ArticleLiterature Review

Comparing DNA Damage Induced by Mobile Telephony and Other Types of Man-Made Electromagnetic Fields

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  • National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece
Article

Comparing DNA Damage Induced by Mobile Telephony and Other Types of Man-Made Electromagnetic Fields

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... (DNA damage, chromosome damage and mutations, among others), cell death and related effects (1)(2)(3)(4). Most findings concern exposure to wireless communication (WC) EMFs [from mobile phones/antennas, cordless domestic phones (DECT: digitally enhanced cordless telecommunications), internet (Wi-Fi: wireless fidelity) or 'Bluetooth' wireless connections, among others], which necessarily combine RF/microwave carrier frequencies with ELF pulsing and modulation, and ultra low frequency (ULF) (0-3 Hz) random variability of the signal. ...
... Today, almost all technical RF EMFs (not only of WC, but also from radars, radio and television antennas, among others) contain ELF/ULF components in the form of on/off pulsations, modulation, and signal variability. These are usually called simply 'RF', but actually they are a combination of RF and ELF/ULF (4). The number of experimental-laboratory studies showing genetic damage and related effects induced by human-made ELF or RF (combined with ELF) EMFs on a variety of organisms/cell types under different experimental conditions has rapidly increased, especially in recent years . ...
... These markedly similar findings in different organisms by different research groups can be explained by the observed cell death in reproductive cells after DNA damage, as seen in fruit fly ovarian cells (30,40,41,46), human sperm cells (36), mouse and rat sperm cells (25,31). Decreased reproduction after DNA damage and cell death in reproductive cells or embryonic death induced by purely ELF EMF-exposure is also reported (4,9,14,22,47). ...
Article
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Exposure of animals/biological samples to human‑made electromagnetic fields (EMFs), especially in the extremely low frequency (ELF) band, and the microwave/radio frequency (RF) band which is always combined with ELF, may lead to DNA damage. DNA damage is connected with cell death, infertility and other pathologies, including cancer. ELF exposure from high‑voltage power lines and complex RF exposure from wireless communication antennas/devices are linked to increased cancer risk. Almost all human‑made RF EMFs include ELF components in the form of modulation, pulsing and random variability. Thus, in addition to polarization and coherence, the existence of ELFs is a common feature of almost all human‑made EMFs. The present study reviews the DNA damage and related effects induced by human‑made EMFs. The ion forced‑oscillation mechanism for irregular gating of voltage‑gated ion channels on cell membranes by polarized/coherent EMFs is extensively described. Dysfunction of ion channels disrupts intracellular ionic concentrations, which determine the cell's electrochemical balance and homeostasis. The present study shows how this can result in DNA damage through reactive oxygen species/free radical overproduction. Thus, a complete picture is provided of how human‑made EMF exposure may indeed lead to DNA damage and related pathologies, including cancer. Moreover, it is suggested that the non‑thermal biological effects attributed to RF EMFs are actually due to their ELF components.
... A review by Panagopoulos [24] comes to an important conclusion that once the electromagnetic field is polarized, includes extremely low frequencies, and has adequate intensity, then the main parameter is variability. It suggests the extreme and unpredictable variability of the real mobile telephone signals seems to be the main reason for the corresponding bioactivity. ...
... Using a common mobile phone for the experiments implies problems with an accurate assessment of the dosimetry; thus, the experiments are neither well controlled nor repeatable (real mobile phone signal depends on many factors and is always unique for the given place and time). On the other hand, recent reviews by Panagopoulos [24,27] emphasize that the reaction to exposure is very different when comparing exposure to a uniform source (stable frequency and intensity) with exposure to a real mobile phone, with the highly and unpredictably variable signal. He states, based on the reviews of published peer-reviewed studies [24,27], even simulated mobile phone signals with regular pulsing will not have the same effect as a real, unpredictable mobile phone signal, i.e., that the variability makes the mobile phone signal more bioactive. ...
... On the other hand, recent reviews by Panagopoulos [24,27] emphasize that the reaction to exposure is very different when comparing exposure to a uniform source (stable frequency and intensity) with exposure to a real mobile phone, with the highly and unpredictably variable signal. He states, based on the reviews of published peer-reviewed studies [24,27], even simulated mobile phone signals with regular pulsing will not have the same effect as a real, unpredictable mobile phone signal, i.e., that the variability makes the mobile phone signal more bioactive. In other words, the more variable the signal is, the more difficult it is for the organisms to adapt to it. ...
Article
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The negative influence of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation on organisms, including humans, has been discussed widely in recent years. This paper deals with the methodology of examining possible harmful effects of mobile phone radiation, focusing on in vivo and in vitro laboratory methods of investigation and evaluation and their main problems and difficulties. Basic experimental parameters are summarized and discussed, and recent large studies are also mentioned. For the laboratory experiments, accurate setting and description of dosimetry are essential; therefore, we give recommendations for the technical parameters of the experiments, especially for a well-defined source of radiation by Software Defined Radio.
... By introducing these simple innovations -after detailed study of the insect's development -we improved significantly the procedures for fruit fly fecundity assessment. This study also introduced the use of a commercially available mobile phone handset as the exposure device, which is now widely accepted as the only realistic exposure methodology to assess the biological effects of real-life EMFs emitted by mobile phones and other telecommunication devices [14][15][16][17]. For the above reasons, Panagopoulos, et al. (2004) [2] is a widely recognized study, never challenged, and cited up to today by more than 120 other published studies. ...
... We had worked for years to conceive and design these methods, and we had already presented results [18,19]. Following this, we published numerous studies that utilized and extended the above experimental procedures to investigate the effects of different types of EMFs on Drosophila melanogaster reproduction and ovarian cells [3][4][5][6][7]15,16,20,21]. ...
... This provides a representative estimation of the field. "Accurate" estimation of the intensity of MT EMFs, especially in the near-field, has no meaning as they are highly varying any moment, due to the varying information they transmit and other reasons [14][15][16]28]. Similarly, "calculating" accurately the near-field of modern telecommunication devices theoretically is actual-5. ...
Article
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The paper by Geronikolou, et al. (2014) “Diverse Radiofrequency Sensitivity and Radiofrequency Effects of Mobile or Cordless Phone near Fields Exposure in Drosophila melanogaster” [1] published in Plos One supposedly presents original work on the effects of mobile and cordless phones electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on Drosophila melanogaster reproduction. The paper reports that two of its authors “conceived and designed the experiments”. This is not the case. The paper is a replication of the experimental procedures introduced by Panagopoulos, et al. (2004) “Effect of GSM 900-MHz Mobile Phone Radiation on the Reproductive Capacity of Drosophila melanogaster” [2], and applied since then in many publications (Panagopoulos, et al. 2007a; b; 2010; 2013; Panagopoulos, 2016; 2017; 2019) [3-5,15,16,20,21]. Geronikolou, et al. followed the same experimental methodology without reporting replication or even citing the original study. Then, they differentiated on secondary points - employing a different statistical method, calculating theoretically the near-field instead of measuring it, not sham-exposing the control groups, and including experiments with cordless phones based on the same procedures - which led them to serious flaws and misleading conclusions. Our present commentary is a necessary action to protect authorship and restore science in regards to experiments with mobile and cordless phones.
... Some of their incorrect statements are commented on below. The ICNIRP claims that there is no verified mechanism for RF radiation carcinogenesis, in spite of well-designed studies showing the contrary, e.g., oxidative stress (25,28) and DNA damage (25,29). The ICNIRP claims that the histopathological evaluation was not blinded in these studies; however, this is not true, as supported by the methods described in these studies. ...
... This has been well-documented in a report from the Finnish Radiation Safety Agency (32). Panagopoulos (29) has clearly demonstrated that using mean values for RF radiation may underestimate the risk. Intensity, frequency, exposure duration, polarization, pulsing and modulation are crucial parameters for the bioactivity. ...
... The USSR experiments were made more than 40 years ago -when we had no digital pulsed radiation -with a generator producing sinus curves. Peaks of pulsed radiation used in 5G with unpredictable intensity changes seem to be an important parameter for the bioactivity of RF radiation (29). ...
... The scientific community and the general public are increasingly concerned about the adverse effects of man-made Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs) especially those employed in modern microwave telecommunications including Mobile Telephony (MT). All microwave telecommunications EMFs always combine Radio-Frequency (RF)/microwave carrier waves (on the order of GHz) with Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) (up to 3000 Hz) pulsing and modulation in order to increase the amount and speed of transmitted information (speech, text, images, video, Internet, etc.) (Panagopoulos 2011(Panagopoulos , 2017(Panagopoulos , 2019a(Panagopoulos , 2019b. Both RF and ELF EMFs have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as possibly carcinogenic to humans (group 2B) under the weight of the accumulating scientific evidence (IARC 2002(IARC , 2013Baan et al. 2011). ...
... Both RF and ELF EMFs have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as possibly carcinogenic to humans (group 2B) under the weight of the accumulating scientific evidence (IARC 2002(IARC , 2013Baan et al. 2011). Based on additional scientific evidence after the 2011 IARC classification for RF EMFs, several studies have suggested that RF (including MT) EMFs should be re-evaluated and classified as probably carcinogenic (group 2A) or carcinogenic (group 1) to humans (Hardell et al. 2013;Carlberg and Hardell 2017;Hardell 2017Hardell , 2019Miller et al. 2018;Panagopoulos 2019b;Hardell and Carlberg 2020;Hardell and Nyberg 2020). Moreover it is shown that the majority of studies performed with simulated/invariable microwave EMFs emitted by generators (following IARC's guidelines) grossly underestimate the biological activity of real-life highly variable exposures by commercially available devices (Panagopoulos et al. 2015a;Panagopoulos 2017Panagopoulos , 2019aPanagopoulos , 2019bKostoff et al. 2020). ...
... Based on additional scientific evidence after the 2011 IARC classification for RF EMFs, several studies have suggested that RF (including MT) EMFs should be re-evaluated and classified as probably carcinogenic (group 2A) or carcinogenic (group 1) to humans (Hardell et al. 2013;Carlberg and Hardell 2017;Hardell 2017Hardell , 2019Miller et al. 2018;Panagopoulos 2019b;Hardell and Carlberg 2020;Hardell and Nyberg 2020). Moreover it is shown that the majority of studies performed with simulated/invariable microwave EMFs emitted by generators (following IARC's guidelines) grossly underestimate the biological activity of real-life highly variable exposures by commercially available devices (Panagopoulos et al. 2015a;Panagopoulos 2017Panagopoulos , 2019aPanagopoulos , 2019bKostoff et al. 2020). ...
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I recently reported induction of chromatid-type aberrations in human peripheral blood lymphocytes after a single 15 min exposure to Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) Mobile Telephony (MT) electromagnetic field (EMF) from a mobile phone. Lymphocytes from six healthy subjects were stimulated for mitosis, and exposed during the G2/M phase at 1 cm distance from the handset during an active phone call in “talk” mode (Panagopoulos 2019a). The same type of cells from the same subjects treated with a high caffeine dose (~290 times above the permissible single dose for an adult human) exhibited the same type of aberrations in a little smaller but comparable degree. The combination of this caffeine dose and the 15 min MT EMF exposure increased dramatically the number of aberrations in all subjects. The combined effect increased almost linearly with increasing duration of exposure to the MT EMF. Thus, MT EMF exposure ~136 times below the official limit (ICNIRP 2020) exerts a genotoxic action even greater than that of a caffeine dose ~290 times above the corresponding limit. Therefore, with a reasonable approximation, the limit for MT EMFs should be lowered by at least 40000 times (136x290) for short-term exposures, and 4000000 times for long-term exposures.
... Extremely low frequency (ELF) EMFs (up to 3000 Hz) was already classified by IARC as possibly carcinogenic as well (IARC 2000). Modern microwave radiation applied in telecommunications and other applications always combines RF carrier waves with ELF pulsing and modulation in order to increase the amount and speed of transmitted information (speech, text, images, video, Internet, etc.) (Panagopoulos 2011(Panagopoulos , 2017(Panagopoulos , 2019. ...
... Many studies have reported genotoxic effects of RF/ microwave and especially MT EMFs on a variety of organisms and cell/tissue types (Panagopoulos 2019). In a recent study of the USA National Toxicology Program (NTP) on carcinogenicity, rats were exposed for 2 years, 9 h per day, in a simulated near-field of a mobile phone antenna emitting 2G or 3G MT EMFs. ...
... Unfortunately, all the above in vitro studies on human peripheral blood lymphocytes, employed simulated MT EMFs emitted by generators which are very different than the real MT EMFs emitted by commercially available mobile phones and base antennas (Panagopoulos 2017(Panagopoulos , 2019, and thus the relevance of these studies in real-life is very poor. Two recent studies examined peripheral blood lymphocytes from people residing in the vicinity of MT base stations and thus exposed to real-life MT EMFs/radiation emitted by the base antennas. ...
Article
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Environmental exposure to modern microwave telecommunication electromagnetic fields (EMFs) has increased to unprecedented levels with consequent health complaints and concerns. Many studies have already reported genotoxic effects on a variety of organisms and cell/tissue types. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes from six healthy donors were stimulated for mitosis and exposed to microwave EMF of Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) or third generation (3G) mobile telephony (MT) EMF/radiation emitted by a commercially available mobile phone handset. Lymphocytes exposed during the G2 phase of the cell division cycle and observed at metaphase, exhibited chromatid-type aberrations (gaps and breaks) at highly significant percentages - up to 275% - compared to the control (sham-exposed) samples. Each subject exhibited a different sensitivity to the microwave exposure. Moreover, the percentages of aberrations in the control samples among subjects were different due to genetic and environmental factors. The MT EMF exposure induced mainly achromatic lesions (gaps), and secondarily terminal deletions (breaks) in a smaller degree. In conclusion, the present study shows that microwave 3G MT EMF/radiation - within the current exposure limits - has significant genotoxic action on human cells, and human exposure to this EMF/radiation should be kept at levels as low as possible.
... Regardless of EMF-emissions associated with EQs, it is well-known that animals are affected by EMFs in a wide range of frequencies (from 0 Hz up to the GHz range of modern mobile telecommunications) with Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) (0-3 Hz) and Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) (3-3000 Hz) EMFs being specifically bioactive (Presman, 1977;Panagopoulos and Margaritis, 2003;Panagopoulos et al., 2004Panagopoulos et al., , 2013aPanagopoulos, 2016Panagopoulos, , 2019Balmori, 2005Balmori, , 2010Nishimura et al., 2010). ...
... In many cases of radio-frequency (RF) signals modulated by ELF signals, it is found that the modulation (ELF) and not the carrier (RF) is responsible for the biological effects. Moreover it has been repeatedly shown that RF EMFs modulated by ELF pulses are more bioactive than continuous fields (without pulse-modulation) of the same rest characteristics (Bawin et al., 1975(Bawin et al., , 1978Bawin and Adey, 1976;Frei et al., 1988;Bolshakov and Alekseev, 1992;Goodman et al., 1995;Penafiel et al., 1997;Huber et al., 2002;Höytö et al., 2008;Franzellitti et al., 2010;Campisi et al., 2010;Panagopoulos et al., 2013a;Panagopoulos, 2019). These facts are in agreement with the Ion Forced-Oscillation mechanism. ...
Article
It is documented that a few days or weeks before major Earthquakes (EQs) there are changes in animal behavior within distances up to 500 km from the seismic epicenter. At the same time Seismic Electric Signals (SES), geomagnetic and ionospheric perturbations, are detected within similar distances. SES consist of single unipolar pulses, and/or groups of such pulses called “SES activities” with an average frequency between successive pulses on the order of ~0.01 Hz and electric field intensity on the order of ~10-5-10-4 V/m (Frazer-Smith et al 1990; Rikitake 1998; Varotsos et al 1993; 2011; 2019; Hayakawa et al 2013; Grant et al 2015). We show that the SES activities can be sensed by living organisms through the “Ion Forced-Oscillation Mechanism” for the action of Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs) on cells, according to which polarized EMFs can cause irregular gating of electro-sensitive ion channels on the cell membranes with consequent disruption of the cell electrochemical balance (Panagopoulos et al 2000; 2002; 2015). This can be sensed by sensitive animals as discomfort in cases of weak and transient exposures, and may even lead to DNA damage and serious health implications in cases of intense exposure conditions (as in certain cases of man-made EMF exposures). Moreover, we show that the geomagnetic and ionospheric perturbations cannot be sensed through this mechanism. The same mechanism has explained meteoropathy, the sensing of upcoming thunderstorms by sensitive individuals, through the action of the EMFs of lightning discharges (Panagopoulos and Balmori 2017). The present study shows that centuries-long anecdotal rumors of animals sensing intense upcoming EQs and displaying unusual behavior, lately documented by systematic studies, are now explained for the first time on the basis of the electromagnetic nature of all living organisms, and the electromagnetic signals emitted prior to EQs.
... INDEX TERMS Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF), Personal exposimeter (PEM), electromagnetic safety, e-field strength distribution, 3D ray launching (3D-RL), 5G, urban transportation trams. 24 Tram systems are a popular public transportation service 25 widely used in medium and large cities around the 26 world [1]- [5]. Tram systems have limitation in the structure 27 The associate editor coordinating the review of this manuscript and approving it for publication was Vittorio Degli-Esposti . ...
... 289 Nevertheless, its constant abnormal pulse radiation can have 290 health effects, along with the mode and duration of expo-291 sures. Reference [26] presents how some 5G signal char-292 acteristics, like the pulsing, could increase the biologic and 293 health impacts of the exposure. Hitherto, it's worth noting 294 that while there still isn't consensus on the scientific evi-295 dence in relation with potentially harmful effects of long-296 term exposure to RF-EMF, precautionary measures as well 297 as further studies are called upon, especially considering the 298 deployment of 5G networks [27] and the mm-wave frequency 299 band, in particular [28]. ...
Conference Paper
The advent of context aware environments within the implementation of Smart Cities and Smart Regions is supported by communication systems integrated within elements such as Intelligent Transportation Systems. In this paper, the impact of wireless communication system integration within public transportation buses will be analyzed, in order to assess regulatory compliance as well as to identify potential issues such as hot-spot location due to user density and wireless system usage.
... As to mobile phone pulsations, ELF EMF studies demonstrated that exposure to Sinusoidal-50Hz magnetic field from prenatal life until natural death significantly enhances the carcinogenic effects of well-known human carcinogens [36,37]. Consequently, in addition to the results obtained from epidemiological studies, those two new independent laboratory findings and many independent earlier studies conducted in animals-including a US Air Force study in 1992 [38] and others showing RFR-related DNA genetic damage and oxidative stress induction at low radiation intensity level [39][40][41]-all led several scientists to consider that the evidence is sufficiently robust to re-classify RFR and ELF EMF as probably carcinogenic to humans, group 2A, or even as carcinogenic, group 1 [42][43][44]. ...
... Moreover, practically, there is no pure RFR, since in all technological applications RFR is combined with ELF EMF modulation and pulsing. Real complex signals are variable in intensity at each moment-the ELF components as well as the RF signal being bioactive [41]. In addition, as electric fields are physically associated with magnetic fields, it remains practically extremely difficult to clearly distinguish the effects of the ones from those of the others in a clinical and biological setting. ...
Article
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Clinical research aiming at objectively identifying and characterizing diseases via clinical observations and biological and radiological findings is a critical initial research step when establishing objective diagnostic criteria and treatments. Failure to first define such diagnostic criteria may lead research on pathogenesis and etiology to serious confounding biases and erroneous medical interpretations. This is particularly the case for electrohypersensitivity (EHS) and more particularly for the so-called “provocation tests”, which do not investigate the causal origin of EHS but rather the EHS-associated particular environmental intolerance state with hypersensitivity to man-made electromagnetic fields (EMF). However, because those tests depend on multiple EMF-associated physical and biological parameters and have been conducted in patients without having first defined EHS objectively and/or endpoints adequately, they cannot presently be considered to be valid pathogenesis research methodologies. Consequently, the negative results obtained by these tests do not preclude a role of EMF exposure as a symptomatic trigger in EHS patients. Moreover, there is no proof that EHS symptoms or EHS itself are caused by psychosomatic or nocebo effects. This international consensus report pleads for the acknowledgement of EHS as a distinct neuropathological disorder and for its inclusion in the WHO International Classification of Diseases.
... The mechanism concludes that oscillating electric or magnetic fields with frequencies lower than 1.6 × 10 4 Hz (ELF and VLF fields) can be bioactive, even at very low intensities [2,16]. It is also claimed that pulsed EMFs can even further amplify their biological action compared to continuous EMFs [16][17][18]. ...
... On the basis of the above findings, an EMF mechanism can involve ROS formation due to membrane and voltage-gated cation channel function deterioration [2,3,7,8] followed by stress activation and heat-shock protein overexpression [56], which may be associated with behavioural and physiological effects such as blood-brain barrier disruption, memory malfunction, changes in gene expression [53], autophagy, apoptosis [53,84] (especially due to modulation [85]), lifespan reduction, DNA damage, and cancer [18]. ...
Article
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Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) disrupt the electrochemical balance of biological membranes, thereby causing abnormal cation movement and deterioration of the function of membrane voltage-gated ion channels. These can trigger an increase of oxidative stress (OS) and the impairment of all cellular functions, including DNA damage and subsequent carcinogenesis. In this review we focus on the main mechanisms of OS generation by EMF-sensitized NADPH oxidase (NOX), the involved OS biochemistry, and the associated key biological effects.
... There is significant evidence indicating that the effects of telecommunication EMFs on living organisms are mainly due to the included ELFs…. While ∼50 % of the studies employing simulated exposures do not find any effects, studies employing real-life exposures from commercially available devices display an almost 100 % consistency in showing adverse effects" (Panagopoulos, 2019). These effects may be exacerbated further with 5 G: "with every new generation of telecommunication devices…..the amount of information transmitted each moment…..is increased, resulting in higher variability and complexity of the signals with the living cells/ organisms even more unable to adapt" (Panogopoulos, 2019). ...
... A vast literature published over the past sixty years shows adverse effects from wireless radiation applied in isolation or as part of a combination with other toxic stimuli. Extensive reviews of wireless radiation-induced biological and health effects have been published (Kostoff andLau, 2013, 2017;Belpomme et al., 2018;Desai et al., 2009;Di Ciaula, 2018;Doyon and Johansson, 2017;Havas, 2017;Kaplan et al., 2016;Lerchl et al., 2015;Levitt and Lai, 2010;Miller et al., 2019;Pall, 2016Pall, , 2018Panagopoulos, 2019;Panagopoulos et al., 2015;Russell, 2018;Sage and Burgio, 2018;van Rongen et al., 2009;Yakymenko et al., 2016;Bioinitiative, 2012). In aggregate, for the high frequency (radiofrequency-RF) part of the spectrum, these reviews show that RF radiation below the FCC guidelines can result in: ...
Article
This article identifies adverse effects of non-ionizing non-visible radiation (hereafter called wireless radiation) reported in the premier biomedical literature. It emphasizes that most of the laboratory experiments conducted to date are not designed to identify the more severe adverse effects reflective of the real-life operating environment in which wireless radiation systems operate. Many experiments do not include pulsing and modulation of the carrier signal. The vast majority do not account for synergistic adverse effects of other toxic stimuli (such as chemical and biological) acting in concert with the wireless radiation. This article also presents evidence that the nascent 5 G mobile networking technology will affect not only the skin and eyes, as commonly believed, but will have adverse systemic effects as well.
... The Electromagnetic field radiations emitted from mobile phones and cell tower affect the brain of living organisms [11][12][13][14][15][16][17]. This creates neurological changes leads to morphological changes and disrupts brain and other internal organs. ...
Article
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The hest for technological advancement in mobile communication is due to augmentation of wireless user. The deployment of 5G mobile communication is less than 4G mobile communication due to challenges in security like cyberwarfare, espionage, critical infrastructure threats. Nevertheless, critic of neurological discomforts, tissue damage in living organisms occur in the existence of EMF radiation. Also, physical scarcity for spectral efficiency arises due to ubiquitous data traffic. Inspite of these disputes data rate, low latency, device to device communication is also a challenge. In this paper we provide a survey on radiation effects, security threats, traffic management.
... Health concerns over the short and long term effects of 5G to humans and the environment have been raised over time (Waldmann-Selsam et al., 2016). In an appeal to the European Union, more than 180 doctors and scientists from 36 countries warned about the dangers of 5G rollout, which will lead to an increase in involuntary exposure to electromagnetic radiation (Carlberg & Hardell, 2017;Hardell, 2017;Hardell & Nyberg, 2020;Panagopoulos, 2019). Feldman et al.(2009) raised concerns over the ability of the human skin to act as antennas and therefore respond to millimeter waves when they established that sweat ducts on human skin are helically-shaped tubes, overflowing by means of a conductive aqueous solution. ...
Article
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p> 5G was test-launched in Nigeria in 2019 to improve its communication technology, conspiracy theorists, however, linked 5G to the outbreak of the Covid-19. As with conspiracies, the ‘who’ that lends credence to it affects how far it travels. Pastor Chris Oyakhilome, founder of Believers LoveWorld, added his voice to the 5G debate, claiming that Covid-19 lockdown was decoy to sequester the population for government to covertly deploy 5G. This study is important because it addresses the issue of fake news and its ability to cause civil disobedience in the society. Using secondary research method, content analysis was used to review arguments on 5G controversy in the Nigerian context. Findings revealed that government appealed for calm and stated that no license for the installation of 5G has been issued yet. Technology enthusiasts and media organizations put out fact-checking information in support of the technology. Various arguments indicate that no one really understands the full capabilities of 5G and its long-term effect on living organisms and the environment. It is recommended that more tests be carried out in varying conditions to understand the tolerance limit of the technology, and for the government to be transparent in its public communication. </p
... We used a bioassay which permits the evaluation of the effect of oxidative stress resulting from the radiation of an actively transmitting mobile phone by evaluating the regeneration process of connective tissue fibroblasts. The experimental setup was adapted to a realistic situation which has been shown to be more meaningful than a controlled situation at laboratory conditions using "test" generators with invariant parameters such as intensity, frequency etc. [14]. ...
Article
Background: Mobile phones are high performance devices that consume a lot of energy and also generate heat in form of microwaves. This heat is mainly created by the high frequency electromagnetic fields that transmit voice or data in mobile communications. Moreover, mobile phones also possess non-thermal radiation which has been shown to induce oxidative stress and molecular and cellular damage. Material and methods: In this study not only the dynamic process of cellular damage following oxidative stress from the radiation of an actively transmitting mobile phone was investigated, but also a device named Qi-Shield, which claims to protect from the adverse effects of a mobile phone & WLAN radiation at realistic conditions. The regeneration process of cultured connective tissue cells (cell line L-929) which results in the closure of an artificial cell-free area by cell proliferation and migration, was used for continuous video micrography evaluation for more than 60 hours. Three different experimental approaches were conducted: (1) Regeneration of untreated control cells; (2) Regeneration of unprotected cells after 4 hours of mobile phone radiation; (3) Regeneration of Qi-Shield protected cells after 4 hours of mobile phone radiation. For definite time points during the regeneration process the residual cell-free area was examined by a specialized software with artificial intelligence. Four independent experiments over a period of four weeks were conducted. Results and conclusions: A quite consistent cell reaction for the three different experimental approaches was observed in all experiments. The unexposed control cells showed a nearly linear reduction of the cell-free area with a time point of closure at 50 hours. The unprotected cells after mobile phone exposure also showed a roughly linear reduction of the cell-free area, but its magnitude was significantly lower and did not result in any closure of the cell-free area. The cells protected by Qi-Shield behaved very close to the unexposed cells, although a closure of the cell-free area within 60 hours of regeneration was only observed in two of four experiments. When calculating a relation between the values at 50 hours of regeneration by setting the value for the reduction of unexposed control cells as 100 %, a reduction value of 22 % was obtained for the unprotected cells, but 82.7 % for the Qi-Shield protected cells. Therefore, Qi-Shield was able to protect cells from the adverse effects of mobile phone & WLAN radiation by more than 82 %. The results clearly demonstrate the different dynamic reactions of connective tissue cells after mobile phone radiation and the successful use of Qi-Shield to reduce adverse cellular effects. Keywords: Mobile phone radiation; Oxidative stress; Fibroblast; L-929; Cell regeneration; Cell culture
... There is a far-reaching history of research on the health effects of wireless radiation (Belpomme Hardell, Belyaev, Burgio, & Carpenter, 2018;Deruelle, 2020;Desai, Kesari, & Agarwal, 2009;Di Ciaula, 2018;Doyon & Johansson, 2017;Havas, 2017;Kaplan et al., 2016;Kostoff & Lau, 2013Lerchl et al., 2015;Levitt & Lai, 2010;Miller et al., 2019;Pall, 2016Pall, , 2018Panagopoulos, 2019;Panagopoulos, Johansson, & Carlo, 2015;Russell, 2018;Sage & Burgio, 2018;van Rongen et al., 2009;Yakymenko et al., 2016). Kostoff, Heroux, Aschner, & Tsatsakis (2020) summarize these findings reporting that exposure to radio frequency radiation below the American Federal ...
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This study investigated whether the Croatian news website Index.hr manipulates information on the health effects of 5G. We constructed one experimental corpus, containing all articles by Index.hr on health effects of 5G, and two control corpora, one with articles about health effects of 5G published by reliable media, and one with articles about science published by Index.hr. Compared to Index.hr science articles, Index.hr 5G articles were 288.14 times likelier to express the author’s opinion, 16.95 times likelier to express a subjective opinion, 10.78 times likelier to contain no references, 10.78 times likelier to contain misinformation, and 4.20 times likelier to contain no scientific references. The simultaneous increase in misinformation and reduction in referencing suggeststhat the misinformation doesn’t stem from other sources, but that itis produced within Index.hr. An increase in opinion expression, and opinion subjectivity in the context of misinformation suggests that Index.hr is manipulating the information on health effects of 5G. Furthermore, all articles were written by different authors, indicating that this phenomenon is systematic within Index.hr. Still, the small sample size warrants a degree of caution.
... Nevertheless, its constant abnormal pulse radiation can have health effects, along with the mode and duration of exposures. Reference [26] presents how some 5G signal characteristics, like the pulsing, could increase the biologic and health impacts of the exposure. Hitherto, it´s worth noting that while there still isn´t consensus on the scientific evidence in relation with potentially harmful effects of longterm exposure to RF-EMF, precautionary measures as well as further studies are called upon, especially considering the deployment of 5G networks [27] and the mm-wave frequency band, in particular [28]. ...
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The upcoming design and implementation of the new generation of 5G cellular systems, jointly with the multiple wireless communication systems that nowadays coexist within vehicular environments, leads to Heterogeneous Network challenging urban scenarios. In this framework, user’s Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields (RF-EMF) radiation exposure assessment is pivotal, to verify compliance with current legislation thresholds. In this work, an in-depth study of the E-field characterization of the personal mobile communications within urban public trams is presented, considering different cellular technologies (from 2G to 5G). Specifically, frequency bands in the range of 5G NR frequency range 1 (FR1) and millimeter wave (mm-wave) bands within frequency range 2 (FR2) have been analyzed for 5G scenarios, considering their dispersive material properties. A simulation approach is presented to assess user mobile phone base station up-link radiation exposure, considering all the significant features of urban transportation trams in terms of structure morphology and topology or the materials employed. In addition, different user densities have been considered at different frequency bands, from 2G to 5G (FR1 and FR2), by means of an in-house developed deterministic 3D Ray-Launching (3D-RL) technique in order to provide clear insight spatial E-field distribution, including the impact in the use of directive antennas and beamforming techniques, within realistic operation conditions. Discussion in relation with current exposure limits have been presented, showing that for all cases, E-Field results are far below the maximum reference levels established by the ICNIRP guidelines. By means of a complete E-field campaign of measurements, performed with both, a personal exposimeter (PEM) and a spectrum analyzer within a real tram wagon car, the proposed methodology has been validated showing good agreement with the experimental measurements. In consequence, a simulation-based analysis methodology for dosimetry estimation is provided, aiding in the assessment of current and future cellular deployments in complex heterogeneous vehicular environments.
... A large number of studies published in peer-review international scientific journals have found a variety of biological effects, (including the most detrimental ones such as DNA damage, cell death, and infertility) to be induced by exposure to either RF or ELF man-made EMFs (Agarwal et al., 2008(Agarwal et al., , 2009Balmori, 2005Balmori, , 2006Balmori, , 2010De Iuliis et al., 2009;Panagopoulos, 2011Panagopoulos, , 2017Panagopoulos, , 2019. Moreover, epidemiological studies report an increasing connection between ELF or RF EMF exposure and cancer (Draper et al., 2005;Kheifets et al., 2010;Hardell et al., 2007Hardell et al., , 2009Hardell et al., , 2013aHardell et al., , 2013bKhurana et al., 2009;Wang and Guo, 2016;Momoli et al., 2017). ...
... The loss of mental attention [2] and accidents caused by distracted driving [11] have been highlighted as a public health concern. The inconsistent results between similar studies and the same research groups have made it very difficult to make any comprehensive interpretation [12]. ...
... In this review, many of the studies on RFR effects were analyzed with respect to different frequency, modulation, and exposure duration. As it is mentioned in this report, there is differentiation on the effects of continuous wave and modulated wave of RFR since modulation of carrier waves (in all its forms) often involves extremely low frequency (ELF) components, especially in today's broadband applications (Panagopoulos 2019;Panagopoulos et al. 2021). This data may be another answer for the question of whether there is any difference in the effects of different signal modulations for 2.5 GHz on Caco-2 colon cancer cells. ...
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In this study, it is aimed to investigate the effect of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) on apoptotic and antiapoptotic factors under different exposure conditions in human colonic adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2). We analyzed the effects of 2.5 GHz continuous wave and 3 GPP modulated radiofrequency radiation exposure (15 min on, 15 min off) for 1 h and (1 h on, 1 h off) for 3 hours on Caco-2 cell lines. The cell viability of Caco-2 cells was determined by XTT method. Then, the cells were analyzed by flow cytometry to determine the effects on apoptosis staining with AnnexinV-FITC and PI. Protein expression levels of Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase-3 and Survivin were subsequently analyzed by using flow cytometric methods. Bax, Caspase 8, and Survivin protein levels were also analyzed by western blot. The cell viability rates were not significantly different after 2.5 GHz of RFR exposure for 1 h, but RFR exposure for 3 h at 2.5 GHz frequencies caused a decrease on cell viability of Caco-2 cells. RFR exposure for 1 and 3 hours at 2.5 GHz frequencies resulted in an apoptotic response. Protein analyses of Bcl-2, Bax, Survivin, Caspase-3, and Caspase-8 showed that RFR led to increase the levels of proapoptotic Bax, Caspase-3, and Caspase 8 in Caco-2 cells under different exposure conditions. However, 3-h exposure caused a decrease in antiapoptotic survivin levels. The results of our study indicate that RFR exposure affects the cell death mechanism due to apoptotic pathway.
... The upcoming 5G mobile network might have adverse systemic outcomes due to the synergistic effects of other toxic stimuli [27]. The accumulative outcomes are directly linked to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage, leading to cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and reproductive declines [28]. ...
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Background: Electromagnetic non-ionizing radiation has both thermal and non-thermal outcomes on biological systems, such as humans, animals, and bacteria. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effect of non-ionizing radiofrequency radiation, emitted by Wi-Fi routers, on bacterial strains and the modification of their susceptibility to modern antibiotics. Material and methods: In this case-control paired study, four bacteria were selected, and one colony from each bacterial strain was exposed to Wi-Fi radiation forming the exposure group. Another set of colonies was not exposed to Wi-Fi radiation, forming the control group. Eight different antibiotic disks were set on the bacterial plates, and the inhibition zone was measured every 3 h for each colony. Results: Electromagnetic radiation affects bacterial colonies and their susceptibility to antibiotics. Analysis revealed statistically significant differences, correlated with the bacterial strain, the antibiotic agent, and the time of the exposure, in the inhibition zones, mostly after 6 and 24 h (p-value < 0.05). Conclusion: A correlation was observed between antibiotic susceptibility and non-ionizing radiofrequency exposure. Studying the effects of radiofrequency radiation on prokaryotic organisms could clarify more complicated cell structures and organisms, such as eukaryotic. Further experiments, in vitro and in vivo, could provide more information about these outcomes and cause experts to discuss the current guidelines of exposure limits.
... The only mechanism considered by ICNIRP is temperature rise, which may also occur with 5G exposure, apart from the established non-thermal biological/health effects (42,43). It is well known among experts in the EMF-bioeffects field that the recorded cellular effects, such as DNA damage, protein damage, chromosome damage and reproductive declines, and the vast majority of biological/health effects are not accompanied by any significant temperature rise in tissues (44)(45)(46)(47). The ion forced-oscillation mechanism (48) should be referred to as a plausible non-thermal mechanism of irregular gating of electrosensitive ion channels on cell membranes, resulting in disruption of the cell electrochemical balance and initiating free radical release and oxidative stress in the cells, which in turn causes genetic damage (15,49). ...
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The fifth generation, 5G, of radiofrequency (RF) radiation is about to be implemented globally without investigating the risks to human health and the environment. This has created debate among concerned individuals in numerous countries. In an appeal to the European Union (EU) in September 2017, currently endorsed by >390 scientists and medical doctors, a moratorium on 5G deployment was requested until proper scientific evaluation of potential negative consequences has been conducted. This request has not been acknowledged by the EU. The evaluation of RF radiation health risks from 5G technology is ignored in a report by a government expert group in Switzerland and a recent publication from The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. Conflicts of interest and ties to the industry seem to have contributed to the biased reports. The lack of proper unbiased risk evaluation of the 5G technology places populations at risk. Furthermore, there seems to be a cartel of individuals monopolizing evaluation committees, thus reinforcing the no-risk paradigm. We believe that this activity should qualify as scientific misconduct. © This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) License.
... This note is based on the view by the 13 Commission members and represents the misconception and wrong evaluation of these studies; for example it is claimed that the histopathological evaluation was not blinded, a false statement. ICNIRP also claims that there is no verified mechanism for RF radiation carcinogenesis in spite of well-designed studies showing the contrary, e.g., oxidative stress (14) and DNA damage (15). There are also several other wrong suggestions, such as that some of the NTP findings were due to heat caused by RF radiation. ...
... Some experimental studies that are not industry-sponsored have also shown no evidence of harmful effects of WCR exposure. It is noteworthy, however, that studies employing real-life WCR exposures from commercially available devices have shown high consistency in revealing adverse effects [134]. ...
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Background and aim: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) public health policy has focused on the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus and its effects on human health while environmental factors have been largely ignored. In considering the epidemiological triad (agent-host-environment) applicable to all disease, we investigated a possible environmental factor in the COVID-19 pandemic: ambient radiofrequency radiation from wireless communication systems including microwaves and millimeter waves. SARS-CoV-2, the virus that caused the COVID-19 pandemic, surfaced in Wuhan, China shortly after the implementation of city-wide (fifth generation [5G] of wireless communications radiation [WCR]), and rapidly spread globally, initially demonstrating a statistical correlation to international communities with recently established 5G networks. In this study, we examined the peer-reviewed scientific literature on the detrimental bioeffects of WCR and identified several mechanisms by which WCR may have contributed to the COVID-19 pandemic as a toxic environmental cofactor. By crossing boundaries between the disciplines of biophysics and pathophysiology, we present evidence that WCR may: (1) cause morphologic changes in erythrocytes including echinocyte and rouleaux formation that can contribute to hypercoagulation; (2) impair microcirculation and reduce erythrocyte and hemoglobin levels exacerbating hypoxia; (3) amplify immune system dysfunction, including immunosuppression, autoimmunity, and hyperinflammation; (4) increase cellular oxidative stress and the production of free radicals resulting in vascular injury and organ damage; (5) increase intracellular Ca2+ essential for viral entry, replication, and release, in addition to promoting pro-inflammatory pathways; and (6) worsen heart arrhythmias and cardiac disorders. Relevance for patients: In short, WCR has become a ubiquitous environmental stressor that we propose may have contributed to adverse health outcomes of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 and increased the severity of the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, we recommend that all people, particularly those suffering from SARS-CoV-2 infection, reduce their exposure to WCR as much as reasonably achievable until further research better clarifies the systemic health effects associated with chronic WCR exposure.
... However, the ICNIRP calculations ignore this directive. They only use average values for heating of tissue, and simplistic modelling that does not include the effect of several important physical characteristics of telecommunication signals such as low frequency modulations, pulsing, polarisation [77] and the constant variability in intensity that occurs with real world signals used in many laboratory experiments [78]. These complexities, together with the aggregation of different signals [7, p. 11] from ongoing intermittent spikes of energy, which can be hundreds of thousands times higher than mean values [79, p. 458] causing harm to biological tissues irrespective of the average absorbed energy. ...
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The fifth generation of radiofrequency communication , 5G, is currently being rolled out worldwide. Since September 2017, the EU 5G Appeal has been sent six times to the EU, requesting a moratorium on the rollout of 5G. This article reviews the 5G Appeal and the EU's subsequent replies, including the extensive cover letter sent to the EU in September 2021, requesting stricter guidelines for exposures to radiofrequency radiation (RFR). The Appeal notes the EU's internal conflict between its approach to a wireless technology-led future, and the need to protect the health and safety of its citizens. It critiques the reliance of the EU on the current guidelines given by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), that consider only heating and no other health relevant biological effects from RFR. To counteract the ICNIRP position, the 2021 cover letter briefly presented recent research from the EU's own expert groups, from a large collection of European and other international studies, and from previous reviews of the effects of RFR on humans and the environment. The 5G Appeal asserts that the majority of scientific evidence points to biological effects , many with the potential for harm, occurring below the ICNIRP public limits. Evidence to establish this position is drawn from studies showing changes to neurotransmit-ters and receptors, damage to cells, proteins, DNA, sperm, the immune system, and human health, including cancer. The 2021 Appeal goes on to warn that 5G signals are likely to additionally alter the behaviour of oxygen and water molecules at the quantum level, unfold proteins, damage skin, and cause harm to insects, birds, frogs, plants and animals. Altogether, this evidence establishes a high priority for the European Union towards (i) replacing the current flawed guidelines with protective thresholds, and (ii) placing a moratorium on 5G deployment so as to (iii) allow industry-independent scientists the time needed to propose new health-protective guidelines. This 2021 Ap-peal's relevance becomes even more pressing in the context of the EU plans to roll out the sixth generation of wireless technologies, 6G, further adding to the known risks of RFR technology for humans and the environment. This all leads to an important question: Do EU decision makers have the right to ignore EU´s own directives by prioritising economic gain over human and environmental health?
... In fact, these simulated signals employ fixed parameters and no variability, thus, resulting in very different from the corresponding real emissions that instead vary constantly and unpredictably. This makes reallife signals more bioactive, and living organisms seem to have much less defense against highly variable environmental stressors [85,86]. Therefore, the use of simulated signals might also lead to an underestimation of the potential harmful effects. ...
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The proliferation of cellular antennas and other radiofrequency radiation (RFR) generating devices of the last decades has led to more and more concerns about the potential health effects from RFR exposure. Since the 2011 classification as a probable carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), more experimental studies have been published that support a causal association between RFR exposure and health hazards. As regard cancer risk, two long-term experimental studies have been recently published by the US National Toxicology Program (NTP) and the Italian Ramazzini Institute (RI). Despite important experimental differences, both studies found statistically significant increases in the development of the same type of very rare glial malignant tumors. In addition to carcinogenicity, reproductive organs might be particularly exposed, as well as sensitive to RFR. In this work, we reviewed the currently available evidence from in vivo studies on carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity studies in order to summarize the contribution of experimental research to the prevention of the adverse effects of RFR on human health.
... Moreover, previous studies have reported that electromagnetic fields exposure were associated with depression and suicide and neurodegenerative diseases among utility workers [168][169][170][171]. Of note, recent studies demonstrated that long-term exposure to man-made electromagnetic fields may led to DNA damage, which is associated with an increased risk of seizures, syncope, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, reproductive declines, etc. [171][172][173]. For the sake of security, therefore, high attention must be paid to the potential adverse effects of long-term PEMFs in further studies. ...
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Increasing evidence suggests that an exogenous electromagnetic field might be involved in many biologic processes which are of great importance for therapeutic interventions. Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) are known to be a noninvasive, safe and effective therapy agent without apparent side effects. Numerous studies have shown that PEMFs possess the potential to become a stand-alone or adjunctive treatment modality for treating musculoskeletal disorders. However, several issues remain unresolved. Prior to their widely clinical application, further researches from well-designed, high-quality studies are still required to standardize the treatment parameters and derive the optimal protocol for health-care decision making. In this review, we aim to provide current evidence on the mechanism of action, clinical applications, and controversies of PEMFs in musculoskeletal disorders.
... In a smart home or smart commercial building, the amount of exposure from EMR will be higher due to two plausible reasons, one, a multitude of smart or IoT devices will be connected, filling up the indoor space with excessive radiation (Atlam, Walters, and Wills, 2018) and, second, due to the high range of frequencies used for 5G (Russell 2018), that include millimeter frequency. Scientists and researchers believe both of these EMR sources cause health problems like dizziness, nausea (Al-Khlaiwi and Meo, 2004), gene (Chen et al., 2008) and DNA alteration (Panagopoulos, 2019), immunity issues (Gridley et al., 2006) besides cancer and brain tumor (Pakhomov et al., 1997;Hardell, 2017;Prasad et al., 2017). The World Health organization (WHO) declared that EMR produced from radiofrequency sources caused an increased risk occurrence of glioma (a type of brain tumor) and classified it as group 2B (probable carcinogenic) (IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks toWorld Health Organizationand International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2002). ...
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The global Covid-19 pandemic caused a rapid transitioning to remote work settings, one likely to linger post-pandemic, resulting on people spending more time at home for work or study. The globalpandemic defined a new normal that is expected to be digital and heavily relying on technology. Smart buildings which are envisioned to be the next paradigm shift in the built environment are also foreseen as a response solution to aid in situations like pandemic. However, such a move yields benefits as well as risks, prompting wide debates on the priority to safeguard building occupants health, safety and well-being. Researchers, designers and engineers are seeking solutions to incorporate or modify design features in the indoor environment that prioritize the dwellers’ health and wellness. Though benefits of smart and IoT devices aid in monitoring health and wellness, radiation from these wireless devices may cause harm to human health, especially those with weaker health, as indicated by several research findings. Some of the negative impacts from wireless radiation include cell damage, cancer, tumor, change in hormonal levels, and neurological damage. Thus, this study seeks to determine the difference in radiation level inside a wired, hybrid and a wireless smart home through Computer Simulation Technology (CST) simulation. Such a quantification can help designers develop strategies to design smart buildings that cause low radiation for its occupants. Antenna field source was imported to CST to create the wireless and hybrid design scenario. The measurement for wired and hybrid were evaluated keeping the wired design as baseline. The results revealed that wireless produced 26.55% more radiation than wired scenario at 2.45 GHz, taken as baseline measurement. Further, the total Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) and radiation patterns are dependent on several factors like proximity of IoT and smart devices to building walls and interior furnishings, frequency of operation. In order to create a safer indoor environment, this study recommends the use of both wired and hybrid design in lieu of totally wireless smart buildings.
... Since iron-rich magnetic NPs respond to external magnetic fields and are involved in cell damage by agglomeration/clustering, magnetic rotation and/or hyperthermia (Calderón-Garcidueñas et al., 2019a it is also very important we keep track of individual lifetime occupational magnetic field exposures knowing electric power plant, electric furnace, transformer substation workers, welders, electricians,etc., have high exposures to magnetic fields, including extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF MG) (Mee et al., 2009;Miah and Kamat, 2017;Habash et Children living far from electric networks had the lowest level of exposure and those using electric heating appliances, or living in big buildings or in larger families had generally a higher level of personal indoor exposure (Tognola et al., 2019). Mobile phones and electric vehicles should be added to the list of magnetic field sources (Yang et al., 2019;Pockett, 2018;Choi et al., 2018;Morgan et al., 2015;Panagopoulos, 2019). Thus, the potential association between Alzheimer disease and magnetic fields is biologically plausible (Jalilian et al., 2018): the more Fe-rich magnetic nanoparticles in the brain, the higher the negative effects of magnetic effects i.e., agglomeration/ clustering, magnetic rotation and/or hyperthermia (Maher et al., 2016;Maher, 2019;Calderón-Garcidueñas et al., 2019e). ...
Article
Exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) above USEPA standards are associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk. Metropolitan Mexico City (MMC) youth have life time exposures to PM2.5 and O3 above standards. We focused on MMC residents ≤30 years and reviewed 134 consecutive autopsies of subjects age 20.03 ± 6.38 y (range 11 months to 30 y), the staging of Htau and ß amyloid, the lifetime cumulative PM2.5 (CPM 2.5) and the impact of the Apolipoprotein E (APOE) 4 allele, the most prevalent genetic risk for AD. We also reviewed the results of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) in clinically healthy young cohorts. Mobile sources, particularly from non-regulated diesel vehicles dominate the MMC pollutant emissions exposing the population to PM2.5 concentrations above WHO and EPA standards. Iron-rich,magnetic, highly oxidative, combustion and friction-derived nanoparticles (CFDNPs) are measured in the brain of every MMC resident. Progressive development of Alzheimer starts in childhood and in 99.25% of 134 consecutive autopsies ≤30 years we can stage the disease and its progression; 66% of ≤30 years urbanites have cognitive impairment and involvement of the brainstem is reflected by auditory central dysfunction in every subject studied. The average age for dementia using MoCA is 20.6 ± 3.4 y. APOE4 vs 3 carriers have 1.26 higher odds of committing suicide. PM2.5 and CFDNPs play a key role in the development of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in young urbanites. A serious health crisis is in progress with social, educational, judicial, economic and overall negative health impact for 25 million residents. Understanding the neural circuitry associated with the earliest cognitive and behavioral manifestations of AD is needed. Air pollution control should be prioritised-including the regulation of diesel vehicles- and the first two decades of life ought to be targeted for neuroprotective interventions. Defining paediatric environmental, nutritional, metabolic and genetic risk factor interactions is a multidisciplinary task of paramount importance to prevent Alzheimer's disease. Current and future generations are at risk.
... 10 Disorders of hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis in EMF exposed animals lead to instabilities in affective motor responses and neurovegetative functions causing behavioral deviations and augmented appetite and weight gain 11 . A research that went on in Germany proved that the exposure of 10 or more years to EMF caused increase in the incidence of glioma 12 . However some other studies failed to demonstrate a statistically significant correlation between impairment of central nervous system in young male Wistar rats and exposure to mobile phone waves at normal human usage frequencies 13 . ...
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Aim: To observe and analyze the histomorphological changes prompted by second generation (2G), third generation (3G) and fourth generation (4G) mobile phones respectively, every day for 1 hour for 3 months. The rats were dissected on 90th day of the research. The cerebellums were taken out, fixed in 10% formalin, prepared and dyed with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) for histological examination. Results: It was noted on microscopic examination that radio waves from 2G, 3G and 4G cell phones caused harm to the margins of Purkinje cells of cerebellum. It was observed that the margins were 60% irregular in group B (2G) and 100% irregular in groups C (3G) and D (4G). Additionally, occurrence of perineuronal space was seen in around 60% of Purkinje cells in group B (2G) and 100% of Purkinje cells in groups C (3G) and D (4G). Conclusion: The radio waves from 2G, 3G and 4G mobile phones have lethal results on the margins of Purkinje cells instigating the presence of perineuronal space around them in the cortex of cerebellum with 3G and 4G triggering further damage as equated to EMF from 2G mobile phones.
... Cellular senescence can be triggered by various stresses, such as activated oncogenes, oxidative stress, shortening of telomeres, DNA damage, and insufficient supplementation (12)(13)(14). EMFs have also been reported to induce oxidative stress, DNA damage, and other biological effects, although the results are not definitive (15,16). Thus, it is necessary to consider the effects of EMFs on cellular senescence. ...
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Rapid population aging has led to a global burden of late-life diseases. As the largest risk factor for a multitude of age-related diseases, aging is not only the result of genotype but also closely related to external factors. With the rapid expansion in the usage of electromagnetic fields (EMFs), the effect of EMFs on aging has also attracted attention. Cells are the basic unit of organs and body tissues, and cellular senescence plays an important role in the aging process. The effect of EMFs on cellular senescence has been investigated in a few studies, but the information is limited, and the results are inconsistent; thus, further investigation is required. In this study, we investigated the effect of 10 Hz pulsed magnetic fields (MFs) on cellular senescence in a 2BS cell line, isolated from human fetal lung fibroblasts, and found that intermittent (1 d on/1 d off) exposure to 10 Hz pulsed MFs at 1.0 mT for 2 weeks induced DNA damage, but no other significant phenotype of cellular senescence in 2BS cells.
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The worldwide incidence of head and neck cancer (HNC) exceeds half a million cases annually, and up to half of the patients with HNC present with advanced disease. Surgical resection remains the mainstay of treatment for many HNCs, although radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy might contribute to individual patient’s treatment plan. Irrespective of which modality is chosen, disease prognosis remains suboptimal, especially for higher staging tumors. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) has recently demonstrated a substantial anti-tumor effect. After a thorough literature search, we provide a comprehensive review depicting the oncological potential of CAP in HNC treatment. We discovered that CAP applies to almost all categories of HNC, including upper aerodigestive tract cancers, head and neck glandular cancers and skin cancers. In addition, CAP is truly versatile, as it can be applied not only directly for superficial or luminal tumors but also indirectly for deep solid organ tumors. Most importantly, CAP can work collaboratively with existing clinical oncotherapies with synergistic effect. After our attempts to elaborate the conceivable molecular mechanism of CAP’s anti-neoplastic effect for HNC, we provide a brief synopsis of recent clinical and preclinical trials emphasizing CAP’s applicability in head and neck oncology. In conclusion, we have enunciated our vision of plasma oncology using CAP for near future HNC treatment.
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In this work, we developed the electromagnetic shielding effective (EMI SE) polyester woven fabrics by simple electroless plating with copper. Subsequently, it was coated with various precursors to investigate their influence on the EMI SE values. In addition, we studied the effect of copper sulfate concentration and the number of dips required to improve the EMI SE values. The results of the experiment confirm that the Cu particle deposition on the fabric has a strong influence on the EMI SE values. EMI shielding is directly proportional to the concentration of copper particles as well as the sol-gel coating process. However, the EMI SE value of sol-gel coated Cu-plated fabric depends on the type of precursor. Among the precursors, Triethoxyphenylsilane provides two times higher EMI SE values than the Cu-plated fabrics which is a novel effect. The morphology of deposited copper particles was studied by employing SEM analysis in order to find the durability of copper particles on the polyester fabric surface. It was observed that the copper particles that are coated on the fabric pores have no significant decrease in air permeability due to partial coverage.
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Knowledge of the electrical potentials within different compartments of a biological cell induced by applied alternating fields is needed for assessing the effects of electromagnetic radiation exposure on cells, understanding electroporation and other electric field-induced effects, and deriving expressions for the complex permittivity of suspensions of cells. In the work presented in this paper, closed-form analytical expressions have been derived for the electrical potentials within different layers of an inhomogeneous particle consisting of four different dielectric layers and suspended in a homogeneous medium. Those expressions have been used to derive, for the case of a realistic model of a cell containing a large concentric organelle, expressions for the transmembrane potentials (at cell and organelle level) and electric fields within the cell compartments induced by applied fields. The results of the present theoretical model are indicate points of departure between the present and previous theoretical models. The present theory also confirms the validity of the equivalence approach suggested previously for computing the complex permittivity for suspensions of multi-shelled particles. In addition, it shows that the electric field is amplified at the level of the cell and organelle membranes, but not within other cell compartments.
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In this paper, we review the literature on three important exposure metrics that are inadequately represented in most major radiofrequency radiation (RFR) exposure guidelines today: intensity, exposure duration, and signal modulation. Exposure intensity produces unpredictable effects as demonstrated by nonlinear effects. This is most likely caused by the biological system's ability to adjust and compensate but could lead to eventual biomic breakdown after prolonged exposure. A review of 112 low-intensity studies reveals that biological effects of RFR could occur at a median specific absorption rate of 0.0165 W/kg. Intensity and exposure duration interact since the dose of energy absorbed is the product of intensity and time. The result is that RFR behaves like a biological "stressor" capable of affecting numerous living systems. In addition to intensity and duration, man-made RFR is generally modulated to allow information to be encrypted. The effects of modulation on biological functions are not well understood. Four types of modulation outcomes are discussed. In addition, it is invalid to make direct comparisons between thermal energy and radiofrequency electromagnetic energy. Research data indicate that electromagnetic energy is more biologically potent in causing effects than thermal changes. The two likely functionthrough different mechanisms. As such, any current RFR exposure guidelines based on acute continuous-wave exposure are inadequate for health protection.
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The use of wireless communication technology in mobile phones has revolutionized modern telecommunication and mobile phones have become so popular that their number exceeds the global population. Electromagnetic field radiations (EMR) are an integral part of wireless technology, which are emitted by mobile phones, mobile towers, electric power stations, transmission lines, radars, microwave ovens, television sets, refrigerators, diagnostic/therapeutic and other electronic devices. The manmade EMR sources have added to the existing burden of natural EMR human exposure arising from the Sun, cosmos, atmospheric discharges, and thunderstorms. EMR including radiofrequency waves (RF) and extremely low frequency radiation (ELF) has generated great interest as their human exposure causes headache, fatigue, tinnitus, concentration problems, depression, memory loss, skin irritation, sleep disorders, nausea, cardiovascular effects, chest pain, immunity and hormonal disorders as the short-term effects and cancer as the late effect. The review has been written by collecting the information using various search engines including google scholar, PubMed SciFinder, Science direct, EMF-portal, saferemr, and other websites on the internet and its main focus is on the mutagenic and genotoxic effects of EMR in humans and mammals. Numerous investigations revealed that exposure in the range of 0–300 GHz EMR is harmless as this did not increase micronuclei and chromosome aberrations. On the contrary, several other studies have demonstrated that exposure to EMR increases the frequency of micronuclei, chromosome aberrations, DNA adducts, DNA single and double strand breaks at the molecular level in vitro and in vivo. The EMR exposure induces reactive oxygen species and changes the fidelity of genes involved in signal transduction, cytoskeleton formation, and cellular metabolism.
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Objective(s): Nowadays, the electromagnetic field-emitting devices have been used in our daily routine lives. Controversial reports exist concerning the effects of mobile radiofrequency (RF) on different parts of body, especially stress hormones. The main goal of the present work was to study the long-term effects of mobile RF900 MHz exposure with special focus on the adrenal gland pathophysiology and function. Material and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were exposed to Mobile RF 6 hours daily for 4-8 weeks. Intact and switched-off exposed animals were considered as control. Plasma ACTH and cortisol level was measured by ElISA method. At the end of the experiment, a histological study was done on adrenal gland and brain tissue by hematoxilin and eosin staining. The thickness of fasciculate layer of adrenal gland, its cell number and perimeter were measured by Fiji software. Results: An enhanced plasma ACTH and cortisol level was found after prolonged exposure to mobile RF. The fasciculata layer of adrenal cortex eventually thickened following mobile RF radiation. While the number of cells in ZF remained constant, the cell size and perimeter increased during EMF exposure. Finally, we found that vacuolization in brain tissue and the number and size of vacuoles considerably increased during two months of RF exposure. Conclusion: Cell phone RF exposure induced significant hormonal and structural changes in adrenal gland and brain tissue. Therefore, the public should be aware and limit their exposure as much as possible.
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Background: Mobile phones may have harmful health effects and clinical examinations report ambiguous results of exposure concerning neurophysiological and cardiovascular actions. Materials and Methods: This study investigated heart rate asymmetry (HRA) and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters with 1:2 and 1:1 metronomepaced inspiration/expiration ratios during short-term 1,800MHz GSM cellular phone exposure in 20 healthy volunteers. Results: Significant HRA changes by Porta and Guzik indices were not found on exposure compared to sham exposure. Time-domain HRV parameters on exposure showed significant differences at 1:1 paced, but not at 1:2 paced breathing compared to sham exposure. A mild post-exposure effect was observed regarding root mean square of successive RR-differences. Conclusion: The findings reflect persisting acute effects of GSM handset emission on the autonomic nervous system. Exploring its influences on health status and survival needs further studies. Symmetrical breathing can be used as a sensitizing factor in other HRV/HRA analysis studies.
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Background Analyzing the possible negative effects of using cell phones on the users’ health is an important and vital affair due to rapid growth and extensive use of these devices on human communications and interactions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of increasing the distance of cell phones to brain tissue on the temperature of the central and gray matters of brain due to the heat generated by radio frequency waves. Methods This study was an experimental study. A cow's brain tissue was analyzed in a compartment with three thicknesses of 2, 12, and 22 mm, in the distances of 4 mm and 4 cm from a cell phone for 15 min. Lutron thermometer was used to measure the tissue temperature, and the data analysis were done by Lutron and MATLAB software packages. Results The tissue temperature was increased while confronting with a cell phone in distances of 4 mm and 4 cm in all the three thicknesses of 2, 12, and 22 mm. The tissue temperature was higher after removing the confrontation at 4 mm distance as compared to the distance of 4 cm. Conclusions During confrontation and after that with the cell phone, reducing the distance of brain tissue and the cell phone increased the tissue temperature intensely. In fact, by increasing the cell phone distance from brain tissue, the thermal effect of radiofrequency waves was reduced.
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The use of mobile phones is increasing, and the main health concern is the possible deleterious effects of radiation on brain functioning. The present study aimed to examine the effects of exposure to a global system for mobile communication (GSM) with mobile phones on inhibitory avoidance (IA) memory performance as well as the involvement of endogenous opioids and nitric oxide (NO) in this task. Male Wistar rats, 10–12 weeks old, were used. The results showed that four weeks of mobile phone exposure impaired IA memory performance in rats. The results also revealed that post-training, but not pretraining, as well as pre-test intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of naloxone (0.4, 4 and 40 ng/rat), dose-dependently recovered the impairment of IA memory performance induced by GSM radiation. Additionally, the impairment of IA memory performance was completely recovered in the exposed animals with post-training treatment of naloxone (40 ng/rat) plus pre-test i.c.v. injections of L-arginine (100 and 200 nmol/rat). However, pre-test i.c.v. injections of L-NAME (10 and 20 nmol/rat), impaired IA memory performance in the animals receiving post-training naloxone (40 ng/rat). In the animals receiving post-training naloxone treatment, the impairment of IA memory performance due to pre-test i.c.v. injections of L-NAME was recovered by the pre-test co-administration of L-arginine. It was concluded that the recovery from impairment of IA memory in GSM-exposed animals with post-training naloxone treatment was the result of blockade of the opioidergic system in early memory consolidation as well as activation of the nitrergic system in the retrieval phase of memory.
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A total of 32 electrohypersensitivity (EHS) self‑reporting patients were serially included in the present prospective study for oxidative stress and antioxidative stress response assessment. All thiobarbituric acid‑reactive substances (TBARs) were measured in the plasma, particularly malondialdehyde (MDA) for lipid peroxidation; additional measurements included total thiol group molecules, reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG) for oxidative stress assessment and nitrotyrosine, a marker of peroxynitrite‑induced oxidative/nitrosative stress. In addition, the activity of Cu‑Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) was measured in red blood cells (RBCs) and glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in RBCs and plasma. Depending of the biomarker considered, 30‑50% of EHS self‑reporting patients presented statistically significantly increased TBARs, MDA, GSSG and NTT mean plasmatic level values in comparison with normal values obtained in healthy controls (P<0.0001). By contrast, there were no plasmatic level values above the upper normal limits for GSH, GSH/GSSG ratio, total glutathione (GluT) and GSH/GluT ratio, and values for these GSH‑associated biomarkers were statistically significantly decreased in 20‑40% of the patients (P<0.0001). Furthermore, in RBCs, mean SOD1 and GPx activities were observed to be statistically significantly increased in ~60% and 19% (P<0.0001) of the patients, respectively, while increased GR activity in RBCs was observed in only 6% of the patients. The present study reports for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that overall ~80% of EHS self‑reporting patients present with one, two or three detectable oxidative stress biomarkers in their peripheral blood, meaning that these patients‑as is the case for cancer, Alzheimer's disease or other pathological conditions‑present with a true objective new pathological disorder.
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Background Today, using cellular phone and its harmful effects in human life is growing. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the global system for mobile communication (GSM) 900 MHz cellular phone radiofrequency waves on growth, morphology, and proliferation rate of mesenchymal stem cells and Michigan Cancer Foundation (MCF-7) cells within the specific distance and intensity. Methods MCF-7 and human adipose-derived stem cells (HADSCs) were exposed to GSM cellular phones 900 MHz frequency with intensity of 354.6 μW/cm² during different exposure times 6, 21, 51, and 101 min/day with an interval of 10 min for each subsequent radiation exposure for 3 and 5 days at 10 and 20 cm distances from antenna. 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol- 2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and trypan blue test were used to determine the growth of cells and cell viability, respectively. Statistical analyses were carried out using three-way ANOVA. Differences were significant when P < 0.05. Results The proliferation rates of both MCF-7 and HADSCs cells in all exposure groups were significantly lower than controls (P < 0.05). There was a significant effect on the percentage of cell survival with increase the period of time from 3 to 5 days for MCF-7 (P < 0.01) and HADSCs (P = 0.02), respectively. Variations in distance had no significant effect on the percentage of cell survival (P = 0.35) on MCF-7 (P = 0.02) and HADSCs (P = 0.09) cells, respectively. Conclusions The results showed that radiation of GSM 900 MHz cellular phone may be reduced cell viability and proliferation rates of both cells. It is recommended to reduce exposure time, increase distance from antenna, and reserve the use of cell phones for shorter conversations to prevent its biological and harmful effects. Further studies with other intensities and frequencies on different cells are recommended.
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Background The widespread use of wireless devices during the last decades is raising concerns about adverse health effects of the radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF‐EMR) emitted from these devices. Recent research is focusing on unraveling the underlying mechanisms of RF‐EMR and potential cellular targets. The “omics” high‐throughput approaches are powerful tools to investigate the global effects of RF‐EMR on cellular physiology. Methods In this work, C57BL/6 adult male mice were whole‐body exposed (nExp = 8) for 2 hr to GSM 1800 MHz mobile phone radiation at an average electric field intensity range of 4.3–17.5 V/m or sham‐exposed (nSE = 8), and the RF‐EMR effects on the hippocampal lipidome and transcriptome profiles were assessed 6 hr later. Results The data analysis of the phospholipid fatty acid residues revealed that the levels of four fatty acids [16:0, 16:1 (6c + 7c), 18:1 9c, eicosapentaenoic acid omega‐3 (EPA, 20:5 ω3)] and the two fatty acid sums of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (SFA and MUFA) were significantly altered (p < 0.05) in the exposed group. The observed changes indicate a membrane remodeling response of the tissue phospholipids after nonionizing radiation exposure, reducing SFA and EPA, while increasing MUFA residues. The microarray data analysis demonstrated that the expression of 178 genes changed significantly (p < 0.05) between the two groups, revealing an impact on genes involved in critical biological processes, such as cell cycle, DNA replication and repair, cell death, cell signaling, nervous system development and function, immune system response, lipid metabolism, and carcinogenesis. Conclusions This study provides preliminary evidence that mobile phone radiation induces hippocampal lipidome and transcriptome changes that may explain the brain proteome changes and memory deficits previously shown by our group.
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Radiofrequency radiations (RFRs) emitted by mobile phone base stations have raised concerns on its adverse impact on humans residing in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations. Therefore, the present study was envisaged to evaluate the effect of RFR on the DNA damage and antioxidant status in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs) of individuals residing in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations and comparing it with healthy controls. The study groups matched for various demographic data including age, gender, dietary pattern, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, duration of mobile phone use and average daily mobile phone use. The RF power density of the exposed individuals was significantly higher (p < 0.0001) when compared to the control group. The HPBLs were cultured and the DNA damage was assessed by cytokinesis blocked micronucleus (MN) assay in the binucleate lymphocytes. The analyses of data from the exposed group (n = 40), residing within a perimeter of 80 m of mobile base stations, showed significantly (p < 0.0001) higher frequency of micronuclei when compared to the control group, residing 300 m away from the mobile base station/s. The analysis of various antioxidants in the plasma of exposed individuals revealed a significant attrition in glutathione (GSH) concentration (p < 0.01), activities of catalase (CAT) (p < 0.001) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (p < 0.001) and rise in lipid peroxidation (LOO) when compared to controls. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed a significant association among reduced GSH concentration (p < 0.05), CAT (p < 0.001) and SOD (p < 0.001) activities and elevated MN frequency (p < 0.001) and LOO (p < 0.001) with increasing RF power density.
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Introduction: The increasing scientific evidence of various health hazards on exposure of Radiofrequency Radiation (RFR) emitted from both the cell phones and base stations have caused significant media attention and public discussion in recent years. The mechanism of interaction of RF fields with developing tissues of children and fetuses may be different from that of adults due to their smaller physical size and variation in tissue electromagnetic properties. The present study may provide an insight into the basic mechanisms by which RF fields interact with developing tissues in an embryo. Aim: To evaluate the possible tissue and DNA damage in developing liver of chick embryo following chronic exposure to Ultra-High Frequency/Radiofrequency Radiation (UHF/RFR) emitted from 2G and 3G cell phone. Materials and methods: Fertilized chick embryos were incubated in four groups. Group A-experimental group exposed to 2G radiation (60 eggs), Group B- experimental group exposed to 3G radiation (60 eggs), Group C- sham exposed control group (60 eggs) and Group D- control group (48 eggs). On completion of scheduled duration, the embryos were collected and processed for routine histological studies to check structural changes in liver. The nuclear diameter and karyorrhexis changes of hepatocytes were analysed using oculometer and square reticule respectively. The liver procured from one batch of eggs from all the four groups was subjected to alkaline comet assay technique to assess DNA damage. The results were compared using one-way ANOVA test. Results: In our study, the exposure of developing chick embryos to 2G and 3G cell phone radiations caused structural changes in liver in the form of dilated sinusoidal spaces with haemorrhage, increased vacuolations in cytoplasm, increased nuclear diameter and karyorrhexis and significantly increased DNA damage. Conclusion: The chronic exposure of chick embryo liver to RFR emitted from 2G and 3G cell phone resulted in various structural changes and DNA damage. The changes were more pronounced in 3G experimental group. Based on these findings it is necessary to create awareness among public about the possible ill effects of RFR exposure from cell phone.
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Background: Electromagnetic fields (EMF) created by mobile phones during communication have harmful effects on different organs. Objectives: It was aimed to investigate the effects of an EMF created by a mobile phone on serum iron level, ferritin, unsaturated iron binding capacity and total iron binding capacity within a rat experiment model. Methods: A total of 32 male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into the control, sham, mobile phone speech (2h/day) and stand by (12 h/day) groups. The speech and stand by groups were subjected to the EMF for a total of 10 weeks. Results: No statistically significant difference was observed between the serum iron and ferritin values of the rats in the speech and stand by groups than the control and sham groups (p>0.05). The unsaturated iron binding capacity and total iron capacity values of the rats in the speech and stand by groups were significantly lower in comparison to the control group (p<0.01). Conclusion: It was found that exposure to EMF created by mobile phones affected unsaturated iron binding capacity and total iron binding capacity negatively. Keywords: cellular phone, electromagnetic fields, ferritin, serum iron
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The use of digital technology has grown rapidly during the last couple of decades. During use, mobile phones and cordless phones emit radiofrequency (RF) radiation. No previous generation has been exposed during childhood and adolescence to this kind of radiation. The brain is the main target organ for RF emissions from the handheld wireless phone. An evaluation of the scientific evidence on the brain tumor risk was made in May 2011 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at World Health Organization. The scientific panel reached the conclusion that RF radiation from devices that emit nonionizing RF radiation in the frequency range 30 kHz-300 GHz is a Group 2B, that is, a "possible" human carcinogen. With respect to health implications of digital (wireless) technologies, it is of importance that neurological diseases, physiological addiction, cognition, sleep, and behavioral problems are considered in addition to cancer. Well-being needs to be carefully evaluated as an effect of changed behavior in children and adolescents through their interactions with modern digital technologies.
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Objective. Bradford Hill’s viewpoints from 1965 on association or causation were used on glioma risk and use of mobile or cordless phones. Methods. All nine viewpoints were evaluated based on epidemiology and laboratory studies. Results. Strength: meta-analysis of case-control studies gave odds ratio (OR) = 1.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.31–2.76 with highest cumulative exposure. Consistency: the risk increased with latency, meta-analysis gave in the 10+ years’ latency group OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.20–2.19. Specificity: increased risk for glioma was in the temporal lobe. Using meningioma cases as comparison group still increased the risk. Temporality: highest risk was in the 20+ years’ latency group, OR = 2.01, 95% CI =1.41–2.88, for wireless phones. Biological gradient: cumulative use of wireless phones increased the risk. Plausibility: animal studies showed an increased incidence of glioma and malignant schwannoma in rats exposed to radiofrequency (RF) radiation. There is increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from RF radiation. Coherence: there is a change in the natural history of glioma and increasing incidence. Experiment: antioxidants reduced ROS production from RF radiation. Analogy: there is an increased risk in subjects exposed to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields. Conclusion. RF radiation should be regarded as a human carcinogen causing glioma.
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Exposure of Drosophila melanogaster young adult insects to Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs)/Radiation (EMR) emitted by an active GSM (Global System for Mobile telecommunications) mobile phone handset during a usual “talk” operation for a few minutes daily for 2–5 days, revealed an impressive decrease (up to 57%) in reproductive capacity (fecundity) (Panagopoulos et al. 2004). That effect directed us to focus our next studies on the effects of this type of EMF/EMR on the DNA and proteins of the insect’s reproductive cells (gametes). More specifically, we focused on the effects on the female ovarian cells. We used the TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) assay, to detect fragmented DNA in the ovarian cells. Moreover, we used the Rhodamine-conjugated Phalloidin staining assay, to detect possible damage in the actin cytoskeleton of the ovarian cells. We found a high degree of DNA fragmentation in the nuclei of ovarian cells of the exposed insects (up to +55% compared to the sham-exposed insects) (Panagopoulos et al. 2007a). The DNA fragmentation was highly dependent on the intensity of radiation (distance from the handset) and was found to be maximum for intensities higher than 250 μW/cm2 (in close proximity with the handset) and within a “window” around 10 μW/cm2 (at 20–30 cm distance from the handset) (Panagopoulos et al. 2010). The DNA fragmentation in the nuclei of the exposed ovarian cells was found to be accompanied by actin cytoskeleton damage (Chavdoula et al. 2010). These effects caused a destruction of a significant percentage of egg chambers in the ovaries of the exposed females (Panagopoulos 2012a). New data (Panagopoulos et al. 2015a, b) suggest that the continuous and unpredictable variability of the mobile telephony signals, in combination with the fact that they are totally polarized (just like every type of man-made EMF), and the inclusion of Extremely Low Frequencies (ELF) - due to pulsing and modulation of the microwave carrier - in all modern mobile telecommunication microwave signals, constitute the main reasons for their intense bioactivity. A significant opposition is found between the results of experimental studies employing real exposures of biological samples from commercially available mobile phones, and the results of studies employing simulated exposures from generators or “test” phones as suggested by health authorities (Health Protection Agency 2012; IARC 2013). While experimental studies employing simulated EMF-emissions present a strong inconsistency among their results with nearly 50% of them reporting no effects, studies employing real-life emissions demonstrate an almost 100% consistency in showing adverse effects (Panagopoulos et al. 2015a). Finally, in the present chapter we show why polarized (man-made) EMFs are significantly more bioactive than natural (unpolarized) ones, and we describe the “Ion Forced-Oscillation Mechanism” for the action of polarized EMFs on biological systems.
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Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between mobile phone use and glioma risk through pooling the published data. Methods: By searching Medline, EMBSE, and CNKI databases, we screened the open published case–control or cohort studies about mobile phone use and glioma risk by systematic searching strategy. The pooled odds of mobile use in glioma patients versus healthy controls were calculated by meta-analysis method. The statistical analysis was done by Stata12.0 software (http://www.stata.com). Results: After searching the Medline, EMBSE, and CNKI databases, we ultimately included 11 studies range from 2001 to 2008. For ≥1 year group, the data were pooled by random effects model. The combined data showed that there was no association between mobile phone use and glioma odds ratio (OR) =1.08 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.91–1.25,P > 0.05). However, a significant association was found between mobile phone use more than 5 years and glioma risk OR = 1.35 (95% CI: 1.09–1.62, P < 0.05). The publication bias of this study was evaluated by funnel plot and line regression test. The funnel plot and line regression test (t = 0.25,P = 0.81) did not indicate any publication bias. Conclusion: Long-term mobile phone use may increase the risk of developing glioma according to this meta-analysis.
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In this study, we investigated the transcriptional response to 50 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) and 2.0 GHz radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure by Illumina sequencing technology using budding yeast as the model organism. The transcription levels of 28 genes were upregulated and those of four genes were downregulated under ELF-EMF exposure, while the transcription levels of 29 genes were upregulated and those of 24 genes were downregulated under RF-EMF exposure. After validation by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), a concordant direction of change both in differential gene expression (DGE) and RT-qPCR was demonstrated for nine genes under ELF-EMF exposure and for 10 genes under RF-EMF exposure. The RT-qPCR results revealed that ELF-EMF and RF-EMF exposure can upregulate the expression of genes involved in glucose transportation and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, but not the glycolysis pathway. Energy metabolism is closely related with the cell response to environmental stress including EMF exposure. Our findings may throw light on the mechanism underlying the biological effects of EMF.
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Introduction: Micronucleus (MN) is considered to be a reliable marker for genotoxic damage and it determines the presence and the extent of the chromosomal damage. The MN is formed due to DNA damage or chromosomal disarrangements. The MN has a close association with cancer incidences. In the new era, mobile phones are constantly gaining popularity specifically in the young generation, but this device uses radiofrequency radiation that may have a possible carcinogenic effect. The available reports related to the carcinogenic effect of mobile radiation on oral mucosa are contradictory. Aim: To explore the effects of mobile phone radiation on the MN frequency in oral mucosal cells. Materials and Methods: The subjects were divided into two major groups: low mobile phone users and high mobile phone users. Subjects who used their mobile phone since less than five years and less than three hours a week comprised of the first group and those who used their mobile since more than five years and more than 10 hours a week comprised of the second group. Net surfing and text messaging was not considered in this study. Exfoliated buccal mucosal cells were collected from both the groups and the cells were stained with DNA-specific stain acridine orange. Thousand exfoliated buccal mucosal cells were screened and the cells which were positive for micronuclei were counted. The micronucleus frequency was represented as mean±SD, and unpaired Student t-test was used for intergroup comparisons. Results: The number of micronucleated cells/ 1000 exfoliated buccal mucosal cells was found to be significantly increased in high mobile phone users group than the low mobile phone users group. The use of mobile phone with the associated complaint of warmth around the ear showed a maximum increase in the number of micronucleated cells /1000 exfoliated buccal mucosal cells. Conclusion: Mobile phone radiation even in the permissible range when used for longer duration causes significant genotoxicity. The genotoxicity can be avoided to some extent by the regular use of headphones.
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Purpose To study the effect of pulsed electric field – applied in corona discharge photography – on Drosophila melanogaster reproduction, possible induction of DNA fragmentation, and morphological alterations in the gonads. Materials and methods Animals were exposed to different field intensities (100, 200, 300, and 400 kV/m) during the first 2–5 days of their adult lives, and the effect on reproductive capacity was assessed. DNA fragmentation during early- and mid-oogenesis was investigated by application of the TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) assay. Sections of follicles after fixation and embedding in resins were observed for possible morphological/developmental abnormalities. Results The field increased reproduction by up to 30% by increasing reproductive capacity in both sexes. The effect increased with increasing field intensities. The rate of increase diminished at the strongest intensities. Slight induction of DNA fragmentation was observed exclusively in the nurse (predominantly) and follicle cells, and exclusively at the two most sensitive developmental stages, i.e., germarium and predominantly stage 7–8. Sections of follicles from exposed females at stages of early and mid-oogennesis other than germarium and stages 7–8 did not reveal abnormalities. Conclusions (1) The specific type of electric field may represent a mild stress factor, inducing DNA fragmentation and cell death in a small percentage of gametes, triggering the reaction of the animal’s reproductive system to increase the rate of gametogenesis in order to compensate the loss of a small number of gametes. (2) The nurse cells are the most sensitive from all three types of egg chamber cells. (3) The mid-oogenesis checkpoint (stage 7–8) is more sensitive to this field than the early oogenesis one (germarium) in contrast to microwave exposure. (4) Possible therapeutic applications, or applications in increasing fertility, should be investigated.
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of exposure to cell phone electromagnetic radiation on the frequency of micronuclei, broken eggs cells, binucleated cells, and karyorrhexis in epithelial cells of the oral mucosa. The sample was composed of 60 cell phone users, who were non-smokers and non-drinkers, and had no clinically visible oral lesions. Cells were obtained from anatomical sites with the highest incidence of oral cancer: lower lip, border of the tongue, and floor of the mouth. The Feulgen reaction was used for quantification of nuclear anomalies in 1,000 cells/slide. A slightly increase in the number of micronucleated cells in the lower lip and in binucleated cells on the floor of the mouth was observed in individuals who used their phones > 60 minutes/week. The analysis also revealed an increased number of broken eggs in the tongue of individuals owning a cell phone for over eight years. Results suggest that exposure to electromagnetic waves emitted by cell phones can increase nuclear abnormalities in individuals who use a cell phone for more than 60 minutes per week and for over eight years. Based on the present findings, we suggest that exposure to electromagnetic radiation emitted by cell phones may interfere with the development of metanuclear anomalies. Therefore, it is demonstrated that, despite a significant increase in these anomalies, the radiation emitted by cell phones among frequent users is within acceptable physiological limits.
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In the present study we analyze the role of polarization in the biological activity of Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs)/Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR). All types of man-made EMFs/EMR - in contrast to natural EMFs/EMR - are polarized. Polarized EMFs/EMR can have increased biological activity, due to: 1) Ability to produce constructive interference effects and amplify their intensities at many locations. 2) Ability to force all charged/polar molecules and especially free ions within and around all living cells to oscillate on parallel planes and in phase with the applied polarized field. Such ionic forced-oscillations exert additive electrostatic forces on the sensors of cell membrane electro-sensitive ion channels, resulting in their irregular gating and consequent disruption of the cell's electrochemical balance. These features render man-made EMFs/EMR more bioactive than natural non-ionizing EMFs/EMR. This explains the increasing number of biological effects discovered during the past few decades to be induced by man-made EMFs, in contrast to natural EMFs in the terrestrial environment which have always been present throughout evolution, although human exposure to the latter ones is normally of significantly higher intensities/energy and longer durations. Thus, polarization seems to be a trigger that significantly increases the probability for the initiation of biological/health effects.
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We examined whether exposures to mobile phone radiation in biological/clinical experiments should be performed with real-life Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs) emitted by commercially available mobile phone handsets, instead of simulated EMFs emitted by generators or test phones. Real mobile phone emissions are constantly and unpredictably varying and thus are very different from simulated emissions which employ fixed parameters and no variability. This variability is an important parameter that makes real emissions more bioactive. Living organisms seem to have decreased defense against environmental stressors of high variability. While experimental studies employing simulated EMF-emissions present a strong inconsistency among their results with less than 50% of them reporting effects, studies employing real mobile phone exposures demonstrate an almost 100% consistency in showing adverse effects. This consistency is in agreement with studies showing association with brain tumors, symptoms of unwellness, and declines in animal populations. Average dosimetry in studies with real emissions can be reliable with increased number of field measurements, and variation in experimental outcomes due to exposure variability becomes less significant with increased number of experimental replications. We conclude that, in order for experimental findings to reflect reality, it is crucially important that exposures be performed by commercially available mobile phone handsets.
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Mathematical models can be useful tools in exploring population disease trends over time and can be used to gain insight into the fundamental mechanisms of cancer development. In this paper, we provide a systematic comparison between the exact and the approximate solutions for estimating the length of time between the biological initiation of cancer and diagnosis through the development of a Weibull-like survival model. A total of 1,608,484 malignant primary cancers were used in the analysis using cancer incidence data obtained from the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. We find that the approximate solution provides a reliable comparison of the latency periods for different types of cancer and has no significant effect on the estimation accuracy, which differs from the exact solution by 0% to 11.3%. Thirty-five of the 44 cancers in this analysis were found to progress silently for 10 years or longer prior to detection representing 89% of the patients in this analysis. The results of this analysis differentiate cancer types that progress undetected over a period of years to identify new opportunities for early detection which increases the likelihood of successful treatment and alleviates the ever-growing cancer burden.
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Introduction The impact of electromagnetic fields on health is of increasing scientific interest. The aim of this study was to examine how the Drosophila melanogaster animal model is affected when exposed to portable or mobile phone fields. Methods/Results Two experiments have been designed and performed in the same laboratory conditions. Insect cultures were exposed to the near field of a 2G mobile phone (the GSM 2G networks support and complement in parallel the 3G wide band or in other words the transmission of information via voice signals is served by the 2G technology in both mobile phones generations) and a 1880 MHz cordless phone both digitally modulated by human voice. Comparison with advanced statistics of the egg laying of the second generation exposed and non-exposed cultures showed limited statistical significance for the cordless phone exposed culture and statistical significance for the 900 MHz exposed insects. We calculated by physics, simulated and illustrated in three dimensional figures the calculated near fields of radiation inside the experimenting vials and their difference. Comparison of the power of the two fields showed that the difference between them becomes null when the experimental cylinder radius and the height of the antenna increase. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest a possible radiofrequency sensitivity difference in insects which may be due to the distance from the antenna or to unexplored intimate factors. Comparing the near fields of the two frequencies bands, we see similar not identical geometry in length and height from the antenna and that lower frequencies tend to drive to increased radiofrequency effects.
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Previous studies have shown a consistent association between long-term use of mobile and cordless phones and glioma and acoustic neuroma, but not for meningioma. When used these phones emit radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) and the brain is the main target organ for the handheld phone. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified in May, 2011 RF-EMF as a group 2B, i.e. a 'possible' human carcinogen. The aim of this study was to further explore the relationship between especially long-term (>10 years) use of wireless phones and the development of malignant brain tumours. We conducted a new case-control study of brain tumour cases of both genders aged 18-75 years and diagnosed during 2007-2009. One population-based control matched on gender and age (within 5 years) was used to each case. Here, we report on malignant cases including all available controls. Exposures on e.g. use of mobile phones and cordless phones were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusting for age, gender, year of diagnosis and socio-economic index using the whole control sample. Of the cases with a malignant brain tumour, 87% (n=593) participated, and 85% (n=1,368) of controls in the whole study answered the questionnaire. The odds ratio (OR) for mobile phone use of the analogue type was 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.04‑3.3, increasing with >25 years of latency (time since first exposure) to an OR=3.3, 95% CI=1.6-6.9. Digital 2G mobile phone use rendered an OR=1.6, 95% CI=0.996-2.7, increasing with latency >15-20 years to an OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.2-3.6. The results for cordless phone use were OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.1-2.9, and, for latency of 15-20 years, the OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.2-3.8. Few participants had used a cordless phone for >20-25 years. Digital type of wireless phones (2G and 3G mobile phones, cordless phones) gave increased risk with latency >1-5 years, then a lower risk in the following latency groups, but again increasing risk with latency >15-20 years. Ipsilateral use resulted in a higher risk than contralateral mobile and cordless phone use. Higher ORs were calculated for tumours in the temporal and overlapping lobes. Using the meningioma cases in the same study as reference entity gave somewhat higher ORs indicating that the results were unlikely to be explained by recall or observational bias. This study confirmed previous results of an association between mobile and cordless phone use and malignant brain tumours. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that RF-EMFs play a role both in the initiation and promotion stages of carcinogenesis.
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We previously conducted a case-control study of acoustic neuroma. Subjects of both genders aged 20-80 years, diagnosed during 1997-2003 in parts of Sweden, were included, and the results were published. We have since made a further study for the time period 2007-2009 including both men and women aged 18-75 years selected from throughout the country. These new results for acoustic neuroma have not been published to date. Similar methods were used for both study periods. In each, one population-based control, matched on gender and age (within five years), was identified from the Swedish Population Registry. Exposures were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire supplemented by a phone interview. Since the number of acoustic neuroma cases in the new study was low we now present pooled results from both study periods based on 316 participating cases and 3,530 controls. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusting for age, gender, year of diagnosis and socio-economic index (SEI). Use of mobile phones of the analogue type gave odds ratio (OR) = 2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.0-4.3, increasing with >20 years latency (time since first exposure) to OR = 7.7, 95% CI = 2.8-21. Digital 2G mobile phone use gave OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-2.1, increasing with latency >15 years to an OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 0.8-4.2. The results for cordless phone use were OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-2.1, and, for latency of >20 years, OR = 6.5, 95% CI = 1.7-26. Digital type wireless phones (2G and 3G mobile phones and cordless phones) gave OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-2.0 increasing to OR = 8.1, 95% CI = 2.0-32 with latency >20 years. For total wireless phone use, the highest risk was calculated for the longest latency time >20 years: OR = 4.4, 95% CI = 2.2-9.0. Several of the calculations in the long latency category were based on low numbers of exposed cases. Ipsilateral use resulted in a higher risk than contralateral for both mobile and cordless phones. OR increased per 100 h cumulative use and per year of latency for mobile phones and cordless phones, though the increase was not statistically significant for cordless phones. The percentage tumour volume increased per year of latency and per 100 h of cumulative use, statistically significant for analogue phones. This study confirmed previous results demonstrating an association between mobile and cordless phone use and acoustic neuroma.
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Mobile phones can be found almost everywhere across the globe, upholding a direct point-to-point connection between the device and the broadcast tower. The emission of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) puts the surrounding environment inevitably into contact with this radiation. We have therefore exposed honey bee queen larvae to the radiation of a common mobile phone device (GSM band at 900 MHz) during all stages of their pre-adult development including pupation. After 14 days of exposure, hatching of adult queens was assessed and mating success after further 11 days, respectively. Moreover, full colonies were established of five of the untreated and four of the treated queens to contrast population dynamics. We found that mobile phone radiation had significantly reduced the hatching ratio but not the mating success. If treated queens had successfully mated, colony development was not adversely affected. We provide evidence that mobile phone radiation may alter pupal development, once succeeded this point, no further impairment has manifested in adulthood. Our results are discussed against the background of long-lasting consequences for colony performance and the possible implication on periodic colony losses.
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Background: Electromagnetic fields (EMF) created by mobile phones during communication have harmful effects on different organs. Objectives: To explore the effects of exposure to EMF of mobile phones for different durations on hematological parameters and serum hepcidin in male albino rats. Methods: Three groups of eight rats: Sham group: rats were exposed to a mobile phone while it was switched off, Experimental group I: rats were exposed to microwave radiation from a mobile phone at 9 am for 30 min. Experimental group II: rats were exposed to microwave radiations from a mobile phone at 9 am for an hour. In all groups, the exposure was conducted daily for a total period of 5 months, followed by estimation of serum hepcidin, total leukocyte count (TLC), interleukin 6 (IL6), serum iron, serum ferritin, plasma hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit value (Hct), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC), total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and 1.25 dihydroxycholecalciferol levels. Results: In Experimental group II, there was a significant increase in serum hepcidin, TLC, IL6 and serum ferritin; however, serum iron, TIBC, UIBC, 1.25 dihydroxycholecalciferol, plasma Hb, Hct, MCV and MCH were significantly lower in comparison to sham-exposed group. In Experimental group I, there was a significant increase in serum hepcidin, IL6 and TLC, along with non-significant changes in the remaining studied parameters in comparison to the sham-exposed group. Conclusion: Chronic exposure to EMF from mobile phones increases hepcidin level with subsequent impairment of iron parameters, in addition to negatively affecting both UIBC and TIBC.
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The purpose of this study is to investigate foetal impact of radiofrequencies (RFs) emitted from mobile phones in postnatal cord blood. The study carried on 149 pregnant women divided into four groups such as nonusers of mobile phone (n: 37; control group), 2-15 min/d (n: 39; group 1), 15-60 min/d (n: 37; group 2) and participants using mobile phone for more than 60 min/d (n: 36; group 3). Cord blood of the infants was taken in all groups for biochemical analyses immediately after birth. The results of the study showed that the biggest foetal impact was observed in the third study group which was pregnant exposed RFRs (RF radiation) more than 1 h/d (1 hour per day). AST (aspartat aminotransferaz), ALT (alanine aminotransferase), LDH (lactate dehydrogenase), CK (creatine kinase), CK-MB (creatine kinase-miyocardial band), CRP (c-reactive protein), PCT (procalcitonin), TnT (troponin T), uric acid and lactate levels of third group were found higher than the other groups (p < 0.001). However, Mean platelet volume values of third group were found lower than the other groups (p < 0.001). Finally, this is the first human study which was performed on pregnant and infants because there is no previous work in this area. However, the results of this study revealed that long-term RFR exposure of pregnant may result in some biochemical changes in the infants. Therefore, our suggestion to pregnant is to avoid from RFR exposure emitted from mobile phones at least during pregnancy.
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The aim of this study was to investigate effect of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) emitted from mobile phones on DNA damage in follicle cells of hair in the ear canal. The study was carried out on 56 men (age range: 30–60 years old)in four treatment groups with n = 14 in each group. The groups were defined as follows: people who did not use a mobile phone (Control), people use mobile phones for 0–30 min/day (second group), people use mobile phones for 30–60 min/day (third group) and people use mobile phones for more than 60 min/day (fourth group). Ear canal hair follicle cells taken from the subjects were analyzed by the Comet Assay to determine DNA damages. The Comet Assay parameters measured were head length, tail length, comet length, percentage of head DNA, tail DNA percentage, tail moment, and Olive tail moment. Results of the study showed that DNA damage indicators were higher in the RFR exposure groups than in the control subjects. In addition, DNA damage increased with the daily duration of exposure. In conclusion, RFR emitted from mobile phones has a potential to produce DNA damage in follicle cells of hair in the ear canal. Therefore, mobile phone users have to pay more attention when using wireless phones.
Article
Background: In 2011, IARC classified radiofrequency radiation (RFR) as possible human carcinogen (Group 2B). According to IARC, animals studies, as well as epidemiological ones, showed limited evidence of carcinogenicity. In 2016, the NTP published the first results of its long-term bioassays on near field RFR, reporting increased incidence of malignant glial tumors of the brain and heart Schwannoma in rats exposed to GSM - and CDMA - modulated cell phone RFR. The tumors observed in the NTP study are of the type similar to the ones observed in some epidemiological studies of cell phone users. Objectives: The Ramazzini Institute (RI) performed a life-span carcinogenic study on Sprague-Dawley rats to evaluate the carcinogenic effects of RFR in the situation of far field, reproducing the environmental exposure to RFR generated by 1.8 GHz GSM antenna of the radio base stations of mobile phone. This is the largest long-term study ever performed in rats on the health effects of RFR, including 2448 animals. In this article, we reported the final results regarding brain and heart tumors. Methods: Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed from prenatal life until natural death to a 1.8 GHz GSM far field of 0, 5, 25, 50 V/m with a whole-body exposure for 19 h/day. Results: A statistically significant increase in the incidence of heart Schwannomas was observed in treated male rats at the highest dose (50 V/m). Furthermore, an increase in the incidence of heart Schwann cells hyperplasia was observed in treated male and female rats at the highest dose (50 V/m), although this was not statistically significant. An increase in the incidence of malignant glial tumors was observed in treated female rats at the highest dose (50 V/m), although not statistically significant. Conclusions: The RI findings on far field exposure to RFR are consistent with and reinforce the results of the NTP study on near field exposure, as both reported an increase in the incidence of tumors of the brain and heart in RFR-exposed Sprague-Dawley rats. These tumors are of the same histotype of those observed in some epidemiological studies on cell phone users. These experimental studies provide sufficient evidence to call for the re-evaluation of IARC conclusions regarding the carcinogenic potential of RFR in humans.
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Introduction: Concerns about the possible adverse health effects of mobile phones (MP) have increased along with the expansion of their use. A number of research papers have tried to address this issue. Although many investigations concluded that MP use does have negative consequences, in terms of cognitive function of the human brain, the results so far have been divisive. A number of studies reported impairment of cognitive function after exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field (MP EMF), while others observed no effect or improved performance. The variance in the results may be attributed to methodological issues. The present article focuses on possible effects of MP use on cognitive function and more specifically on working memory processes. An emphasis is placed in the lack of a validated tool, a cognitive task, that can produce MP EMF effects on human cognition in a repeatable fashion. Methods: Sixty four (64) healthy participants as well as 20 with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) were the experimental group, while 36 healthy individuals were the control group. A computerized list of 10 words was presented and the participants were asked to reproduce it. The words were presented very briefly in order to increase the difficulty and hence the sensitivity of the task. Three measurements were taken for the experimental group: a) before using the MP, b) immediately after using the MP for a duration of 5 minutes, c) 5 minutes after the second measurement with no usage of the MP in between. Three measurements of the memory task were also taken for the control group in the same time intervals with no usage of a MP. The effect of age and gender in the performance of the task was taken into account. Results: Healthy participants of the experimental group performed worst in the memory task after using the MP. While the third measurement (5 minutes after the 2nd measurement) was better than the second (after using the MP), but worse than the first (before using the MP). In contrast for the control group the second measurement was better than the first and the third even better than both previous ones. All differences were statistically significant. The reduction of the performance in the task after using the MP was even higher for the age group of 60-80 years old in comparison with younger age groups, as well as for the individuals with MCI in comparison to healthy participants. Age was significantly negative correlated with performance in the task, while gender showed no significant correlation. Conclusion: MP use has a significant negative impact on working memory performance of human participants. The effect is apparent even for a 5 minute use of the MP. Working memory deficits are greater not only for the 60 years old and above participants but also for individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment. These results are in agreement with previous studies on animals as well as humans on the effects of MP use on the brain. It is argued that low sensitivity of some of the cognitive tasks used until now and the lack of a validated tool in the form of a cognitive task may account for some of the variability in the literature so far. It is suggested that the experimental paradigm that was used in this study for an increased sensitivity measurement of cognitive function and working memory processes in particular may be used for the display of the effects of MP use on cognitive function and for the development of other tasks sensitive to it. Overall, it is concluded that the development of certain restrictions on MP use is necessary for the protection of the brain health of the users.
Article
Objectives: To determine the effects of Egb761 on testicular tissues and semen parameters in rats exposed to cellphone waves. Background: EGb761 has antioxidant properties as a free-radical scavenger. Cellphone electromagnetic radiation (EMR) induces oxidative stress in cells. Methods: Twenty-one Wistar albino male adult rats were divided into three groups (control, experimental, treatment), including seven rats in each. The experimental and treatment groups were exposed to cellphone EMR (0.96 W/kg) for six weeks (4 hrs/day). Egb761 (100 mg/kg/day) was also added to the treatment. Testes, epididymal semen and blood plasma were used for analysis. Results: Exposure to cellular phone radiation resulted in a significant impairment in testicular morphometry and histological structure, reduction of total and motile sperm numbers and plasma testosterone level. Egb761 administration improved testicular damage and led to a marked increase in plasma testosterone levels and total and motile sperm numbers. Conclusion: Male reproductive system is susceptible to cellphone radiation. Cellphone waves induce toxic effects in testicular tissues, impair spermatogenesis and cause an imbalance in testosterone hormone levels. Egb761 ameliorated these toxic effects by reversing testicular tissue damage, restoring normal spermatogenesis and hormone levels. This suggests that Egb761 is a potential therapeutic agent against EMR-induced male reproductive toxicity (Tab. 3, Fig. 6, Ref. 45).
Article
Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate if there is a combined effect of varicocele and cell phone storage in trousers pockets on semen and hormonal parameters. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 468 men attending an infertility clinic from 1993-2007 was performed. Varicoceles were determined by clinical examination and patients were questioned on cell phone usage and storage fashion. Semen samples were analyzed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines of 1999. Serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were assessed. Results: There was a significant effect of cell phone storage in trousers pockets and varicocele in multivariate analysis (both p < 0.001). Varicocele showed an effect on sperm concentration (p = 0.003), LH (p = 0.014) and testosterone (p = 0.003). Compared to grade 1, grade 2 varicoceles showed a difference in sperm concentration (p = 0.004). Regarding testosterone differences were shown for grade 3 versus grade 1 (p = 0.002) and grade 3 compared to grade 2 (p = 0.003). Cell phone storage in trousers pockets showed an influence on the percentage of normal sperm morphology and LH (both p < 0.001). Varicocele and cell phone storage in trousers pockets did not show a combined effect (p = 0.76). Conclusions: This analysis showed an inverse relation between sperm concentration and degree of varicocele, with lower concentrations in higher grade varicoceles. Testosterone was significantly higher in higher grade varicoceles, which could reflect a compensatory mechanism to the impaired testicular function. Cell phone storage in trousers pockets showed an effect on LH and sperm morphology. A combined effect of varicocele and cell phone storage in trousers pockets was not detected.
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Electromagnetic fields (EMF) are classified as “possibly carcinogenic” by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Some publications have reported associations between EMF exposure and DNA damage, but many other studies contradict such findings. Cytomorphological changes, such as micronuclei (MN), indicative of genomic damage, are biomarkers of genotoxicity. To test whether mobile phone-associated EMF exposure affects the MN frequency in exfoliated buccal cells, we obtained cells smears from the left and right inner cheeks of healthy mobile phone users, aged 18–30 (n = 86), who also completed a characterization survey. MN frequencies were tested for potential confounding factors and for duration phone use and preferential side of mobile phone use.
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Present study investigated the long-term effects of mobile phone (1800 MHz) radiation in stand-by, dialing and receiving modes on the female reproductive function (ovarian and uterine histo-architecture, and steroidogenesis) and stress responses (oxidative and nitrosative stress). We observed that mobile phone radiation induces significant elevation in ROS, NO, lipid peroxidation, total carbonyl content and serum corticosterone coupled with significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes in hypothalamus, ovary and uterus of mice. Compared to control group, exposed mice exhibited reduced number of developing and mature follicles as well as corpus lutea. Significantly decreased serum levels of pituitary gonadotrophins (LH, FSH), sex steroids (E2 and P4) and expression of SF-1, StAR, P-450scc, 3β-HSD, 17β-HSD, cytochrome P-450 aromatase, ER-α and ER-β were observed in all the exposed groups of mice, compared to control. These findings suggest that mobile phone radiation induces oxidative and nitrosative stress, which affects the reproductive performance of female mice.
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We undertook a re-analysis of the Canadian data from the thirteen-country INTERPHONE case-control study (2001-2004), which evaluated the association between mobile phone use and risk of brain, acoustic neuroma, and parotid gland tumors. The main publication of the multinational INTERPHONE study concluded that "biases and errors prevent a causal interpretation". We applied a probabilistic multiple-bias model to address possible biases simultaneously, using validation data from billing records and non-participant questionnaires as information on recall error and selective participation. Our modelling sought to adjust for these sources of uncertainty and to facilitate interpretation. For glioma, the odds ratio comparing highest quartile of use (over 558 lifetime hours) to non-regular users was 2.0 (95% confidence interval: 1.2, 3.4). The odds ratio was 2.2 (95% confidence interval: 1.3, 4.1) when adjusted for selection and recall biases. There was little evidence of an increase in the risk of meningioma, acoustic neuroma, or parotid gland tumors in relation to mobile phone use. Adjustments for selection and recall biases did not materially affect interpretation in our Canadian results.
Chapter
The effects of nonionizing electromagnetic radiations on biological system is a vexed issue. Despite the fact that a large number of publications have appeared on the subject, the issue is far from settled. In the present work the data showing a distinct possibility in the mechanism of EMF biointeraction leading to DNA strand break is presented. This may have effects on physiology of humans, besides causing genetic damage. A confirmation to this lies in adopting safety criteria by various countries including India. However a quantitative picture still remains to be drawn. In support of this experimental data are summarized to take a holistic view.
Ketamine-anesthetized female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed individually to far-field 2.8 GHz continuous wave (CW) and pulsed (2 l.is, 500 pps) radio-frequency radiation (RFR) at average power densities of 30, 45, and 60 mWIcmz [specific absorption rates (SAR) of 8.4, 12.6, and 16.8 W Ikg, respectively] and to pulsed RFR at 75 mWIcrte (SAR = 21 WI kg). Intermittent exposures were conducted to repeatedly increase colonic temperature from 38.5 to 39.5°C. Colonic, tympanic, and subcutaneous temperatures, electrocardiogram, respiratory rate, and arterial blood pressure were continuously monitored and recorded. The time required to effect a 1°C colonic temperature increase varied inversely with the average power density used during exposure; however, the rate of cooling was independent of the heating rate. During pulsed irradiation, heart rate increased significantly at average power densities above 30 mW ; heart rate increase during CW exposure was not significant. Heart rate returned to baseline when exposure was discontinued. Blood pressure and respiratory rate did not significantly change durirg irradiation. Pulsed RFR exposure caused a significantly greater increase in subcutaneous and tympanic temperatures than did CW exposure; however, no significant difference was noted between the effects of CW or pulsedRFR upon the rats’ colonic temperature responses (hewing and cooling time), heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate.
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The use of mobile phone related technologies will continue to increase in the foreseeable future worldwide. This has drawn attention to the probable interaction of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation with different biological targets. Studies have been conducted on various organisms to evaluate the alleged ill-effect on health. We have therefore attempted to review those work limited to in vitro cultured cells where irradiation conditions were well controlled. Different investigators have studied varied endpoints like DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, cellular morphology and viability to weigh the genotoxic effect of such radiation by utilizing different frequencies and dose rates under various irradiation conditions that include continuous or pulsed exposures and also amplitude- or frequency-modulated waves. Cells adapt to change in their intra and extracellular environment from different chemical and physical stimuli through organized alterations in gene or protein expression that result in the induction of stress responses. Many studies have focused on such effects for risk estimations. Though the effects of microwave radiation on cells are often not pronounced, some investigators have therefore combined radiofrequency radiation with other physical or chemical agents to observe whether the effects of such agents were augmented or not. Such reports in cultured cellular systems have also included in this review. The findings from different workers have revealed that, effects were dependent on cell type and the endpoint selection. However, contradictory findings were also observed in same cell types with same assay, in such cases the specific absorption rate (SAR) values were significant.