of big data within the edu-
cational system should be to improve student results. During his or her
student life however, every student generates a unique data trail. This
data trail can be analysed in real-time to deliver an optimal learning en-
vironment for the student as well to gain a better understanding in the
individual behaviour of the students. In addition, big data can help to
create groups of students that prosper due to the selection of who is in
a group. Students often work in groups where the students are not com-
plimentary to each other. With the help of appropriate algorithms it will
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 7
be possible to determine the strengths and weaknesses of each individual
student. This will create stronger groups that will allow students to have
a steeper learning curve and deliver better group results
Create Mass-customized Programs: All this data will help to create a cus-
tomized program for each individual student. This will be created with
blended learning: a combination of online and offline learning. It will
give students the opportunity to develop their own personalized program.
Providing mass customization in education is a challenge, but thanks to
algorithms it becomes possible to track and assess each individual student.
We already see this happening in the MOOC’s that are developed around
the world now.
Improve the Learning Experience in Real-time: Each student learns dif-
ferently and the way a student learns affects the final grade of course.
Some students learn very efficiently while other may be extremely ineffi-
cient. When the course materials are available online, it can be monitored
how a student learns. This information can be used to provide a cus-
tomized program to the student or provide real-time feedback to become
more efficient in learning and thus improve their results. When students
are monitored in real-time, it can help to improve the digital textbooks
and course outlines that are used by the students. Algorithms can monitor
how the students read the texts. Which parts are difficult to understand,
which parts are easy and which parts are unclear. Based on how often
a text is read, how long it takes to read a text, how many questions are
asked around that topic, how many links are clicked for more information
etc. If this information is provided in real-time, authors can change their
textbooks to meet the needs of the students thereby improving the overall
results. Even more, Big Data can give insights in how each student learns
at an individualized level.
Reduce Dropouts, Increase Results: All the previous reasoning will im-
prove the student results and perhaps also reduce dropout rates at univer-
sities or colleges. Dropouts are expensive for educational institutes as well
as for society. Using predictive analytics on all the data that is collected
can give educational institute insights in future student outcomes. These
predictions can be used to change a program if it predicts bad results on a
particular program or even run scenario analysis on a program before it is
started. Universities and colleges will become more efficient in developing
a program that will increase results thereby minimizing trial-and-error.
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 8
2.2 Intelligent Tutoring Systems
From several decades till nowadays the educational tasks are supported by
computers and specialized software. Namely, systems based on Artificial In-
telligence have been evolved and they are usually called Intelligent Computer-
Assisted Instruction systems (ICAI), Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) or
more lately Interactive Learning Environments (ILEs) [Lel00].
The main objective of an ITS was to support the learning process specially
on problem solving. It was assumed that the student should acquire the re-
quired knowledge before using the tutoring system. With the growth of the
information technologies the ITSs provide learning material in electronic form.
In this way, the student has theoretical support and problem solving in the
same package [Bru00].
By definition, an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) is a system that uses
Artificial Intelligence (AI) and tries to imitate the human tutor tasks and
capabilities.
The underlying idea is to generate information and sets of exercises de-
pending on the student’s individual needs. Since those needs can change or
can be very different from student to student, the system should be able to
adapt its contents and methodologies every time there is a context changing.
This is done by having a "model" of each student performance which is
dynamically maintained and used to drive instructions. Also when designing
the system the knowledge items and the interface are defined for all students
but the sequence of instructions is determined by the ITS system itself using
specific information. This gives the system further ability to individualise the
teaching techniques tuning the learning tasks for each student [Nwa90].
This specific information can be gather using learning analytics techniques
and educational data mining. In [SWST14] the authors agree that techniques
like learning analytics should be used to collect and analyze data from learn-
ers in order to profile them and ameliorate their experience inside Intelligent
Tutoring System.
More recently, there are other interesting research works concerned with
recommender tools.
E-learning recommender systems have become popular in educational insti-
tutions [Lu15] and they are an evolution of the traditional e-learning systems.
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 9
The recommender systems aim to assist learners to choose the courses, subjects
and learning materials and activities that they need to support their learning
process. Zaiana [Zai02] proposed an approach to build a software agent that
uses data mining techniques such as association rule mining to construct a
model that represents online user behaviors, and used this model to suggest
activities or shortcuts. The suggestions created automatically by the system
will guide learners to better navigate through online material. This will allow
finding more assertive information in a shorter time by using the recommended
shortcuts.
The architecture of an e-learning recommender system usually consists of
three parts [Lu15]:
1. using Web analysis techniques to collect learners’ profiles and identify
their personalized demands;
2. collecting the metadata of learning objectives to identify the features;
3. acquiring related pedagogical knowledge to evaluate the matching degree
between learners and learning objectives.
To conclude, in order to construct ITS or recommender systems it is very
important to get and analyze data about student activities and attitudes.
In [ALP16] the authors propose a recommender tool that analyzes student
interactions and visually explains the collaboration circumstances to provoke
the self-reflection and promote the sense making about eLearning collabora-
tion. The tool presents a visual explanatory decision tree that graphically
highlights student collaboration circumstances and helps to understand the
reasoning followed by the tool when prescribing a recommendation.
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 10
3 Privacy and Data Protection Considerations
The rise of concern over student privacy has strong implications for how new
EDM approaches can be integrated into wide-reaching applications as well
as the amount of funding available to public and private entities wishing to
innovate in this space. The increase in EDM usage has raised public awareness
of how much data is being collected about students. The applications and
companies that collect and use student data are coming under scrutiny, as
parents, advocates, and public officials grow concerned over student privacy.
Large, well-trusted institutions have been targeted for using student data in
undesirable ways.
3.1 Privacy
Privacy is chiefly a question of access. Unlike anonymity or confidentiality,
people’s interest in privacy is about controlling the access of others to them-
selves [ST12]. How to safeguard a student’s privacy is a particularly complex
question because of their vulnerability. Children are incapable of protecting
their own interests through negotiation for informed consent because they are
likely to misunderstand risks or be coerced into participating [ST12]. This need
to protect has led to the formation of student privacy advocacy groups and
driven the adoption of legislation. The restrictions required to comply with
this legislation and maintain good public opinion have a significant impact on
the adoption of data-based solutions in education.
3.2 Student Data Protection and the EU Data Protection Directive
Personal data protection has been regulated in the EU for a long time, applying
a comprehensive prescriptive legal approach which focuses on the population
as a whole. For the reasons that will be outlined in the following section, it
is nevertheless not sufficiently equipped to deal with the pitfalls of big data
in education. At present, the most important EU legal instrument on per-
sonal data protection is the 1995 Directive 95/46/EC on the protection of
individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free
movement of such data (DPD). Recognising the important role vendors play
in processing personal data, the DPD distinguishes between first parties and
vendors through the introduction of "data controllers" and "data processors"
(art. 2(d)-(e)).
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 11
Within this structure, a school acts as a data controller if it decides on (a)
outsourcing of student data processing; (b) delegating all or part of the pro-
cessing activities to an external organisation; and (c) determining the ultimate
purpose of the processing. A vendor acts as a data processor if it merely sup-
plies the means and the platform, acting on behalf of the school2. The DPD
has two key drawbacks in protecting student privacy and personal data in the
context of "big data education". First, the DPD does not protect student data
from re-identification. The DPD’s definition of personal data is: "any infor-
mation relating to an identified or identifiable natural person (data subject)"
(art. 2(a)). If the data is anonymised or aggregated and an individual cannot
be identified from the remaining data, it ceases to be personal data, and the
provisions of the DPD no longer apply.
When talking about big data, it is questionable whether the personal/non-
personal data distinction remains viable and whether anonymisation and ag-
gregation remain effective in protecting users against tracking and profiling
[MRP+14]. Even if identifiers, such as names and ID numbers, have been
removed, one can use background knowledge and cross-correlation with other
databases in order to re-identify student data records [NS08]. Therefore, it
could be that when student data is anonymised or aggregated the provisions
of the DPD will not apply, but the risk of identifying the student - or more
precisely: re-identifying - still remains. Second, setting consent as the DPD’s
main legal guide may be ineffective. A key principle in the DPD is the need
to obtain personal unambiguous consent before data can be processed (art.
2(h)). Before big data, parents could roughly gauge the expected uses of their
children’s personal data and weigh the benefits and the costs at the time they
provided their consent. Today, the ability to make extensive, often unexpected,
secondary uses of student data makes it simply too complicated for the aver-
age parent to make fine grained choices for every new situation [DKSCO12].
Moreover, in many instances vendors do not offer users the option of choosing
which data they agree to share and for which purposes, thus users are forced
to accept or deny the service as a whole. Consequently, parents could end
up unintentionally excluding their children from services necessary for their
education just because they are unable or unwilling to parse out complex data
policy statements [PJ14].
The Directive does not address the fact that opting-out is hardly a feasible
alternative for users in the educational context, since most parents do not
have the privilege of changing their children’s schools based on the applicable
privacy policy. Therefore, student privacy should not be a binary concept that
2Article 29 Working Party, 2012, http://ec.europa.eu/justice/data-protection/article-
29/documentation/opinion-recommendation/files/2012/wp196_en.pdf
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 12
is either on or off and parents should be given the option of choosing which
data they agree to share and for which specific purposes, without having to
disengage their children from "big data education".
3.3 Student Data Protection and the EU General Data Protection
Regulation
EU data protection law has undergone a long-awaited, rigorous and compre-
hensive revision. After long discussions in the various committees, on 16 April
2016, the EU Parliament formally approved the General Data Protection Reg-
ulation (GDPR or Regulation) and it is set to go into effect in May 2018 in all
EU member states. The GDPR was adopted by the European Commission "to
strengthen online privacy rights and boost Europe’s digital economy", recog-
nising that "technological progress and globalisation have profoundly changed
the way our data is collected, accessed and used" (European Commission,
2012).
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 13
4 Educational Data Mining and Learning
Analytics
During the last decade, analytics and data mining, understood as methodolo-
gies that extract useful and actionable information from large datasets, have
transformed one field of scientific inquiry after another. When applied to ed-
ucation, these methodologies are referred to as learning analytics (LA) and
educational data mining (EDM). LA can be defined as the measurement, col-
lection, analysis and reporting of data about learners and their contexts, for
the purposes of understanding and optimising learning and the environments
in which it occurs. On the other hand, as an area of scientific inquiry, EDM
is concerned with the analysis of large-scale educational data, with a focus on
automated methods.
There is considerable thematic overlap between EDM and LA. In particu-
lar, both communities share a common interest in data-intensive approaches
to education research, and share the goal of enhancing educational practice.
At the same time, there are several interesting differences, with one viewpoint
on the differences given in [SB12]. In that work, it was argued that there
are key areas of difference between the communities, including a preference
for automated paradigms of data analysis (EDM) versus making human judg-
ment central (LA), a reductionist focus (EDM) versus a holistic focus (LA),
and a comparatively greater focus on automated adaptation (EDM) versus
supporting human intervention (LA).
4.1 Educational Data Mining
Applications of EDM methods comprise several steps. Initially, a design is
planned, i.e., the main aim of the study and the required data are identified.
Afterwards, the data is extracted from the appropriate educational environ-
ment. Data will need to be pre-processed, since it may come from several
sources or have different formats and levels of hierarchy. Models or patterns
are obtained from applying EDM methods, which have to be interpreted. If
the conclusions suggest applying changes to the teaching/learning process or
are not conclusive3, the analysis is performed again after modifying the teach-
ing/learning process or the study design. The basic steps to test a learn-
3Main reasons may be: the problem has not been adequately addressed, the raw data
are small or not suitable, or the selected methods are not powerful enough
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 14
ing/teaching process-related hypothesis are the same as those explained for
EDM: an iterative process in which data is extracted from an educational
environment and pre-processed before applying computational/quantitative
methods in order to support stakeholders (instructors, course managers, etc.)
when making decisions.
A wide range of EDM methods have emerged through the last several
years. Some are roughly similar to those seen in the use of data mining in
other domains, whereas others are unique to educational data mining.
Educational data mining [SO12] is related to the application of computa-
tional algorithms for pattern detection in educational data sets [RC13]. It is an
interdisciplinary area that combines topics of computer science, statistics and
education. Research tends to be more focused on the description and compari-
son of the computational techniques used for the analysis, which are generally
well-known unsupervised and supervised learning algorithms. Furthermore,
EDM generally aims to provide automated discovery of student models or pre-
diction of learning outcomes, i.e., its main target is the technical challenge
[Fer12].
In [CV10] Educational Data Mining is also introduced as a method for:
"developing, researching, and applying computerized methods to detect pat-
terns in large collections of educational data that would otherwise be hard or
impossible to analyze due to the enormous volume of data within which they
exist".
In [WP13] the authors state that educational data mining helps to op-
erationalize constructs that are not obvious, to investigate several kinds of
relationships among that constructs, to model and understand student learn-
ing trajectories, and to identify the trust level of the results. In these ways,
EDM will help to support the richness, concreteness, and usefulness of research
in metacognition, motivation, and self-regulated learning.
4.2 Learning Analytics
Learning Analytics [MAUH12] is, in turn, focused on the application of data
analysis to understand and optimize the educational process [RC13]; [Fer12],
i.e., it integrates both the technical and social/pedagogical dimensions to solve
educational challenges. As a result, the feedback to educational stakeholders
(instructors, administration, etc.) is key and its goal is to provide useful
results and reports that can leverage human judgment [SB12]. Pedagogy can
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 15
be implicitly contained in the data or explicitly addressed in the goals and
objectives [GW12].
In [SB12] the authors say that besides academic records there are other
kinds of information that can be caught. For instance, every time a student
interacts with their university, going to the library, entering to the virtual
learning platform, submitting assessments online, etc., they leave behind a
digital footprint. Learning analytics (LA) is the process of using this data to
improve learning and teaching.
In this sense, learning analytics can be seen as a tool for quality assurance
and quality improvement, for boosting retention rates, for assessing and acting
upon differential outcomes among student population. Moreover it can be used
for development and introduction of adaptive learning because it can help to
identify student at risk before it is too late to intervene.
It can also help students by themselves when they have to select future
studies and career choices. They become more reflective learners. Unfortu-
nately, there are still lots of institutions that have not implemented learning
analytics.
Learning analytics is different from academic analytics, the latter only uses
administrative data like personal information, programs, subjects and grades.
A more complete student information system containing data about stu-
dents such as their prior qualifications, socio-economical status, ethnic group,
module selections, grades obtained to date, number of attempts, years to finish
the course and so on, can be used to predict academic performance.
This data can also be supplemented by attendance monitoring systems
and other systems that record campus visits, or their presence in locations like
lecture halls, libraries and refectories.
In [BJL15] the authors state that learner-centered approaches to higher ed-
ucation require that instructors have insight into their student?s characteristics
before they start the course. For that, they also agree that all the information
about students should be given to them: demographics, enrollment history
and general academic performance.
In [MAL+15] Learning analytics is also considered as a great help to dis-
cover the hidden information and patterns from raw data collected from ed-
ucational environments. This is one of the reasons motivating the raising
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 16
awareness on LA, and stimulating the vital strengthening of its connections
with data-driven research fields like Data Mining and Machine Learning.
The combination of LA, as a new research discipline with a high potential
to impact the existing models of education, and Educational Data Mining
(EDM), a novice growing research area to apply Data Mining methods on
educational data, leads to new insights on learners? behavior, interactions, and
learning paths, as well as to improve the technology enhanced learning methods
in a data-driven way. In this regard, LA and EDM can offer opportunities and
great potentials to increase our understanding about learning processes so as
to optimize learning through educational systems.
LA and EDM are both emerging fields that have a lot in common, al-
though there are differences in their origins and applications. LA is a multi-
disciplinary field that involves Machine Learning (ML), artificial intelligence,
information retrieval, statistics, and visualization. Additionally, it contains
the Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) areas of research such as EDM,
recommender systems, and personalized adaptive learning.
In [CV10] Educational Data Mining is also introduced as a method for:
?developing, researching, and applying computerized methods to detect pat-
terns in large collections of educational data that would otherwise be hard or
impossible to analyze due to the enormous volume of data within which they
exist?.
Summarizing, the understanding of Learning Attitudes (as well as Teach-
ing Attitudes) may be useful in helping the students pursue their career op-
portunities in opposition to finding the final consequence of the change in
Learning/Teaching Attitude. Linking consequences (e.g. "student failed to
complete 2nd semester in mathematics") with leaving academia is far more
easy than spotting a change in a Learning Attitude (e.g. "loss of motivation
in 1st semester due to extremely boring lectures of a mathematician"). How-
ever, spotting a change in a Learning Attitude would give the possibility to
help that particular student to recover and reinforce.
In order to detect changes in these attitudes and to prevent unsuccessful
situations, learning analytics techniques should be used.
4.3 Visual Analytics
Visual data analysis blends highly advanced computational methods with so-
phisticated graphics engines to tap the extraordinary ability of humans to see
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 17
patterns and structure in even the most complex visual presentations. Cur-
rently applied to massive, heterogeneous, and dynamic datasets, such as those
generated in studies of astrophysical, fluidic, biological, and other complex
processes, the techniques have become sophisticated enough to allow the in-
teractive manipulation of variables in real time. New research is now beginning
to apply these sorts of tools to the social sciences and humanities as well, and
the techniques offer considerable promise in helping us understand complex
social processes like learning, political and organizational change, and the dif-
fusion of knowledge.
Beyond simply mining data, there is an increasing awareness that good
visualization methods can support both analysts and practitioners in deriv-
ing meaning from data [Duv11]; [BI14]; [TSK+14]; [VDK+13]. The Horizon
Report: 2010 Edition describes the promise of visual data analysis (in the
four- to five-year time frame) for teaching undergraduates to model complex
processes. Visual data analysis also may help expand our understanding of
learning because of its ability to support the search for patterns. It may be
applied, for example, to illustrate the relationship among the variables that
influence informal learning and to "see" the social networking processes at
work in the formation of learning communities.
The aim of this section is to introduce some of the general tools and meth-
ods for visual analytics, which enable building interactive visual interfaces for
gaining knowledge and insight from data as well as communicating important
implications for learning to students and teachers.
Tableau4: Tableau presents a family of products for interactive data anal-
ysis and visualization. Although the primary focus of the Tableau toolset
is support for business intelligence, it has been commonly applied in educa-
tional settings to analyze student data, provide actionable insights, enhance
teaching practices, and streamline educational reporting. The main advan-
tage of Tableau is that no programming knowledge is needed to analyze
large amounts of data from various sources, making a range of visualizations
easily available to a wider community. However, Tableau’s functionality is
limited to this; it does not support predictive analytics or relational data
mining. Moreover, Tableau, as a commercial tool, is not extendable and
does not support integration with other software platforms.
Data Driven Documents (D3.js)5: is a JavaScript library that allows ma-
nipulation of data-driven documents, enabling researchers and practition-
4www.tableau.com
5www.d3js.org
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 18
ers to build complex, interactive data visualizations. D3.js has several
benefits: It allows considerable flexibility in building a range of kinds of
data visualization, does not require installation, supports code reuse, and
is free and open source. However, there are challenges to wider adoption
for educational research purposes. As a technology, D3.js requires exten-
sive programming knowledge and has compatibility issues as well as some
performance limitations for larger data sets. Finally, it does not provide
any means to hide data from users of visualizations, requiring data pre-
processing to ensure privacy and data security.
Beyond D3.js, many other programmatic data visualization tools exist,
aimed at providing different ways to present data visually and build interac-
tive dashboards. Some of the commonly used tools include Chart.js, Raw,
JavaScript InfoVis Tool kit, jpGraph, and Google Visualization API6. These
tools offer broadly similar functionality to D3.js but have been less frequently
used by EDM and LA researchers
4.4 Resources and Goals
It is necessary to analyze both the specific data sources available in educational
settings as well as the problems that data analysis pretends to solve. Data
analysis can be applied to any type of information obtained in the context of
education [RC13]:
Administrative data, including demographic data, academic performance,
etc.;
Data obtained from the interaction of students with an educational infor-
mation system, such as the results to exercises and quizzes etc.;
Data obtained from questionnaires, field observations or controlled exper-
iments.
The hierarchical structure of data, its context, its granularity and the time
range of available data must also be considered [RC13]. In traditional edu-
cation frameworks, information about the student path and performance is
stored along with administrative data in databases. However, nowadays, there
is a great proliferation of computer-based educational environments, which
produce additional data with higher granularity, related to specific activities
6(see "The 38 best tools for data visualization" at www.creativebloq.com/design-
tools/data-visualization-712402)
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 19
or events, resulting from the interaction of students with educators and soft-
ware. Among computer-based educational systems, the following can be dis-
tinguished [RC13]:
Test and quiz systems, which measure the performance of a student with
regard to some concepts or subjects. It is assumed that the system is only
limited to the processing and storage of answers, scores and subsequent
statistics;
Learning Management Systems (LMS), which might comprise the func-
tionalities included in test and quiz systems and additionally support and
record other course-delivery tasks (administration, documentation, track-
ing and reporting);
Intelligent tutoring systems, which record all student-educator interac-
tion with the ultimate goal of modeling student behavior and customizing
instruction;
Others, including educational games, content and interaction support sys-
tems (e.g., wikis, forums, etc.)
The application of learning analytics to the available data requires a non-
trivial stage of preprocessing to perform the appropriate data integration, se-
lection and transformation.
The potential goals of learning analytics are diverse, including monitoring,
prediction, tutoring, personalization, recommendation, etc. [MAUH12];[KM15].
They can be categorized according to the targeted stakeholders:
Students
Identifying tutoring needs;
Receiving effective advice or feedback;
Receiving customized content adapted to their needs.
Educators
Student profiling;
Predicting student performance;
Predicting student dropout;
Improving content organization;
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 20
Receiving suggestions for instructional actions;
Providing feedback educators’ interventions;
Determining and retaining the students’ level of interest.
Administrators
Improving curriculums, schedules and procedures;
Identifying useful frameworks, methods and tools;
Domain modeling;
Improving efficiency and marketing/admission measures;
In [BJL15] the authors state that learner-centered approaches to higher ed-
ucation require that instructors have insight into their student’s characteristics
before they start the course. For that, they also agree that all the information
about students should be given to them: demographics, enrollment history
and general academic performance.
The aggregation of great quantities of data can raise ethical concerns and
the rights to privacy, informed consent and transparency must be taken into
account for the design of the procedures for data collection, aggregation and
analysis. As a result, data often needs to be anonymized so that the data
subjects are unidentifiable and security safeguards might be considered. Some
authors propose to follow a checklist to guarantee ethical and law-abiding
implementations [DH16].
4.5 Methods for Learning Analytics
This section addresses the methods that can be applied for the analysis of
educational data, highlighting those oriented to model student profiles and to
predict student performance and dropout with the final goal of enhancing tu-
toring. Nevertheless, other previous works also apply educational data mining
to improve assessment or facilitate student support and feedback.
Several surveys review the techniques that have been used in different ap-
plications of educational data mining ([PZK14]; [PA14]; [RC13]; [CV10].
The unsupervised learning techniques [HT09] can be used to improve the
understanding about the data structure, either at an exploratory data analysis
stage or iteratively (and interactively) to guide exploration [CV10]; [JSKE12].
For instance, clustering methods such as k-Means[XR05], which group in-
stances according to their similarity, can be used to obtain student clusters that
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 21
can help discovering and understanding student profiles. Dimensionality re-
duction algorithms, which transform the original data set to a low-dimensional
representation (a representation with fewer variables) that preserves as much
information as possible according to certain criteria [JM07], are generally used
to enable information visualization. Visual data mining takes advantage of
the human reasoning abilities for insight discovery and interpretation [Kei02].
An example of the application of information visualization to educational data
mining is the analysis of students behaviour and their interaction with learn-
ing environments [CV10]. Additionally, association rule mining techniques,
which find joint values of the variables that appear frequently together in a
data set [HT09], can also be used in educational environments to produce
recommendations and customize learning.
On the other hand, supervised learning methods (Bishop, 2006) can be
used to enable profiling [IW14] or academic performance and dropout pre-
diction [YE14]. Supervised learning methods use labeled training data, i.e.,
examples of input vectors along with their desired output values. If the output
is continuous, it is a regression problem. When the outputs are discrete cate-
gories, it is called classification. Due to its importance for the project goals,
the classification techniques are described in more detail.
Collaborative filtering techniques can also be used to predict student per-
formance [RPI17]. These techniques, generally used in recommender systems,
predict missing values in a sparse matrix from other rows [XT09].
Finally, social network analysis is used in the cases where the objects of
interest are the relationships between individuals, instead of individual at-
tributes or properties [CV10].
4.6 Advanced Classification Methods
One of the most significant tasks in educational data mining is classification,
e.g., to identify to which category/profile a new student belongs so that tutor-
ing actions can be carried out. The classification task requires a training data
set, labeled according to pedagogical principles. Among the plethora of clas-
sification algorithms [HT09]; [DRO01], some very well-known techniques can
be highlighted. Although the description of the algorithms in the rest of the
section assumes that the goal is binary classification, it is normally possible to
generalize the algorithms to multi-class problems.
Logistic regression is a generalized linear model that models the conditional
distribution of the target y given the input variables x as Bernoulli, because
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 22
the dependent variable is binary. For that purpose, unlike linear regression, it
uses the logistic/sigmoid function in the hypothesis [DS89]. Due to its simplic-
ity, this method has been widely used in the area of educational data mining
and learning analytics [RPI17]. Naive Bayes is also a linear classifier, but it is
a generative model, in contrast to logistic regression, which is a discriminative
model. For that reason, it models the joint probability of the input variables
from the training data and uses Bayes rules to estimate p(y|x). This proba-
bilistic technique assumes that feature values are completely independent of
each other [PM97] . Again, its use in educational analytics is common [YE14];
[RPI17].
Support vector machines (SVM) construct a hyperplane that separates,
with a maximum margin, two classes. The hyperplane only depends on a
small subset of samples that are found near to it (support vectors) [CC95].
It can perform nonlinear classification by using nonlinear kernel functions in
the dot products. This allows fitting the maximum-margin hyperplane in a
high-dimensional transformed feature space. There are also examples of its
application to learning analytics in the literature [IW14]; [RPI17].
A different strategy to statistical and geometrical classifiers are decision
trees, which create a predictive model by learning simple decision rules inferred
from the data features. In this direction, the use of random forests to detect
student dropout has been already studied [RPI17]. Random forests combine
many decision trees through majority vote. Each tree is obtained from a
subset of the training data set obtained through bootstrapping, and using a
random subset of the features [Bre01]. This procedure might lead to better
model performance, decreasing the variance of the model without increasing
the bias.
Furthermore, a random forest can be seen as a particular case of ensemble
method. Ensemble classifiers combine the prediction of several base estimators
(not limited to decision trees) in order to improve the performance or robust-
ness of single classifiers [Die00]. Common types of ensembles are obtained
through bootstrap aggregating (or bagging) or boosting. Bagging methods
choose the training instances using a uniform distribution, whereas boosting
methods choose the instances to concentrate the efforts on those that have
been not learned appropriately.
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 23
5 Student Profiles and Tutoring action
Educational data mining and learning analytics are used to research and build
models in several areas that can influence online learning systems. One area
is user modelling, which encompasses what a learner knows, what a learner’s
behaviour and motivation are, what the user experience is like, and how satis-
fied users are with online learning. At the simplest level, analytics can detect
when a student in an online course is going astray and nudge him or her on
to a course correction. At the most complex, they hold promise of detecting
boredom from patterns of key clicks and redirecting the student’s attention.
Because these data are gathered in real time, there is a real possibility of con-
tinuous improvement via multiple feedback loops that operate at different time
scales immediate to the student for the next problem, daily to the teacher for
the next days teaching, monthly to the principal for judging progress, and an-
nually to the district and state administrators for overall school improvement.
The same kinds of data that inform user or learner models can be used to
profile users. Profiling as used here means grouping similar users into cate-
gories using salient characteristics. These categories then can be used to offer
experiences to groups of users or to make recommendations to the users and
adaptations to how a system performs.
5.1 Teaching Learning Attitudes and Methods
Choosing the right career scenario and consistent pursuit of its track is im-
portant and beneficial for every citizen of the global community. Sadly, there
are students, who apparently have reconsidered their career and decided to
leave the studies. However, the number of students who decide to quit can
and should be lowered.
Some of the universities are aware of the problem and to find the answer,
various methodologies are chosen. The most common way of determining the
reason for leaving academia is by a simple questionnaire. Such a document
usually unveils reasons that, according to the university authorities, are sus-
pected to be relevant. Online resources of the biggest universities in Poland
were inspected, as well as 100 Google search results (for such a document), to
get the basic view of the issue - from the universities’ point of view. A total
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 24
number of (only) 5 such documents and 1 report have been found. Table 1
shows the occurrence of specific questions in all analysed questionnaires.
Although the questionnaires are designed basing on the universities expe-
rience regarding students that decided to quit their studies, the questions are
usually chosen empirically - not as a result of any research - so the options
that are suggested to the student might not be quintessential.
On the other hand, a preliminary research was conducted, in which students
of last years were asked about the honesty of reasons given by other students
in such questionnaires, and the results are intriguing: in their opinion only
about 40% of students would give the real reason for leaving university. The
respondents were also told to choose the most common "fake" reasons for
quitting, as well as the real reasons that remain untold. The top 5 of these
two categories are listed in tables 2 and 3.
In order to find the real reasons for leaving academia, in order to help
students profile their careers, much broader research has to be conducted. The
most fundamental issue seems to be to understand student’s situation, and the
circumstances that led to it. And above all, to determine at which point in
his/her career a student has lost the motivation and/or capacity to continue
learning. After graduating, young generation should not only have specific
knowledge and skills that they learn during their education period, but they
should also have a broader point of view and, most of all, they should have the
ability to learn. The PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment)
2012 [OEC13] report explicitly points out that in the time of ongoing economic
crisis the urgency of development of citizens skills has increased, and that the
investment in developing skills (not only in the education system, but also
in the workplace) is fundamental for the economic recovery and for future
growth. For this reason, students not only should be able to recognize the
sense and the need for getting new knowledge and skills, but they also should
be capable of setting new objectives, adapting their learning approach, and
to face and overcome any problems and challenges in their lives. Nowadays,
everyday life and every job require the ability to adapt to changes, the ability
to learn throughout the life.
According to the literature [OEC04], the loss of motivation happens more
frequently in situations where a student has lost their potential to master fun-
damental concepts and skills, usually due to feeling alienated and disengaged
from the context of learning. For this reason, not only the cognitive outcomes
of education are important, but also: their belief in their capabilities, their
motivation and their engagement.
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 25
Table 1. Occurrence of specific questions in analyzed questionnaires.
No Rank Question Occurrence
1 1 Disappointed with contents (subjects) of the studies (other than expectations) 4
2 2 Disappointed with the quality of Workshops/Lectures or methodology 3
3 2 Problems with mastering material and/or not completing the semester 3
4 2 Lack of career prospects after graduation 3
5 2 Inadequate premises of university or equipment of teaching rooms 3
6 2 Financial problems 3
7 2 Changing professional interests or life plans 3
8 3 Changing University / Faculty / Discipline 2
9 3 Low level of education 2
10 3 Lack of acceptance of other students 2
11 3 Family or health problems 2
12 3 Bad service in the dean’s office /administration, discourtesy or tardiness 2
13 3 Too difficult subjects/requirements 2
14 3 Other ..... 2
15 4 Finding a better didactic offer 1
16 4 Mistreatment by teachers 1
17 4 Discrimination (e.g. Due to cultural differences, national origin, gender or other) 1
18 4 Lack of help and support from the University 1
19 4 Not sufficient adaptations for persons with disabilities 1
20 4 Difficult subjects right from the 1st year 1
21 4 Functioning of the dormitories 1
22 4 Leaving country 1
23 4 Working while studying 1
24 4 Recruited just to get the status of a student 1
25 4 Studying just temporarily because I did not get to my 1st choice studies 1
26 4 Low salaries after graduation 1
27 4 Poor organization of teaching hours (timetable) 1
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 26
Table 2. Top 5 questions, which - according to students - are chosen to hide the real
reason for leaving university
No Question Score (1..5)
1 Family or health problems 3,90
2 Financial problems 3,62
3 Lack of career prospects after graduation 3,59
4 Leaving country 3,50
5 Other ..... 3,33
Table 3. Top 5 questions, which - according to students - remain untold (and another
reason is chosen untruthfully
No Question Score (1..5)
1 Too difficult subjects/requirements 4,09
2 Problems with mastering material and/or not completing semester 4,00
3 Working while studying 3,95
4 Difficult subjects right from the 1st year 3,95
5 Lack of career prospects after graduation 3,84
These aspects lead to an assumption that the problem of loss of career op-
portunities should not be investigated in the day of leaving the university, but
much earlier. Even capturing the timespan of difficulties in learning specific
subject might be insufficient. It seems that the very beginning of the break-
down may be associated with the change of student’s interest in learning for
that particular subject - a change in their learning attitude.
Although the terms "learning attitude" and "attitude" seem to be self-
explanatory and their definition can be found in many publications, according
to [Ric96] and [GJ63], attitudes research often is limited to drawing the most
obvious conclusions. Nevertheless, Learning Attitudes are (and should) be
defined in literature - the PISA report 2003 [OEC04] authors describe four
aspects of students’ attitudes to learning:
1. student’s "general attitude towards school",
2. student’s "beliefs about themselves as learners", (although some litera-
ture [Ric96] differentiates attitudes from beliefs)
3. student’s anxiety in a particular subject or discipline,
4. student’s learning strategies.
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 27
Whereas in [TM04] authors evaluated 49 factors and proposed six cate-
gories, five of which consider students Learning Attitudes:
1. "confidence - confidence and self-concept of their performance",
2. "anxiety - feelings of anxiety and consequences of these feelings",
3. "value - students’ beliefs on the usefulness, relevance and worth of" a
specific subject "in their life now and in the future",
4. "enjoyment - the degree to which students enjoy" that specific subject,
5. motivation - interest in a specific subject and desire to use that knowledge
in the future.
These five categories do not completely overlap with PISA report’s list of
attitudes, for that reason it might be crucial to consider a new set of attitudes,
updated due to the availability of new technology in global community (as well
as modern teaching methodologies), which could be addressed to investigate
the reasons for leaving academia.
Keeping in mind the questionnaires referred to in table 1, as well as the
above-mentioned Learning Attitudes, a following list of Learning Attitudes
may be proposed:
1. student’s general attitude towards learning (i.e. willing to make an effort
to get new knowledge or skills),
2. student’s beliefs about their learning capability and confidence (i.e. self-
confidence of being able to master new knowledge or skills),
3. student’s anxiety in a particular subject or discipline (i.e. emotional
distress, tension or uneasiness, in some cases caused by apprehension of
possible future failure),
4. value (as in [TM04]),
5. student’s motivation in learning that particular subject or discipline (in-
cluding inter alia: personal career objectives, student’s interest in a specific
field, successful teaching methodologies),
6. enjoyment (as in [TM04]),
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 28
7. student’s discipline-oriented attitude towards learning and self-learning
(i.e. student’s curiosity and determination to search for the knowledge and
skills, to make active learning efforts, to search for the optimal learning
strategies), including a broader view than just a single subject,
8. student’s attitude towards the economical situation of country or families
in that country (in relation to other countries, taking into consideration
possible migration)
Of course, this set of propositions of Learning Attitudes should be revised
by conducting a more detailed study, and it should be used for determining the
real drop-out reasons (e.g. "loss of personal motivation in learning mathemat-
ics on 1st semester") instead of the resulting drop-out reasons (e.g. "failing to
complete the 2nd semester of mathematics").
Understanding the Learning Attitudes of students should underlie reason-
ing and argumentation on the explanation of the drop-out rate.
On the other hand, not only students are the ones who should be influenced
to change attitude. The literature also describes Teaching Attitudes that char-
acterize teachers, to show specific aspects that influence the learning process.
The paper [dSBE97] lists seven Teaching Attitudes that affect negatively the
learning process:
1. teachers’ "lack of confidence about subject content",
2. teachers acting just as "information providers",
3. teachers tending to "separate theory and practice",
4. teachers avoiding new and innovative teaching methodologies,
5. teachers’ "lack of coherence" between the interactivity of their teaching
methodologies (in their subjective opinion) and the real interactivity level
of particular lessons,
6. teachers, when interacting with academically weaker students, tend to
have lower expectations and this "generates poor teaching practices",
7. teachers’ actual working conditions. Paper [Ric96] indicates also that
some of the social issues that are visible in the literature should be taken
into consideration:
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 29
8. teacher’s attitudes "related to democratic and authoritarian attitudes"
[Ric96],[Rok61],
9. teachers’ attitudes resulting from their gender, ethnicity and race [EGB95],
The analysis of drop-out rate, as well as any success indicator of the learn-
ing process, should also include relation to teaching methodologies used in
the classroom. For this reason, it might be worth to examine:
10. teacher’s attitudes towards "practical knowledge and experiential learn-
ing" and "orientation and structure of practical knowledge, cognitive style,
and reflections on research activity" [Elb83] in a particular subject, under-
stood also in terms of teaching methodology,
As for the purpose of drop-out rate analysis, the following set of Teaching
Attitudes can be proposed (and should be verified):
1. teacher’s general attitude towards teaching (including job satisfaction
and working conditions),
2. teacher’s attitude towards diverging teaching methodologies (including
new and innovative methodologies, interactive methodologies, using variety
of methodologies, searching for optimal methodology for a specific group
or for academically weaker students),
3. teacher’s attitude towards linking theory to practice (i.e. showing the
usefulness of the subject in real life applications, combining the practical
knowledge with the used teaching methodologies),
4. teacher’s attitude towards the subject being taught (including the subject
foundations, applicability, as well as the state-of-the-art research in the
field),
5. teacher’s attitude towards students’ motivation, understanding and valu-
ing the subject (i.e. igniting students’ curiosity, motivating them, showing
the value of the subject in their careers),
6. teacher’s attitudes towards social issues of students (hopefully neutral -
inter alia: gender, ethnicity, nationality, race, etc.).
Although Teaching Attitudes do have influence on students’ outcomes (in-
cluding the decisions of leaving the university), it seems to be more difficult to
assess if there is a connection between information included in the student’s
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 30
university records and particular teachers. If yes, than it would be clearly
possible to determine some of the Teaching Attitudes influencing the drop-out
rate.
It is also important to keep in mind, that there are other factors influencing
students’ decisions, some of which concern for example:
1. the influence and attitudes of the most important people in student’s life,
family and friends [Ren94],
2. community’s involvement and attitudes [BJL15].
The social context of the student is related with the education level of the
people he leads with, health habits and financial support. As it was seen in
table 1 these parameters can have a great influence in student performance.
However, these factors seem to be difficult to be inferred from the student’s
university records.
This is the biggest challenge of our project: how to infer from academic
information the factors that are responsible for unsuccessful students.
For that techniques of learning analytics like statistics and data mining
must be used over several kind of digital information that is available in the
higher educational institution.
5.2 On Defining Different Profiles and Identified Label Flags
This first intellectual product of the project proposes to capture major paradigm
changes in working with students and new approaches in university education,
notably in the field of IT implementation and valorization of intelligent sys-
tems for data processing from official statistics reported about students at
universities in European states and early identification of students at risk of
dropout. Although the goal is very clear, the approach to achieve student
profiles in such a situation raises several questions and problems arising from
the difficulty of the challenge assumed by the project partners:
the official data reported by universities are quantitative, numerical, al-
lowing the statistical processing and obtaining relevant feedback on the
following indicators:
1. Number of students;
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 31
2. Student Explanatory Information;
3. Degree Information;
4. Student Performance Information.
the phenomenon of dropout from university studies has multiple causes
and requires a factorial analysis with at least two major categories of fac-
tors: internal factors related to the student’s personality and its level of
bio-psycho-social development and external factors related to the socio-
economic, cultural and educational environment in which the student de-
velops;
the official data reported by universities about students partly reflects
the two categories of factors, but enough to be able to identify in the
first instance the students with educational risk of dropout, information
which once obtained then calls on the attention of the teachers and the
management of the university to initiate some tutorial actions, counseling
and failure avoidance;
tutoring and counseling will later complete the student profile by ob-
taining qualitative data about the student with dropout risk, information
generated by tools such as questionnaire, interview, checklist, structured
essay; The data collected will allow personalization of the profile and iden-
tification of other causes of socio-emotional and attitude-behavioral nature
not found in official data statistically reported by universities.
The issue of the project is complex and the hypotheses generated and to
be validated during the project are outlined around the following coordinates:
What are the dominant causes and the factors favoring the risk of student
dropout?
What are the characteristics of a student who is at risk of dropout?
Can we outline some generally valid student profiles with an educational
risk which reflects the typology and the patterns found in our universities?
Can we identify students with educational risk of dropout by using data
processing based on the data reported officially by universities?
What is the structure of such a database and what other processing op-
portunities can be created for this?
What are the desirable and most effective tutorial actions that follow
identifying students with dropout risk?
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 32
Answers to these questions are not easy, and research and innovation
work involves an integrated and complementary approach between the partner
teams in the project to study the literature, legislative documents, the Euro-
pean Council official reports, official student reports, to have quantitative and
qualitative investigation based on interviews, questionnaires, focus groups etc.
with students and academic staff. The approach will thus allow to capture the
official guidelines and their correlation with the student reality reflected in the
perception of the young people, of the academic staff, actions that will favor
the collection of sufficient data to accurately outline the student profiles with
dropout risk and to propose an innovative and functional IT tool.
The proposed IT solution integrates the main functions of such a system,
to provide strong support to project managers and team members and, on
the other hand, to highlight the positive impact of information systems de-
veloped using web technologies in project management and subsequently on
the success of businesses. Thus, the objectives associated with the informa-
tion system designed and implemented refers, primarily, to the facilitation of
communication between team members and the project manager, eliminating
the geographical barriers and the extension of access area, to monitoring and
continuous control of their project development through team, costs, time and
risk management.7
5.2.1 On Definying Psycho-Pedagogical Profiles of Students
University education, through its specificity, facilitates the access of vari-
ous categories of students, both from the point of view of academic abilities
and psychological, socio-cultural or economic background. This diversity im-
plies the assumption by the higher education institution of the responsibility
to create an appropriate environment for the formation and development of
students’ academic and professional competences. In this respect, the de-
velopment of typologies, psycho-pedagogical profiles of students can provide
universities with the necessary support to better understand student behavior
and attitudes towards learning.
Any scientific approach that aims to develop a human typology is based
on identifying the main characteristics of the target group and the factors
that influence them. Factors that interfere positively or negatively with aca-
demic results are subjects of major interest to university educational programs
7Lupasc, A., 2016, Project Management Information System Based on Web Technologies,
accept publicare ICI Proceedings, Conference EduWorld 2016, The European Proceedings
of Social and Behavioural Sciences EpSBS, e-ISSN: 2357-1330, Published by the Future
Academy
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 33
aimed at increasing/maximizing academic performance, learning experiences
of students and reducing dropout rates
Numerous categories of variables influencing academic success can be iden-
tified in the literature, with most researches in the field highlighting the im-
portance of four major levels of their analysis: individual/personal level, insti-
tutional/organizational level, level regarding the national educational policies
in higher education and economic level. In general, the individual level empha-
sizes the importance of personal, psychosocial characteristics; the institutional
level is described by the specifics of the higher education institution (organi-
zational culture, learning facilities, socio-cultural activities etc.); the level of
national educational policies refers to the particularities of the university ed-
ucation system from the perspective of access, learning, evaluation, structure;
the economic level being represented by the financial aspects derived both from
the study years path and from the professional alternatives offered to students
and graduates. It is important to note that these factors are interdependent,
influencing each other and acting on the student’s academic behavior, both
directly and indirectly [VKJ+15]; [VKJ+15].
The psychological theories and research undertaken to date emphasize the
particular role that individual psychological characteristics have on the stu-
dent’s performance [Ban82]; [BE00]; [BH05]; [Tin92]. What is the level of
student’s academic abilities? Can he/she face the demands of the university
environment?
Most studies have demonstrated the existence of a relationship between the
student’s educational path, high school and university performances, with a
higher dropout rate for students with lower secondary school outcomes [LG08].
Successful completion of university studies involves, besides cognitive train-
ing, also motivational processes, self-esteem, self-efficacy and adaptability. A
low level regarding these issues have a negative impact on academic achieve-
ments and increasse the probability of failure and dropout [BE00], [Ban86],
[CHG01], [TCH09]. Although the intrinsec motivation is predictively associ-
ated with academic success, however, lack of motivation is negatively associ-
ated with student performance. An interesting aspect is related to admission
criteria, students’ performance analysis indicating a higher rate of academic
abandonment in case of study programs with more permissive criteria than
those with high requirements, due to the motivational mechanisms involved
and the level of effort made.
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 34
The academic expectations of the student towards university studies and
the university environment are also very important, and a high level of self-
efficacy is related to academic success [Ban86]; [CHG01]. Instead, unrealis-
tic expectations about academic outcomes (and/or social) caused by various
factors such as incorrect or incomplete information about the curriculum, in-
correct estimates of one’s own ability to cope with the academic environment
may lead to lower performance or dropout.
Another important factor is the socio-economic status of the student’s fam-
ily [TCH09]. A supportive family that encourages the development of com-
munication skills, autonomy and respect for learning can favor the academic
performance. The financial resources available during the studies influence the
student’s ability to integrate into the academic community, sometimes their
absence or their low level determining either the interruption of their studies,
the dropout or a lower involvement in academic activity (often students must
have a job resulting that the time allocated to studies diminishes significantly).
Parents’ level of training is relevant to the extent that they can constitute in-
formational sources (cognitive, social and cultural) and affective-motivational
to facilitate student adaptation and academic integration. Although the fe-
male student’s academic outcomes are generally considered to be superior to
male students (both in terms of rate of advancement and performance level),
these differences are based on several variables to be considered: the social-
economic status, the specifics of the study program, family support. The study
by [SD12] highlights the existence of a dropout or domain change rate greater
if the student is a minority in terms of the specificity of the field.
Regarding the influence of ethnicity/nationality on academic results, stud-
ies have shown a higher dropout rate and lower performance in the case of
minorities [HSJ01]; [RB10]; [TCH09]. The basis for these results is often the
cultural differences in education and training or incorrect information on the
specifics of the study program.
The impact of socio-economic factors, belonging to a certain category of
gender or ethnicity/nationality on academic success is not uniquely deter-
mined, and no pattern of direct influence is identified. Rather, we can talk
about a mediated influence, an interaction between these factors and other
conditions that mark the success or academic failure.
Tinto’s perspective [Tin87] on institutional functioning and development
underlines the importance of establishing and communicating specific expec-
tations to create a productive learning environment, highlighting the ongoing
interactions between each student and the institutional structures of the uni-
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 35
versity. The organizational characteristics of the higher education institution
(size, structure, educational resources, facilities for students) can have a strong
effect on students’ psychosocial and economic adaptation and integration, and
therefore on dropout rates.
The institutional factor can influence academic success and the dropout
or failure rate through strategies implemented at institutional level to in-
volve the students in the development of a culture appropriate to learning,
adaptation and psychosocial and educational integration (clear presentation
of pre-requirements for a study program, clear formulation of the expectation
regarding the curriculum, granting support in choosing the study program
according to the individual characteristics of the student).
One of the factors with the greatest impact on the success or dropout
rate of studies is the economic one. In the current socio-economic context,
participation in learning activities is influenced by the cost-benefit relation.
Costs include issues related to school fees, participation in various activities,
giving up work etc. Thus, institutional policies related to highlighting short,
medium and long-term benefits, financial support for certain social categories,
graduates’ employability become extremely important.
By analyzing the impact of these factors on the student’s academic perfor-
mance, we can identify predictors of student success or failure, study dropout
or willingness to continue. In this prevention and intervention strategies can
be developed and implemented to reduce or even eliminate the negative effects
of the involved elements.
5.2.2 On Definying the Profiles of Students with a Dropout Risk
Previous studies and research have highlighted the causes and factors in-
volved in the risk of dropping out of university studies, many of which have
been identified since the first year of study. Thus, students considered to be
with dropout risk in the higher education system are:
Students from families with low socio-economic status: parents do not
have higher education; family income is low;
Students with a low level of previous school performance;
Students belonging to minorities or disadvantaged social categories;
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 36
Students with poor results from first-year assessment (a special case is
represented by students who have high performance before entering the
higher education system and have low academic outcomes);
Students enrolled in several study programs.
The literature [CO14] highlights various typologies of students at risk of drop-
ping out of university studies with various (statistically and empirically) dif-
ferent criteria, including:
self-confidence;
choice of the study program - the factors that influenced the student’s
choice (parents, friends, school, own choice);
career success - interest regarding the career and the status in the chosen
study program;
school results - both previous ones and those obtained during university
studies.
The psycho-pedagogical profiles of students with dropout risk can be elab-
orated by complex analysis of the data obtained and those of demographic
nature. The following typologies/profiles can therefore be proposed:
undecided - are those students who are still unsure about their chosen ed-
ucation/profesional path or career they want to follow. They are students
with low self-confidence, whose decision about the field of study has been
strongly influenced by external factors, not by their career interests (want-
ing a professional status/career success, but I do not yet know in which
domain). In their case, academic performance is often low (previous school
results may be high);
exploratory - are students who go from one study program to another in
search of the right field. They have common features with the "undecided"
category regarding uncertainty about the choice of the study program.
These students want academic performance and professional success, they
often know their own abilities and interests, having difficulties in selecting
the right study program. Often they enroll in more specializations at the
same time, or they pass from one specialization to another (sometimes the
study areas are extremely different). Abandonment of a study program can
take place through definitive withdrawn, by changing the higher education
institution or by achieving very low performance;
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 37
uncommitted - students who are not interested in academic progress or
career success. They are characterized by a low self-confidence (even if ap-
parently, their behavior suggests the opposite), significant influences from
external factors in choosing the study program or even the educational in-
stitution. Their interests are not related to academic performance but are
centered on other aspects of their lives.
To these profiles, which present a clear pattern of the risk of dropping out
of academic studies, can be added others which, under certain conditions, may
present behaviors of this kind:
scholars - is the category of students who have/want academic perfor-
mance, but for one reason or another they give up. These reasons may
be financial, medical, social (membership of a social minority) or intellec-
tual (the program of study chosen does not meet the expectations, they
are pursuing a different direction/professional training than the offered one
etc.).
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 38
6 Software application
6.1 Proposal for data set format
It must be remarked that the final aim of this activity is to determine and
categorise the different profiles for engineering students across Europe, under
the assumption that students? performance can be classified according to their
behaviour while conducting their studies. The academic records of those stu-
dents are stored on the academic offices of our Engineering Schools/Faculties
and these records do not only include the performance of the student on the
different subjects of the degree but also collateral information (geographical
info, previous studies, age, etc.). This information could be used to help char-
acterise the student by means of data science techniques and, as a result, help
tutors to better understand their students and improve counselling actions.
One of the characteristics of the proposed approach is its transnational
nature, since the fact of obtaining (or not) the same student classifications
and profiles will help identify the common characteristics on engineers coming
from different EU institutions. The differences on a country/institution basis
will also be exposed and lead to deeper analysis.
Due to this transnational nature, it is necessary to choose the appropriate
variables and representation to cover the differences in course organization at a
country level. Additionally, the data set must include students? demographic
data while complying with privacy regulations of the European Union. As a
result, the proposed data set uses variables obtained from the administrative
records of the students, such as demographic data, courses taken or academic
performance.
Figure (2) shows the initial, minimum core data set, proposed to perform
the analysis. It is also possible to augment the data set with other potentially
useful additional data sources, e.g., the regional/metropolitan socio-economic
indicators provided by organizations such as the Organisation for Economic
Co-operation and Development.
Examples of similar data set formats can be found in the literature. For
instance, features such as student demographic data (age, gender, country of
residence, citizenship?), educational background (secondary school, highest ed-
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 39
Figure 2. Relational model of the proposed structure of the dataset
ucation level?), or current and past information about study units (study area,
enrolment mode, delivery method, average grade?) are considered in [IW14]
for student profile modeling. The publicly available Open University Dataset
[KPHZ16] also includes this information along with data from the interactions
of the students with a virtual learning environment. In [RPI17], only the final
grades of the courses are used to predict dropout and performance.
6.2 Proposed software architecture
This section describes the software architecture needed to deploy the support-
ing IT tools for tutoring. These tools should help determine the profile one
student complies, once key labels for the different profiles have been obtained,
so that the tutor knows how to provide the student with the appropriate sug-
gestions in order to increase its performance and satisfaction with the studies.
These IT tools will be deployed as web applications, since their benefits
with regard to accessibility, interoperability and easier maintenance make them
more suitable for this purpose.
From an architectural point of view, the applications might follow a Model-
View-Controller (MVC) pattern, which divides an application into three in-
terconnected parts in order to separate internal representations of information
from the ways that information is presented to and accepted from the user.
In this pattern, the models represent knowledge, i.e., they will include the
student data and the results of the methods that we applied for the analysis
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 40
of educational data. All this information will be stored in a database whose
structure will be based on the relational model described in the previous sec-
tion. On the other hand, the view is a (visual) representation of the model
that can highlight certain attributes of the model and suppress others. A view
is attached to its model (or model part) and gets the data necessary for the
presentation from the model by asking questions. Dynamic web pages with
support for querying, interaction and different types of visualizations can be
used as the views of our architecture. Finally, the controller is the link between
the user and the system that provides the views and presents the data to the
user. It provides means for user output by presenting the user with menus or
other means of giving commands and data.
Figure 3. Architecture for the software tool to be developed
Additionally, the architecture might also follow the Representational State
Transfer (REST) style. This approach specifies constraints to a web service
that restrict how the server may process and respond to client requests so that
desirable non-functional properties are achieved, such as performance, scalabil-
ity, simplicity, etc. RESTful web services are stateless and their data and func-
tionality are considered resources. These resources are accessed through a uni-
form interface using the HTTP methods: PUT, GET, POST, and DELETE.
From an implementation perspective, a suitable technology for the server-
side components is Python, because of its simplicity and the availability of
widely-supported libraries for data analysis (Pandas, Scikit-learn, TensorFlow,
etc.) and web frameworks (Django, Flask, etc.). Data will be stored in a rela-
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 41
Figure 4. Clustering procedure for student’s data analysis and classification
tional database which can be interfaced directly by the framework or through
some object-relational mapping.
Interactivity and visualization in the client-side can be provided by JavaScript
libraries, such as D3.js or P5.js, that take advantages of the features supported
by HTML 5. The aim, in any case, is that these rich Internet applications that
provide tutoring support use web standards.
6.3 Preliminary classification methods
As a first iteration, SPEET project will apply clustering and classification
methods to start to obtain students? performance patterns. The objective
is to obtain initial results that will allow us to identify the kind of students
existing at the different degrees/universities along with the main attributes
that characterize such students. To do this, a static approach will be followed
by analyzing performance results of students that already have finished their
degrees. Next, we present the three steps considered to perform this analysis.
6.3.1 Clustering
In figure (4), we present the clustering procedure. Concerning the Segmen-
tation Variables, these are the variable associated to students? performance,
i.e., attributes included at subjects table (see data set format at previous sec-
tion).
The idea behind this procedure is to organize students at different groups
(clusters) based on their performance results. To do so, a classical clustering
approach will be adopted, k-means, based on gathering in a cluster those el-
ements with the highest similarity. The goal is to obtain 3 or 4 clusters as
observed in the figure. As for the Data cleaning and pre-processing block, this
block is aimed at prepare the data. Data coming from academic management
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 42
Figure 5. Clustering procedure for student’s data analysis and classification
databases could not be complete. Besides, data coming from different uni-
versities should be uniformed to allow for the exploitation of the same data
mining algorithms.
6.3.2 Clustering explanation
Once students are properly organized in clusters, the goal is to try to
understand why these students have these performance results. In other words,
the goal is to answer the question Are students belonging to a given cluster
characterized by a set of explanatory variables?. These explanatory variables
are those belonging to students table (see data set format at previous section).
Figure (5), we present the clustering explanation procedure. As observed,
a Linear Discrimination Analysis (LDA) algorithm will be adopted due to
the ability the algorithm have to obtain the exogenous attributes driving the
elements belonging to a cluster.
6.3.3 New student classification
The final step of this static approach is to classify a new student entering
the system. In other words, to assign a performance cluster to a new student
based on the explanatory variables of this student. The goal here is to try to
anticipate performance results of this student to provide proper tutoring aid.
This procedure is presented at Figure (6), where LDA is adopted again due to
the ability this algorithm provides to perform classification tasks.
6.4 Advanced classification methods for grouped data
The main rationale behind SPEET proposal is the observation that students
performance can be classified according to their behavior while conducting
their studies, that is determine and categorize the different profiles for engi-
neering students across Europe. In order to complement the static analysis
presented in the previous section, the project will also perform an advanced
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 43
Figure 6. Clustering procedure for student’s data analysis and classification
classification approach as a second iteration. To do it, this document presents
the most advanced methods of analysis on data that are grouped according
to one or more classification factors (students within engineering faculties,
engineering faculties within universities, universities within countries and so
on).
6.4.1 Generalized linear mixed-effects models (GLME)
Many common statistical models can be expressed as linear models that
incorporate both fixed effects, which are parameters associated with an entire
population or with certain repeatable levels of experimental factors, and ran-
dom effects, which are associated with individual experimental units drawn
at random from a population. A model with both fixed effects and random
effects is called mixed-effects model. By associating common random effects
to observations sharing the same level of a classification factor, mixed-effects
models flexibly represent the covariance structure induced by the grouping of
the data.
The generalized linear mixed-effects model (GLME model) is a further
extension that admits for example a response which is binary in nature (logistic
model like 0 = student graduated on time, 1 = student who delays graduation
) or multi-category (multinomial observations that includes nominal responses
like "students that finish degree on time", "students blocked on a certain set
of subjects", "students that leave degree earlier", ...).
6.4.2 Classification and regression tress (CART)
Classification and regression trees are machine-learning methods for con-
structing prediction models from data. The models are obtained by recursively
partitioning the data space and fitting a simple prediction model within each
partition. As a result, the partitioning can be represented graphically as a
decision tree.
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 44
Classification trees are designed for dependent variables that take a finite
number of unordered values, with prediction error measured in terms of mis-
classification cost. Regression trees are for dependent variables that take con-
tinuous or ordered discrete values, with prediction error typically measured
by the mean sum of squared difference between the observed and predicted
values.
6.4.3 Resulting estimation method (RE-EM Tree)
The methodology that combines the structure of mixed-effects models for
longitudinal and clustered data with the flexibility of tree-based estimation
methods, is the resulting estimation method, called the RE-EM tree. The
RE-EM tree is less sensitive to parametric assumptions and provides improved
predictive power compared to linear models with random effects and regression
trees without random effects.
Traditional mixed-effects models, such as the linear mixed-effects model,
neither the random effects nor the fixed effects are known, so there is an
alternation between estimating the regression tree, assuming that the estimates
of the random effects are correct, and estimating the random effects, assuming
that the regression tree is correct. This alternation between the estimation
of different parameters is reminiscent of the EM algorithm, as used by Laird
and Ware (1982); for this reason, the resulting estimator is called Random
Effects/EM Tree, or RE-EM Tree.
6.4.4 Support Vector Machines
?Support Vector Machine? (SVM) is a supervised machine-learning al-
gorithm which can be used for both classification and regression challenges.
However, it is mostly used in classification problems. In this algorithm, each
data item is plotted as a point in n-dimensional space (where n is number of
features you have) with the value of each feature being the value of a particular
coordinate. Then, a classification is identified by finding the hyper-plane that
differentiate the two classes in the best way.
In addition to performing linear classification, SVMs can efficiently per-
form a non-linear classification using what is called the kernel trick, implicitly
mapping their inputs into high-dimensional feature spaces.
INTELELCTUAL OUTPUT #1 45
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