The use of wireless communication technology in mobile phones has revolutionized modern telecommunication and mobile phones have become so popular that their number exceeds the global population. Electromagnetic field radiations (EMR) are an integral part of wireless technology, which are emitted by mobile phones, mobile towers, electric power stations, transmission lines, radars, microwave ovens, television sets, refrigerators, diagnostic/therapeutic and other electronic devices. The manmade EMR sources have added to the existing burden of natural EMR human exposure arising from the Sun, cosmos, atmospheric discharges, and thunderstorms. EMR including radiofrequency waves (RF) and extremely low frequency radiation (ELF) has generated great interest as their human exposure causes headache, fatigue, tinnitus, concentration problems, depression, memory loss, skin irritation, sleep disorders, nausea, cardiovascular effects, chest pain, immunity and hormonal disorders as the short-term effects and cancer as the late effect. The review has been written by collecting the information using various search engines including google scholar, PubMed SciFinder, Science direct, EMF-portal, saferemr, and other websites on the internet and its main focus is on the mutagenic and genotoxic effects of EMR in humans and mammals. Numerous investigations revealed that exposure in the range of 0–300 GHz EMR is harmless as this did not increase micronuclei and chromosome aberrations. On the contrary, several other studies have demonstrated that exposure to EMR increases the frequency of micronuclei, chromosome aberrations, DNA adducts, DNA single and double strand breaks at the molecular level in vitro and in vivo. The EMR exposure induces reactive oxygen species and changes the fidelity of genes involved in signal transduction, cytoskeleton formation, and cellular metabolism.