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A Bulb of Narcissus on the Egyptian Mummy from University of Wrocław Collection

Authors:
A Bulb of Narcissus on the Egyptian Mummy from
University of Wrocław Collection
K B, A N, A N,
A T, K W,
A Ż
Abstract: The object of the present study is the ancient bulb of the narcissus found on the
mummy, probably of the Ptolemaic period, brought to Wrocław from Italy in the sixteenth
century . For about four hundred years the mummy was kept by the successive owners
of one of pharmacies in Wrocław, and after the World War II became the possession of
Wrocław University. Computed tomography made in 2002 revealed an atypical object
lying under the left hand of the mummy. Extracted in 2004 it appeared to be the bulb of
a ower, and botanical analysis has revealed that it represents the Narcissus tazetta L.
species. Although the narcissus was known in Egypt, its identifi cation in the ancient
sources has never been attempted. Thanks to the analysis of the bio-medical properties
of the narcissus, compared with some descriptions of remedies proposed by the medical
papyri Ebers and Hearts, as well as with some religious magical texts an identifi cation of
the sennut plant with narcissus is proposed here.
Keywords: Ptolemaic Egypt, Egyptian mummy, fl ower bulb, Narcissus tazetta L., medical
papyri, Nefertum
Krzysztof Borysławski, Department of Anthropology, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences,
Wrocław; krzysztof.boryslawski@upwr.edu.pl
Anna Niwińska, Center for Biomedical Research, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life
Sciences, Warszawa; niwianna@gmail.com
Andrzej Niwiński, Department of Egyptian and Nubian Archaeology, Institute of Archaeology, University of
Warsaw, Warszawa; andrzejniwi.egipt@gmail.com
Agnieszka Tomaszewska, Department of Anthropology, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences,
Wrocław; agnieszka.tomaszewska@upwr.edu.pl
Krystyna Wasylikowa , Department of Palaeobotany, Władysław Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy
of Sciences, Kraków
Agnieszka Żelaźniewicz, Department of Human Biology, University of Wrocław, Wrocław;
agnieszka.zelazniewicz@uwr.edu.pl
The aim of this study is to present and discuss the atypical results obtained during the
investigation of a mummy in possession of the Department of Anthropology of Wrocław
University, Poland. The mummy was brought from Egypt through Italy in the sixteenth
Études et Travaux XXXI (2018), 111–122
DOI: 10.12775/EtudTrav.31.006
112 K. B, A. N, A. N, A. T, K. W, A. Ż
century , and was exposed, together with two other mummies, in the cabinet of curiosities
belonging to Laurentius Scholz von Rosenau, a medic and botanist living in Wrocław in
the years 1552–1599. The pavilion with the cabinet of curiosities was situated within the
area of the botanical garden founded by the city in 1588 and known as Hortus Scholzianus.1
After the death of Scholz the garden including the cabinet of curiosities was purchased by
the pharmacist Christian Krause (Crusius), and later inherited by his son, the medic and
pharmacist Jacob, owner of the ‘Pharmacy under Neger (‘Mohren-Apotheke’) situated
until today at the Solny Place, Wrocław.
In 1658 the renowned man of letters and scientist Andreas Gryphius (1616–1664),
then holding the high function in the administration of Głogów and having good relations
with members of the city council in Wrocław, was successful in arranging the agreement
of Jacob Crusius to perform an autopsy of one of the mummies. This event took place on
the 7th December 1658, probably in the old garden pavilion, in the company of a number
of high positioned citizens of Wrocław. The results of the autopsy were published in 1662
in a book edited by Vitus Jacobus Dreschers editorial house in Wrocław.2 Some of the
observations made on the mummy and the mummifi cation process are most interesting.
The skull was found torn off from the vertebral column, and, after the brain had been
removed, xed on a wooden stick. Under one foot of the mummy a ower was found,
either a lotus or onion.3 The mummy can probably be dated to the Ptolemaic or Roman
period, because of the position of hands crossed over the breasts (Fig. 1) and the fi nding
of a golden leaf, comparable perhaps to an object in the Pelizeaus Museum in Hildesheim.4
After the autopsy the investigated mummy was sold to the city councilor Jan Chris-
tian von Wolfsburg, then to another city councillor Godfrey Springer, and nally it was
handed, in 1717, to rector Christian Stieff as a gift to the library in Wrocław. The mummy
is now lost.
The second mummy owned by Jacob Crusius was in the time of the autopsy already
only in a fragmentary state, having probably been used by the pharmacist as the source of
production of the ‘healing’ powder known as mummia Aegyptiaca vera, highly esteemed
in those days.5
The third mummy, the object of this study, remained intact in the above mentioned
pharmacy in Wrocław, serving to appeal the potential customers and even also a kind of the
pharmacist’s identifi cation mark. The signs and hieroglyphs found on the mummy’s exterior
1 Śliwa 2012: 369–370.
2 Gryphius 1662.
3 Gryphius 1662: 38; Śliwa 2012: 375.
4 On the position of hands of mummies, cf.: Gray 1972: 200–202 (with the conclusion that the arms crossed
upon the breast prevail in Ptolemaic period); Ikram, Dodson 1998: 130 (with the conclusion that such a position
of the arms prevails in the Roman period). The multi-part type cartonnages appear on mummies dated from the
latest dynastic to the Roman period cf.: Myśliwiec, Herbich, Niwiński 1995: 195. A comparable material con-
cerning Ptolemaic mummies originates from the Polish excavations at Saqqara, cf.: Kaczmarek et al. 2008;
Radomska et al. 2008. The golden object in the form of the tongue, similar to that from Wrocław, was published
by Germer 1988: 25 (dated to the Roman period).
5 Geßler-Löhr 1998: 109–110; Urbanik, Rzepiela 2002: 572–579; Tomaszewska et al. 2012: 59.
A B  N   E M  U  W C 113
were practically illegible, and the mummy was blackened.6 After the end of the World
War II the mummy was handed to the Department of Anthropology, Wrocław University.
Placed in a glass case, covered with a piece of modern ornamented fabric, and crowned
with a tin cap (Fig. 2) the mummy soon was given the nickname ‘Snow White’ by school
children visiting the exposition of the department.7 Its original nature has been forgotten,
and the body was then misinterpreted as a ‘false mummy’ or ‘mummy of a townswoman
of the eighteenth century AD’. It was only in May 1979 when the true nature of the object
was detected by an Egyptologist, and in 1981 the mummy was X-rayed in the Department
of Radiology of the Medical Academy, Wrocław, by Zdzisława Bem and Tadeusz Krupiński.
The results made possible some important observations.8
6 Śliwa 2012: 373.
7 According to the letter of 9th June 1979 from Wanda Stęślicka, Department of Anthropology, University
of Wrocław, to Andrzej Niwiński.
8 These have been described in the letter of 15th February 1981 from Tadeusz Krupiński, Department of
Anthropology, Wrocław University, to Andrzej Niwiński.
1. Mummy having been the object of the autopsy
in Wrocław in 1658 (Gryphius 1662: 40).
114 K. B, A. N, A. N, A. T, K. W, A. Ż
RADIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF THE MUMMY
The mummy belongs to a young adult woman aged 21–23 years, with the arms crossed
over the breasts, the left forearm lying above the right one. No metallic objects have been
detected; other objects could not be seen on the X-ray image. The position of the hands
supports dating of the mummy to the Late period or the Ptolemaic period (seventh–fi rst
centuries ); the Roman period cannot be excluded, either. More data were expected
from the computed tomography analysis that could, however, be made only in 2002 by
Andrzej Urbanik from the Chair of Radiology, Jagiellonian University Medical College,
Cracow. On 26th September 2002 the results obtained by the tomography were discussed
in Wrocław.9 Some 752 cross-sectional pictures in the transverse plane of the mummy
were made. Cross-sectional images were analysed with the use of SIENET Magic View
300 software.10 The type of material in particular layers was evaluated, based on Houn-
sfi eld units (HU). All measurements were performed with the use of Materialise Mimics
10.01 and SIENET Magic View 300 software. The analysis has revealed that the skull
9 By Krzysztof Borysławski, Tadeusz Krupiński, Andrzej Niwiński, Andrzej Urbanik.
10 Borysławski 2009: 200–202.
2. Mummy in the Department of Anthropology of the
University of Wrocław, prior to 1981 (Phot. J. Śliwa).
A B  N   E M  U  W C 115
and spinal canal were fi lled with resin. Additionally a material of high density (HU 3000),
typical for metals, was discovered in the orbits and over the nasal bones, which may
contradict the results of the X-ray. It seems that the lowest part of the mummy, beneath
the knees, was enveloped separately, and then fi xed with two long (over 20cm in length)
wooden pegs of square section (2cm of width). Two thin long objects, possibly made of
rolled linen, lay upon the shins, which constitutes an analogy to the similar cord-like linen
objects discovered on the mummy of Ptolemaic period in the Archaeological Museum,
Cracow.11 Finally, under the left hand reposing on the breast an undetermined oblong object
was detected, which was situated near a damaged part of bandages, probably caused by
the ancient robbers, and therefore was easy to extract (Fig. 3). The act of the extraction
took place on the 21st September 2004 in Wrocław, during which the fl ower bulb that is
the subject of this paper was found (Fig. 4). Additionally, in 2004 the restoration of the
intravital appearance of the mummy’s head and face was performed. The 3D model was
created with the use of the epoxide resin basing on the computed tomography images at the
Rapid Prototyping / Rapid Tooling Laboratory in the Institute of Production Engineering
and Automation, Wrocław University of Technology.12
11 Niwiński 1998: 186, Pl. 1.1; Urbanik 2001: 79–83.
12 Borysławski 2009: 200; Tomaszewska et al. 2012: 61.
3. Cross-section through the upper torso at the level of thoracic vertebra 3: a. resin mat; b. narcissus bulb; c. a layer
of bandages soaked in resin; d. damage of the bandages (image from the computed tomography done by A. Urbanik
in 2002, Cracow).
b
c
a
d
PLANT BULBS ON EGYPTIAN MUMMIES
The most common fi nds of such objects represented the species of onion (Allium cepa)
and garlic (Allium sativum). The bulbs were used during the embalmment process and
were placed, for example, in orbits.13 The fl ower bulbs, however, were often discovered on
mummies, too. Bulbs of an unidentifi ed fl ower were found on the mummy of Ramesses IV,
imitating his eyes, and placed also in the pharaoh’s nostrils.14 Flowers were often used
to decorate mummies (Fig. 5),15 and bulbs of fl owers were discovered in some mummies
under the bandages. For instance, Thomas Joseph Pettigrew discovered ‘bulbous roots’
placed under the soles of both feet of a mummy, probably of the Late period,16 and a similar
discovery of a ‘bulbous root’, albeit only under one foot, was made in 1764.17
During the investigations of the Twenty fi rst Dynasty mummies of the priests of Amon
and their wives, originating from the Bab el-Gusus tomb at Deir el-Bahari, Georges Daressy
made the following observations; mummy no. 82 (man): sous l’oudja en cire étaient des
oignons, probablement de eurs, ainsi que sous les pieds et les mains;18 mummy no. 120
(man): au-dessous de la plaque de cire étaient posées des feuilles, d’autres pétals de lotus et
des onions étaient placés sous les pieds et le long des jambes;19 mummy no. 127 (woman):
sur la poitrine avaient été placés des oignons de eurs;20 mummy no. 139 (woman): au
13 Germer 1988: 42.
14 Smith 1912: 88.
15 Schweinfurth 1884: 628–629; Drenkhahn, Germer 1991: 99–104.
16 Pettigrew 1834: 102.
17 Granville 1825: 282.
18 Daressy 1907: 29.
19 Daressy 1907: 32.
20 Daressy 1907: 34.
116 K. B, A. N, A. N, A. T, K. W, A. Ż
4. The present appearance of the bulb of
the Narcissus tazetta L. extracted from
the mummy in 2004 (Phot. D. Nowa-
kowski).
0 1cm
A B  N   E M  U  W C 117
cou se trouvaient (des amulettes) ainsi qu’un oignon de lys.21 Although only a general
identifi cation of an ‘onion’/‘bulb’ was usually made during the autopsies done in the seven-
teenth–early twentieth centuries , modern research of the remains of a bulb found on the
neck of Ramesses II’s mummy has identifi ed this with Narcissus tazetta L. (cf.).22 This is
supported by the discovery on the Wrocław mummy, making it theoretically possible that
many of the fl ower bulbs found earlier on mummies may have represented the narcissus
species, as well.
AN ATTEMPT AT THE IDENTIFICATION OF THE ANCIENT NAME
OF NARCISSUS
This hypothesis may perhaps be corroborated by the herbal of Dioskorides Pedanius
from the fi rst century . He noted that the bulb of narcissus cooked and eaten provoked
vomiting, and that fresh bulbs laid on the skin healed burns and open wounds.23 This may
21 Daressy 1907: 36.
22 Germer 1988: 9, 13; after Layer-Lescot 1985.
23 Germer 1998: 2.
5. Mummy decorated with the fl owers and fl oral
garlands (Schweinfurth 1884: 628).
6. The image of the plant of Nefertum carved on
an Egyptian sarcophagus (Drawing: A. Niwiński;
based on: Naville 1910: Pl. II).
118 K. B, A. N, A. N, A. T, K. W, A. Ż
explain the meaning of the above mentioned cases of the scale leaves of a bulb as posed
directly on the incisions on some mummies, described by Daressy. Unfortunately, it has
so far been impossible to identify the ancient Egyptian word meaning narcissus, and one
can quote here Renate Germer’s opinion: So kommt es, daß wir zwar aus botanischen
Funden wissen, daß auch die Ägypter die Narcisse kannten, denn Reste von Narcissen-
Zwiebelschalen fanden sich an der Mumie Ramses II, doch haben wir keine Möglichkeit,
ihre Namen zu identi zieren, der sicher in einigen dieser Rezeptur-Au istungen vorkommt.24
It seems plausible to propose such an identifi cation here. Edouard Naville long ago
published a ritual text, carved on a stone found in 1886 in Horbeit (the ancient Egyptian
Pharbaethus near Abu Kebir in the eastern Delta). The text was illustrated with an image
of a plant (Fig. 6) with its ower similar to a lotus, and crowned with two high feathers,
which presented the sacred emblem of Nefertum, and was accompanied by the following
words translated by Naville: Il est grand celui-ci qui sort de la terre humide /.../ la grande
puissance qui Keb a mise au monde et qui arrête Set dans sa fureur.25 Naville has then
found a number of other sources containing the same ritual text, where the name of the
plant appears, among other in the Theban Tomb 39 of Puimre: il est grand celui qui sort
de la terre, le sennu issue de Nout, du ciel.26
Regardless of the religious-magical meaning of this plant, glorifi ed as very much
effi cient for the dead as a weapon of Nefertum, compared sometimes to a terrible lion, its
physical features can be deduced from the illustration on the stone from Horbeit, and from
the texts, the most useful of which are the medical papyri Ebers (P.Eb. 294) and Hearst
(H.35): the plant the name of which is senutet. It grows from its bulb /.../ and makes the
owers like those of lotus.27 The plant sennu (or sennut, sennutet) is growing from a bulb
planted in (humid) earth, and its ower resembles lotus. Naville makes, however, a very
correct note in this respect: cette eur quiqu’elle s’appelle un lotus, n’est pas celle que
les naturalistes désignent par le nom de lotus. Leur [= Egyptian] classi cations reposent
sur l’apparence générale. Ainsi le sennu peut être appelé « lotus », ce qui veut dire plante
ayant une eure du genre de celle du lotus.28 Therefore, the suggestions of Victor Loret29
and Thierry Bardinet30 identifying the sennut plant with blue lotus are not correct, since
only a physical resemblance of the ower with lotus is mentioned in the papyri Ebers and
Hearst, and the lotus is not growing from a bulb. Édouard Naville31 and Andrzej Niwiński32
suggested that the plant may perhaps be identifi ed with a lily. The identifi cation with
narcissus seems, however, much more plausible, not only because of the physical similari-
ties (the bulb, the strongly fragrant fl ower with white petals and yellow centre), but also
24 Germer 1998: 3.
25 Naville 1910: 191, Pl. II.
26 Naville 1916: 188.
27 Bardinet 1995: 125–128.
28 Naville 1916: 188–189.
29 Naville 1927: 34.
30 Bardinet 1995: 296, 379.
31 Naville 1927: 34.
32 Niwiński 1998: 189.
A B  N   E M  U  W C 119
because of the biological properties and medical use of the narcissus. A mere observation
that the cut fl owers of narcissus inserted into a vase together with other owers make
very soon withering process of these, indicates a strong (toxic) interaction of this plant.
Both medical papyri make it an effi cacious remedy against setet, supposed by the ancient
Egyptians to be a kind of dangerous being living in the ill body. These setet should have
been banished alive,33 and to this purpose the leaves of the sennut plant were used, rubbed
in the lower abdomen of the sick person. The description of the bio-medical properties of
narcissus (cf. Appendix 2) points both to the fact that the various parts of the narcissus
plant can be eff ectively used in the modern medical treatment, and that these are still used
in the native African medicine, which supports the observation that ancient Egyptians may
have applied narcissus similarly in the daily life.
The creative thought of Ancient Egyptians made, at the same time, the sennut plant,
thus most probably the narcissus, an effi cacious talisman for the dead as a symbol of resur-
gent life. Mythically identifi ed with Nefertum, the plant could be represented on a coffi n,
sarcophagus, or in a wall painting, and the bulbs, leaves and fl owers of narcissus were laid
on the body of the deceased. Those objects were supposed to protect the dead from evil
and ensure him/her supernatural forces. One can quote here again Naville, who devoted to
Nefertum and his magical plant a special study: la plante sert de talisman assurant, soit au
corps du défunt, soit aux o randes qu’on déposait à côté de lui, une protection e cace contre
ses ennemies, dont le premier devait sans doute être la corruption. Il su sait de représenter
la plante pour la faire naître ; peut-être aussi en mettait-on un spécimen dans le tombeau.34
The growing plant could as well be imitated in linen, what was observed on the Ptol-
emaic mummy in Cracow,35 and seems to be also the case on the Wrocław mummy. The
placing, on the same mummy, of the narcissus bulb under its hand was another means of
protection of the body against the ‘fury of Set’.
APPENDIX 1: THE BOTANICAL ANALYSIS OF THE BULB
Roentgen imaging and computed tomography revealed an atypical structure under the left
hand of the mummy (cf. Fig. 3). Due to the lesions in the upper torso area the artefact
was extracted in order to conduct detailed analysis. The placement of the artifact allowed
avoiding damage during the extraction. The artefact was recognised as a fl ower bulb.
The macroscopic analysis has revealed that the bulb was slightly bent, its length was
5.5cm, and the maximum width was 1.6cm and minimum width (at the apex) was 1.1cm
(cf. Fig. 4). The observed curve suggests that it was a side bulb of a fl ower. At the bottom
of the bulb there is a basal plate with remains of the scales. In the upper part of the bulb,
the external leaf is slightly thicker than the other scales, which are thin and fragile. The size
and shape of the bulb are similar to the subspecies of narcissus and iris which develop bulbs.
33 Bardinet 1995: 125–128.
34 Naville 1927: 44.
35 Niwiński 1998: 182, 186–187.
120 K. B, A. N, A. N, A. T, K. W, A. Ż
The microscopic analysis revealed that the scales of the bulb exhibit a thigh cellular structure,
and traces of spawn of fungi are visible between the cells. The vascular bundles with visible
spiral thickenings are well preserved. There are two types of the thickenings in the vascular
system: most are narrow, with close torsions, and some are thicker, with a wide torsions.
In the external cell layer the needle-shaped crystals (raphides) are visible, mostly arranged
along the vascular bundles. In some areas the raphides are arranged in a chaotic manner.
The anatomy of the scale leaves of the bulb has been compared to the scale leaves of the
onion Allium cepa L., garlic Allium sativum L., narcissus Narcissus tazetta L., Narcissus sp.,
iris Iris Bucharina M. Foster, and Iris sp. The spiral thickenings in the vascular system, similar
to those observed and analysed bulb from the Egyptian mummy, are present in narcissus and
iris species, but the shape of raphides in this bulb is more typical for the narcissus species. The
analysed fl ower bulb is probably a bulb of Narcissus tezetta L. (cf.), as it was the only narcissus
species growing wild in the north part of Egypt. Nowadays the Narcissus tazetta L. (cf.)
is commonly growing in gardens, which is a tradition since Graeco-Roman period.36
APPENDIX 2: THE BIO-MEDICAL PROPERTIES OF NARCISSUS
Narcissus tazetta L. belongs to the Amaryllidaceae family and is a type of daff odil. Plants
from this family have been used for centuries in the Mediterranean area37 and by African
tribes as medicinal herbs (see also below). Poultices and decoctions based on bulbs and
leaves from this plant family have been used in traditional African medicine against
abdominal pains and indigestions. The African tribe Zulu also uses rhizomes from daff odils
as amulets against evil forces. In higher doses substances contained in Amaryllidaceae are
very toxic and often used as potent narcotics, or even poison.
From historical sources it is known that the anticancer properties of Narcissus sp. were
already realised by the ‘father of the medicine’ Hippokrates of Kos (c. 460–370 ) who
recommended a pessary prepared from narcissus oil for the treatment of uterine tumours.
The application of narcissus oil in cancer treatment continued in the Middle Ages in
Chinese, North African, Central American and Arabian medicine.38
Modern medicine derives from traditional methods. Thanks to the advanced bioche-
mistry many substances such as avonoids, glycosides, phenolics, and the most impor-
tant – alkaloids have been found as occurring in the plants of this family. Alkaloids are
bioactive substances that may strongly aff ect the human organism. Alkaloids exuded
by the Amaryllidaceae family exhibit diverse eff ects on the human body, such as anal-
gesic or tranquilising eff ects, anticancer capabilities, or even antibacterial, antiviral and
antifungal eff ects. Some of these alkaloids inhibit malaria (Plasmodium falciparum)
development.39 Substances isolated from the Narcissus tazetta L. species exhibit anti-
viral eff ects, especially potent against Choriomenigitis virus that causes a type of aseptic
36 Täckholm, Drar 1973: 348.
37 Saad, Said 2011: 239.
38 Jin 2013: 481; Chegaing Fodouop et al. 2015: 11.
39 Jin 2013: 512–513.
A B  N   E M  U  W C 121
meningitis.40 Other, alkaloids, for example galanthamin and lycorin, are successfully
tested and used as selective acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in Alzheimer’s disease patients.
Recently, antineoplastic eff ects of the substances mentioned above have been focused on,
and should be tested soon.41
To sum up, the alkaloids from the Narcissus tazetta L. exhibit strong eff ects of analgesia,
parasymphatetic stimulation (AChE inhibition), antibacterial eff ects, stimulation of the
own immune system of the body, and also tranquilising and anti-depression eff ects. With
this in mind, it seems highly possible that poultices made from the leaves of the Narcissus
tazetta L. and applied on the stomach may exhibit analgesia, and through the stimulation
of the parasympathetic nervous system, also the peristalsis may be prompted, which could
help in the abdominal pain and indigestions treatment. Due to biostatic and immune-stimu-
lating eff ects of this kind of treatment even bacterial and viral infections can be inhibited
or cured. On the other hand, some potent toxic eff ects – the substances contained in those
plants may provoke: dementia, vomiting, headaches or even hallucinations may have
created the idea of the dangerous ‘power’ of those plants. All this seems to confi rm the
possible connection between the Narcissus tazetta L. and the ancient Egyptian sources,
including the medical papyri Ebers and Hearst.
References
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Borysławski, K. 2009: Badanie mumii egipskiej z wykorzystaniem tomografi i kompute-
rowej, [in:] Dzieduszycki, W., Wrzesiński, J. (Eds), Metody. Źródła. Dokumentacja,
Funeralia Lednickie 11, Poznań, 199–203
Chegaing Fodouop, S.P., Tagne Simo, R., Mbo Amvene, J., Talla, E., Seke Etet, P.F.,
Takam, P., Nwabo Kamdje, A.H., Muller, J.-M. 2015: Bioactivity and Therapeutic
Potential of Plant Extracts in Cancer and Infectious Diseases, Journal of Diseases
and Medicinal Plants I/1, 8–18
Daressy, G. 1907: Cercueils des prêtres d’Ammon (Deuxième Trouvaille de Deir el-Bahari),
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projekt in Hannover, Hannover
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Germer, R. 1998: Neue Ansätze zur Identifi zierung altägyptischer Heilpfl anzen (habilitation
lecture on 28. 04. 1998), Hamburg
Geßler-Löhr, B. 1998: Mumia vera aegyptiaca im Abendland, [in:] Fitzenreiter, M.,
Loeben, C.E. (Eds), Die ägyptische Mumie, ein Phänomen der Kulturgeschichte,
IBAES 1, London, 109–110
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Embalming among the Ancient Egyptians, PTRS, London, 269–316
40 Kornienko, Evidente 2008: 1986.
41 Kornienko, Evidente 2008: 1982–1987; Jin 2013: 514.
122 K. B, A. N, A. N, A. T, K. W, A. Ż
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Products – Phytochemistry, Botany and Metabolism of Alkaloids, Phenolics and
Terpenes, Heidelberg, 479–522
Kaczmarek, M., Schweitzer, A., Godziejewski, Z., Pannenko, I. 2008: The Upper Necropolis II:
Studies and photographic documentation, Ed. Myśliwiec, K., Saqqara III, Varsovie
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and Cracow, [in:] Clarysse, W., Schoors, A., Willems, H. (Eds), Egyptian Religion,
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ÉTUDES et TRAVAUX
XXXI
INSTYTUT KULTUR ŚRÓDZIEMNOMORSKICH I ORIENTALNYCH
POLSKIEJ AKADEMII NAUK
STUDIA i PRACE
XXXI
WARSZAWA
2018
VARSOVIE
2018
XXXI
INSTITUT DES CULTURES MÉDITERRANÉENNES ET ORIENTALES
DE L’ACADÉMIE POLONAISE DES SCIENCES
ÉTUDES et TRAVAUX
Publication scienti que  nancée dans le cadre du programme
du Ministre de la Science et de l’Éducation Supérieure
«Programme National de Développement de l’Humanistique » pour les années 2016–2021
(projet no 3bH 15 0099 83)
Copyright ©
Instytut Kultur Śródziemnomorskich i Orientalnych PAN
et les Auteurs
Warszawa 2018
ISSN 2084-6762
(avant 2011 : 0079-3566)
e-ISSN 2449-9579
Version première en papier, imprimée en Pologne – 150 copies
Version électronique accessible sur
http://www.etudesettravaux.iksiopan.pl
Édition: Polskie Towarzystwo Historyczne et Wydawnictwo Neriton, Warszawa
Conception générale de couverture : J. Iwaszczuk
Photo de couverture : P. Moser © Schweizerisches Institut
für Ägyptische Bauforschung und Altertumskunde in Kairo
(terre cuites d’Aswan/Syene)
K M
(ET=EtudTrav/50) x 30 ....................................................................................................... 9
H A
Hatshepsut and the Apis Race: New Quartzite Relief Fragments
from Dra’ Abu el-Naga ......................................................................................................... 17
A J
Divine Wrath in Ancient Egypt ........................................................................................... 27
A J
Pain Infl iction, Infl ictors and Healers in Egyptian Religious, Magical
and Literary Perceptions ...................................................................................................... 67
M B
New Dipinti in the Birth Portico of the Hatshepsut Temple at Deir el-Bahari .................. 101
K B, A N, A N,
A T, K W, A Ż
A Bulb of Narcissus on the Egyptian Mummy from University
of Wrocław Collection ......................................................................................................... 111
L C
Some Reliefs Representing the King in the Heb Sed Robe Discovered
in the Henket-Ankh ............................................................................................................... 123
P G
Debunking the Latest Scenario on the Rise of the Pork Taboo .......................................... 145
M H
A Clay Gladius Scabbard from Area 13c in the Ancient Roman Town of Syene ............. 167
E E. I
Pinpointing Unrest at Palmyra in Early Islamic Period. The Evidence from Coin
Hoards and Written Sources ................................................................................................ 181
Table des matières
K K
The Sacred Scents: Examining the Connection Between the ʿntjw and sf
in the Context of the Early Eighteenth Dynasty Temples ................................................... 195
D M
Remarks on the Iconographic Motif of the Birdman in Mesopotamian Glyptic Art
of the Third Millennium  ................................................................................................. 219
K P
Stone Artefacts from Late Roman Occupation Phases in Nea Paphos ............................... 235
A ....................................................................................................................... 261
THE VOLUME IS PUBLISHED TO CELEBRATE
THE 50TH ANNIVERSARY
OF THE
ÉTUDES ET TRAVAUX
ESTABLISHED IN 1966
... This appears to be the case for the mummy of a woman, now in Poland, dated to the Late or Ptolemaic Period. A bulb of narcissus was identified under the left hand, perhaps because of its analgesic and healing properties (Borysławski et al. 2018). Flowers and other plants, as well as pieces of shaped textiles, could also be carefully placed within the wrappings. ...
Chapter
Grounded in new research from recent analyses of the mummified individuals curated at the British Museum, this chapter provides an overview of the evolution of mummification in the Nile valley. Featuring Ameniryirt, a Twenty-Sixth Dynasty Theban official who lived around 600 BC, it outlines the varying methods employed to preserve human remains in ancient Egypt, as well as the modern approaches used in their analysis. From the natural mummies of the Predynastic Period to those of medieval Nubia, advances in CT-scanning and three-dimensional visualization technology have allowed us to investigate their mummified remains without the need to unwrap them. Many are remarkably preserved and were embalmed with great care and expertise to ensure their survival in the afterlife. A range of approaches – spanning several thousand years – were successfully used to preserve their bodies, with organs treated in numerous ways and great variety in the use of unguents, packing, and wrappings. Bioarchaeological methods are employed to determine their approximate age-at-death, confirm their sex, and provide new insights into their lives and state of health. Applying new analytical techniques to long-held collections continues to advance our understanding of ancient beliefs and practices, as well as provide a unique understanding of the lives of individuals from the distant past.
... This appears to be the case for the mummy of a woman, now in Poland, dated to the Late or Ptolemaic Period. A bulb of narcissus was identified under the left hand, perhaps because of its analgesic and healing properties (Borysławski et al. 2018). Flowers and other plants, as well as pieces of shaped textiles, could also be carefully placed within the wrappings. ...
Book
Egyptian Mummies: Exploring Ancient Lives uses the latest CT scanning technology to take you beneath the mummy wrappings and discover six unique individuals. Ancient mummies have been a source of public fascination and a focus for scientific enquiry for over 200 years. Early investigation of the bodies involved their unwrapping, but modern imaging techniques now enabled curators and researchers to virtually explore their mummified remains without damaging or disturbing them. Six mummies curated at the British Museum, including a temple singer, a child from the Roman era and a priest, are the focus of this book. They lived and died in Egypt between 1800 and 3000 years ago. Their 3D CT scan visualisations provide a unique insight into ancient Egyptian mummification and the lives of these individuals. How old were they? Did they suffer from poor health during their life? What is the significance of the paintings that adorn a coffin? How were bodies mummified to grant the deceased eternal life in the netherworld? Using cutting-edge science and technology, these and other questions are answered in this book, lavishly illustrated throughout with remarkable CT scan imagery. Layers are virtually removed and the bandages, skin, muscles and skeletons, as well as any objects placed beneath the wrappings, are revealed. Some of the health problems that the individual must have suffered from during life are discussed alongside their age at death, the mummification process behind their preservation, their beliefs and, on occasion, anomalies in the embalming process.
... This appears to be the case for the mummy of a woman, now in Poland, dated to the Late or Ptolemaic Period. A bulb of narcissus was identified under the left hand, perhaps because of its analgesic and healing properties (Borysławski et al. 2018). Flowers and other plants, as well as pieces of shaped textiles, could also be carefully placed within the wrappings. ...
Book
In recent years, British Museum curators have collaborated with scientists and medical experts to explore non-invasive imaging techniques and other scientific approaches to further study Egyptian mummies. Piecing together key biographical data and information, it has been possible for the first time to discover more about who these people were in ancient Egyptian society. Mummies draws on cutting-edge research to reveal the actual experience of living and dying in the ancient Nile Valley. Eight significant mummies are explored, each carefully selected to tell a different story, covering a period of over 4000 years. They include a young female temple singer, an unknown man of high status, and a child from the Roman era. Funerary objects are also highlighted for context: for example, non-invasive imaging of the contents of canopic jars; analyses of embalming substances, and identification of wood species and pigment types used in coffins. The majority of the material is drawn from the British Museum’s extensive Egypt and Sudan collections, but the book includes a number of mummies from other museums to physically reunite individuals originally buried together in family or communal tombs. This allows fascinating comparisons to be made.
Article
Full-text available
Medicinal plants have been used particularly in resource poor communities of the African continent as an alternative for the treatment of infectious diseases. Traditional medicine plays a critical role in treatment of chronic debilitating and life threatening conditions and infectious diseases. Cancer is one such condition whose therapeutic intervention is commonly through inexpensive traditional herbal remedies. Increasingly industrialised societies are developing drugs and chemotherapeutics from these traditional herbal plants. Plant biogeography determines the abundance and availability of medicinal plants which in turn determine their use by africango communities. Recent findings of bioactivity and therapeutic potential of plant extracts in cancer and infectious diseases are herein summarized and discussed.
In the year 1821, Sir Archibald Edmonstone, whose interesting work on two of the Oäses of Upper Egypt has been so favourably received by the public, presented me with a mummy, which he had purchased at Gournou, on the 24th of March, 1819, from one of the inhabitants of the sepulchral excavations on the side of the mountain, at the back of which are the celebrated tombs of the kings of Thebes. It cost about four dollars. There was no outer case to it; and it is difficult to conceive how the beauty and perfect condition of the surface of the single case in which the mummy was inclosed, could have been so well preserved without any external covering. It appears from Sir Archibald’s testimony, confirmed by my own observations, that the mummies which have a second, or an outer case, like the one bought at the same time by Sir Archibald Edmondstone’s fellow traveller, Mr. Hoghton, and now lying unopened at his seat near Preston, in Lancashire, have been folded, externally, with greater care than the one about to be described; and that the outward folds are ornamented with variegated stripes of linen. These observations accord with those made by Jomard and Royer. The first, or inner case, too, of those mummies is covered with a kind of paper, on which the figures and hieroglyphics are painted with much greater brilliancy of colour. Similar remarks apply to the mummy presented to the Hunterian Museum at Glasgow, by Mr. Heywood, a Smyrna merchant, the second or inner case of which is said to be of wonderful beauty and brilliancy.
Badanie mumii egipskiej z wykorzystaniem tomografi i komputerowej
  • T Bardinet
  • K Paris Borysławski
Bardinet, T. 1995: Les papyrus médicaux de l'Égypte pharaonique, Paris Borysławski, K. 2009: Badanie mumii egipskiej z wykorzystaniem tomografi i komputerowej, [in:] Dzieduszycki, W., Wrzesiński, J. (Eds), Metody. Źródła. Dokumentacja, Funeralia Lednickie 11, Poznań, 199-203
Die ägyptische Mumie, ein Phänomen der Kulturgeschichte
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Geßler-Löhr, B. 1998: Mumia vera aegyptiaca im Abendland, [in:] Fitzenreiter, M., Loeben, C.E. (Eds), Die ägyptische Mumie, ein Phänomen der Kulturgeschichte, IBAES 1, London, 109-110
  • Z Jin
Jin, Z. 2013: Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids, [in:] Ramawat, K.G., Mérillon, J.-M. (Eds), Natural Products -Phytochemistry, Botany and Metabolism of Alkaloids, Phenolics and Terpenes, Heidelberg, 479-522
The Upper Necropolis II: Studies and photographic documentation
  • M Kaczmarek
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  • I Pannenko
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  • Iii Saqqara
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Kaczmarek, M., Schweitzer, A., Godziejewski, Z., Pannenko, I. 2008: The Upper Necropolis II: Studies and photographic documentation, Ed. Myśliwiec, K., Saqqara III, Varsovie Kornienko, A., Evidente, A. 2008: Chemistry, Biology and Medicinal Potential of Narciclasine and Its Congeners, Chemical reviews 108/6, 1982-2014
  • E Naville
Naville, E. 1927: La plante magique de Neferatum, Revue de l'Égypte Ancienne 1, 31-44
Egyptian Religion, the last thousand years I. Studies dedicated to the memory of
  • A Niwiński
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  • A Schoors
Niwiński, A. 1998: Some unusual amulets found on the Late Period mummies in Warsaw and Cracow, [in:] Clarysse, W., Schoors, A., Willems, H. (Eds), Egyptian Religion, the last thousand years I. Studies dedicated to the memory of Jan Quaegebeur, Leuven, 179-190
The Upper Necropolis I: The Catalogue, Saqqara III
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Pettigrew, T. 1834: History of Egyptian Mummies, London Radomska, M., Kowalska, A., Kaczmarek, M., Rzeuska, T.I with contributions by Kopp, E., Kuraszkiewicz, K.O., Winnicki, J.K. 2008: The Upper Necropolis I: The Catalogue, Saqqara III, Ed. Myśliwiec, K., Varsovie