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Abstract

The article is based on descriptive theoretical research and focused on two notions such as ‘leadership values’ and ‘values based leadership’. These two concepts are not compared, but every of them is described separately by highlighting general characteristics and showing their broad complexity. Both notions are not related to ethics and / or morality, as the aim the literature review was to provide insights on leadership values and values based leadership. The research question was the following: What aspects include two concepts such as ‘leadership values’ and ‘values based leadership’? Fourteen leadership values are provided and in the summary the three unifying aspects are presented and discussed – personality, interaction(s) and relationship(s), and action(s) / work. The common and flexible leadership values are presented. Values based leadership is discussed generally and four principles of this leadership are distinguished – self-reflection, balance, true self-confidence, and genuine humility. Also positive and limiting values based leadership shortly is discussed. The conclusion is focused on the idea that the leader needs to regain and maintain trust. Positive values based leadership goes beyond leveraging strengths and making meaning. Values based leaders who engage their employees and help them flourish in life. And for their organisations they boost productivity, creativity and financial returns. Leading and evaluating success based on values is the best way to build a high-performance culture in organisation.
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LEADERSHIP VALUES AND VALUES BASED LEADERSHIP:
WHAT IS THE MAIN FOCUS?
ŽYDŽIŪNAITĖ Vilma
St. Ignatius of Loyola College, Kaunas, Lithuania
Abstract
The article is based on descriptive theoretical research and focused on two notions such as ‘leadership
values’ and ‘values based leadership’. These two concepts are not compared, but every of them is
described separately by highlighting general characteristics and showing their broad complexity. Both
notions are not related to ethics and / or morality, as the aim the literature review was to provide
insights on leadership values and values based leadership. The research question was the following:
What aspects include two concepts such asleadership values’ and ‘values based leadership’? Fourteen
leadership values are provided and in the summary the three unifying aspects are presented and
discussed personality, interaction(s) and relationship(s), and action(s) / work. The common and
flexible leadership values are presented. Values based leadership is discussed generally and four
principles of this leadership are distinguished self-reflection, balance, true self-confidence, and
genuine humility. Also positive and limiting values based leadership shortly is discussed. The
conclusion is focused on the idea that the leader needs to regain and maintain trust. Positive values
based leadership goes beyond leveraging strengths and making meaning. Values based leaders who
engage their employees and help them flourish in life. And for their organisations they boost
productivity, creativity and financial returns. Leading and evaluating success based on values is the
best way to build a high-performance culture in organisation.
Keywords: Core leadership values; Flexible leadership values; Limiting leadership values; Positive
leadership values; Values based leader; Values based leadership.
Background
‘Leadership chaos’ might be used to describe the political, social, economic, religious, and
environmental conditions for much of the first decade of the 21st Century. The difficulties faced
in all of these various domains are so drastic that it is difficult to refrain from being sarcastic
about the effectiveness and utility of what is referred to as “leadership development.” In the
continuing, increasingly complex, and changing challenges, many of which have potentially
disastrous implications, the need for effective leadership is greater now than perhaps at any
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time in recorded history. And at the same time, what is being called for in terms of leadership
sounds as confusing as the issues and conditions facing us. We often hear of the need for strong
leaders, results driven leaders, servant leaders, charismatic leaders, heroic leaders,
collaborative leaders, innovative leaders, tribal leaders, and more. But what we observe in those
calls for leadership is that each arises out of an ideologically driven world, and implies that
every other type of leader, except the type it is calling for, is ineffective, inappropriate, or just
outright wrong (Hyatt & de Ciantis, 2012). Here values play the important role.
Values are a shorthand method of describing what is important to us individually or collectively
(as an organisation, community or nation) (Turkkahraman, 2014). They are “shorthand”
because the concepts that values represent can usually be captured in one word or a short
phrase. For example, honesty, openness, compassion, long-term perspective and human rights
can all be considered as values. Behaviours, which are the outward manifestation of our values,
are context dependent (Cubukcu, 2014). Values can be positive or potentially limiting. Positive
values such as friendship, trust and creativity, help us to connect with others and make a
positive contribution to society (James, 2014). Potentially limiting values such as blame,
bureaucracy and status-seeking, do just the opposite. They may enable us to meet our
immediate needs, but in the long-term they are counterproductive, often divisive, and
frequently result in a breakdown of connection, thereby affecting our relationships and
undermining any positive contributions we may have been able to make. The frequent
utilisation of potentially limiting values as a basis for conscious or subconscious decision-
making leads to isolation, separation and failure. Potentially limiting values are sourced from
the fears of the ego and support the ego’s self-interest (Barrett, 2013).
The role of leadership is to add value to other people and the true measure of leadership is
influence, thus a great leader must have the ability to change the attitude or behavior of others
(Reese, 2017). In organizations where leaders lead, the leadership values must be
communicated by actions, mostly in the ways in which activities / actions are conducted on a
day-to-day basis, and not so much in words directly spoken or written. Actions speak louder,
but written values that reinforce and support specific actions, and specific actions that reinforce
and support written values, make a powerful combination (Healthfield, 2018).
Values based leadership evolved as a bi-product of the time and culture. The emergence of the
twenty-first century was plagued with extensive, evasive and disheartening ethical leadership
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failures. Neither the public nor private sectors was immune as many leaders were exposed for
immoral or unethical behaviors (Copeland, 2014).
Values based leaders are people who have clear principles, they are honest and congruent in
their deeds, they truly inspire those around them, and they feel a greater sense of gratitude
towards others than they expect to receive in return. Values based leadership can fall short of
expectations, whether shortcomings are perceived or genuine (Clarke, 2018).
The research question, which is the main focus of the manuscript is the following: what aspects
include two concepts such as ‘leadership values’ and ‘values based leadership’?
The aim of the theoretical description-based literature review is to provide insights on
leadership values and values based leadership.
Leadership values
Leaders should influence the values of organization (Barnard, 1938). Organizations can be
mature only when leaders infuse them with values (Selznick, 1957). He promoted the concept
“responsible leadership” which is described as “a blend of commitment, understanding, and
determination”.
Values are the guiding principles in our lives. Leaders guide and facilitate others to make a
positive difference in their own lives and to contribute to a larger good (Sen et al.,
2013). Values inform the application of leadership qualities as the competencies of leadership
are activated – learned, developed, and practiced – within the set of core values (Keyser,
2011). By focusing on what people believe and value, and then positively building on this
understanding, we have the potential for impact far more wide reaching than if we approached
leadership development as a problem-solving activity.
The leader must choose the values that are most important to her / him, the values that s/he
believes in and that define her / his character. Then must live them visibly every day at work.
Living her / his values is one of the most powerful tools available to the leader to help her /
him lead and influence others (Heathfield, 2018).
Leadership values are related to personal and organizational purpose(s) and it is important to
understand how these two aspects of purpose fit together for each person. It's about hiring
people that demonstrate care for the purpose the organization is pursuing (Clarke, 2011).
Organizations that are effective, customer-centric, and employee-oriented, develop a clear,
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concise and shared meaning of values / beliefs, priorities, and direction within their
organization. They want every employee to understand the values, contribute to the values, and
live the values. Once defined, the values should impact every aspect of the organization. The
leader must support and nurture this impact (Heathfield, 2018).
Leadership values are discussed by authors, who make research studies, discuss, train, coach
(see Table 1).
Table 1
Leadership values
Name of a leadership
value
Description
Respect
Self-respect and respecting others regardless of differences; treating others
with dignity, empathy and compassion; and the ability to earn the respect of
others. Three differing types of respect are appraisal, recognition and
identification (Clarke, 2011).
Making difference
Making a positive impact on individuals, systems, and/or organizations or
positively affecting outcomes (Kase, 2010).
Integrity
Moral courage, ethical strength, and trustworthiness; keeping promises and
fulfilling expectations (Bauman, 2013; Williams, 2018).
Authenticity
Consistency, congruency, and transparency in values, beliefs, and actions;
integrating values and principles to create a purposeful life and to contribute
to the growth of others (Bishop, 2013).
Courage
Possessing a strength of self to act with intention on behalf of the common
good; taking a stand in the face of adversity; acting boldly in the service of
inclusion and justice (Sen et al., 2013).
Service
Commitment that extends beyond one’s own self-interest; personal humility
for the sake of a greater cause (Bourne, 2016).
Humility
A sense of humbleness, dignity and an awareness of one’s own limitations;
open to perspectives differ-rent from one’s own (Cable, 2018;
Higginbottom, 2018).
Wisdom
A broad understanding of human dynamics and an ability to balance the
interests of multiple stakeholders when making decisions; can take a long
term perspective in decision-making (Yang, 2011; Clayton, 2013).
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Self-discipline
Focusing your attention consistently on your most important goals re-quires
self-discipline (Jabbour, 2017; Gulledge, 2018).
Personal development
An increase in quantity, quality, and / or development over time. We can
grow individually, increasing our skills, understanding, etc., as well as grow
as a team and an organization, increasing our ambition, our sites, ability to
serve clients, etc. Growth can be characterized by a breakthrough change, a
transformation as a significant development, which is great. More often,
though, growth takes the form of incremental improvements over time. Self-
awareness and self-reflection help enable us to know our areas of potential
growth. (Keyser, 2011)
Respect of teamwork
Respect is at the core of high functioning teams – and the lack of respect
between team members is often times the cause of poorly performing
teams. It’s about respecting the person, their abilities, their ideas, and their
contributions to the team. Self-respect and respect for others is learnable.
It is not learnt or encouraged by putting a group of “values” on a wall
plaque or on a sheet of paper. It is learnt and encouraged by the team
getting to know each other and themselves well. Self-respect is also
encouraged by managers who mentor and coach. Respecting others is
implemented through showing support, encouraging participation, giving
positive feedback, being honest, listening before speaking (Arnold, 2018).
Belief in human
potential
The possibilities human beings are capable of accomplishing. The idea that
with hard work, every person — regardless of age, background or religion
— has the opportunity to succeed and achieve. Fundamental to this dream
is that leader(s) remains small and limited, giving maximum freedom to the
individual. The great potential of leadership lies in people (Millar, 2012;
Browback, 2016).
The power of positive
psychology
Strengths are underlying personal qualities that energise us, contribute to
our growth and lead to peak performance. When we tap into these sources
of energy, we can reach full immersion in our task at hand. Meaning is
what gives purpose to our existence and to what we do. We gain happiness
from our actions when they are based on choices that make sense to us.
Many definitions of employee engagement include energy and meaning.
Accordingly, employees are engaged when they are energised by work and
show a genuine willingness to go the extra mile. What does this mean for
leadership? To boost their employees’ engagement, leaders have to help
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their people play to their strengths and find purpose at work. Positive
leaders drill for strengths and make meaning (Cameron, 2008).
Acceptance of
complexity
Leadership as a complex interactive dynamic from which adaptive
outcomes (e.g., learning, innovation, and adaptability) emerge. A
leadership paradigm that focuses on enabling the learning, creative, and
adaptive capacity of complex adaptive systems (CAS) within a context of
knowledge-producing organizations. This conceptual framework includes
three entangled leadership roles (i.e., adaptive leadership, administrative
leadership, and enabling leadership) that reflect a dynamic relationship
between the bureaucratic, administrative functions of the organization and
the emergent, informal dynamics of complex adaptive systems (Uhl-Bien
et al., 2007).
All of these descriptions in Table 1 are united by three concepts personality, interaction(s)
and relationship(s), and action(s) / work:
Personality of a leader and employees as personalities. The organization's culture is the
result of the purpose it aspires to, the values it's guided by, and the habits that bring its
purpose and values to life in a tangible way, every day (Yang, 2011). These all depend
leaders to make them happen. That's why it's important that leaders know how the
organization's purpose aligns with that of its people. Leaders need to know what drives
their people (Uhl-Bien et al., 2007). Leaders care about more than skills, knowledge and
professional experience (Bishop, 2013). They are curious about the people they work
with. They want to understand what makes their followers tick (Browback, 2016).
Where employees have a passion is where they have the largest potential to perform,
learn and grow (Clarke, 2011). Workplaces that subtly require employees to
compromise their basic moral standards destroy their identification with work and
employer (Clayton, 2013). Such organisations have a dysfunctional culture that can open
the door to misconduct. Leaders who evince clear values in their words and actions help
employees connect with their work and experience a sense of purpose (Higginbottom,
2018). Leaders remember that at work, people want to uphold their values (Millar,
2012).
Interaction(s) and relationship(s). Leaders do not merely fill “gaps” revealed by a
competency model and help their followers maximise the advantages of their strengths
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(Sen et al., 2013). They challenge employees in two ways: first, to use their strengths to
tackle problems they have not tackled before; and second, to achieve true mastery in
their areas of strengths (Uhl-Bien et al., 2007). Being part of a group makes sense.
Leaders emphasize the team over individuals, reducing internal competition for the
benefit of mutual support and collaboration (Clayton, 2013). Leaders recognize that
beyond leveraging individuals’ strengths, they need to leverage team strengths. Team
strengths depend on how each team member’s strengths interact with other team
members’ strengths (Millar, 2012). This interaction influences how well the team
performs as a group. Leaders leverage the full diversity in their teams (Kase, 2010). The
members of a cohesive community have each other’s backs; they are there when an
individual needs help. The good of the group takes priority over selfish motives because
it promises future benefits to the individual (Cameron, 2008). For employees, workplace
relationships - and especially relationships with managers and leaders - are a significant
motivating factor in how they feel about the work they do, and the organizations where
they do that work (Clayton, 2013). If leaders underestimate the importance of these
relationships as a leadership value, they often do not succeed in their growth as leaders
(Kase, 2010). Only through open communication can both sides come to understand the
position of the other, which may initially be quite the challenge to undertake, but
inevitably it will prove to the betterment of the well-being of all concerned, as well as
the overall performance of the organization (Clarke, 2018).
Action(s) / work. Employees may perceive their work as “meaningless”. Opaque
decision making, political agendas, a fragmented value chain, bureaucracy all these
devalue what employees perceive as the actual, often-invigorating purpose of work
(Bishop, 2013). Leaders need to offer meaning to their followers. Leaders work with
this powerful source of meaning (Bourne, 2016). They enable their followers to feel
helpful to others, be it clients, colleagues or the general public (Browback, 2016).
Meaningful acting or working is about having an impact on the world that transcends
the individual’s existence. Leaders want to be part of something that still influences the
world when they are no longer here (Bauman, 2013). Leaders help their followers to feel
significant. They stress the importance of the shared mission and the criticality of every
team members’ or employee’s contribution (Arnold, 2018). Leaders must take a more
hands-on approach to developing their people and helping them find meaning in the
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work they do. All people want to feel valued - not just for their work, but as individuals.
The presence or absence of that feeling of being valued impacts how they feel about the
organization, and their role in it (Sen et al., 2013). On the part of the employee, it
is perhaps wise to consider that leadership is a complex matter and, like all humans,
leaders don’t always get it right, and sometimes need time to figure out the right course
of action and support in implementing that action (Clarke, 2018).
Leaders must know what they value and exhibit their core values in their leadership style(s)
and actions. Leadership values practiced by the leader should be visible because s/he lives them
in her / his actions. If leaders never identified their values in their workplaces, the mistrust is
understandable. People don't know what they can expect. If leaders have identified and shared
their values, living the values every day visibly will create trust (Healthfield, 2018).
Leaders come from all eras, all levels of society, and all cultures; but there are certain beliefs
leaders share. These core beliefs are the foundation of the particular leader’s leadership, the
things that will help her / him become successful (Daskal, 2016). Values as a basic for
leadership could be divided into types. For example, Reese (2017) divides leadership values
into common and flexible (see Table 2).
Table 2
Common and flexible leadership values
Name of common
leadership values
Description of common
leadership values
Description of flexible
leadership values
Leadership
People want to be led, not
managed. Instead, leaders
must manage their actions
and possess the ability to
lead by example.
To oversee the progress of
a project or assignment
when necessary. Provide
specific instructions and
closely supervise specific
situations.
Vision
People want to know how
and why their efforts
matter. A leader must
actively provide this vision
to his/her people to
maintain purpose in their
work.
To demonstrate to your
team the desire and
capacity that you have to
share information or
knowledge in the
workplace.
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Pride
People want the leader to
feel that they count for
something. A leader should
give appropriate praise
often. Using a good
positive measurement
system will also help
individuals know how they
are contributing.
This is ideal for when there
is some disagreement
about the ultimate target or
intent of the action.
Congruence
People feel secure when
they see the leader doing
the right things. Once
again, a leader must lead by
example, walk the walk.
Talking alone won’t’ help.
When there is agreement
about the desired outcome
and when the leader’s
experience and knowledge
base is relatively strong.
Trust
People need to trust their
leadership if they are to
remain dedicated to the
organization. Leaders must
be fair, consistent with all
employees.
Most beneficial when the
team needs positive
reinforcement for their
success. Key point
frequent reinforcement of
positive behaviors and
achievements will result in
greater, long-term success.
Character
People ultimately find out
what kind of person their
leader is and will be
influenced to behave in the
same manner. Leaders
must consistently
demonstrate good work
ethics.
Integrity
People need to trust and
respect their leaders. A
leader must be accountable
for his/her decisions and
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actions within every
responsibility.
Responsibility
People feel gratified when
commitments to them are
kept. Leaders, who keep
commitments, will have
employees, who are
accountable for their
commitments.
Wisdom
People learn most from
their leaders by example
and coaching. Leaders need
to temper their knowledge
with good judgement and
concern for others.
Communication
People perform better when
they understand the issues.
A leader who is open and
listens to concerns and
ideas will gain more
support from his/her
employees. This
communication can be
verbal, non-verbal and even
a simple visual
measurement system.
Flexible leadership is not something you do to people, but something you do with
people. Following personal leadership beliefs and core leadership values through thinking,
reflecting, communicating, learning, and implementation of flexible leadership values through
teaching, coaching, mentoring, acting, communicating helps leaders to become successful.
Leaders driven by their core values inspire loyalty and commitment in their followers because
they help them to find purpose and meaning in what they do, and they bring out the best in the
people who work alongside them (Clarke, 2018).
Once an organization's values are clearly defined, they should also be the guiding light for how
performance is evaluated - at the team and individual level. This is especially true when
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organizations are facing change. And values based performance evaluation systems need to be
put in place Gleeson, 2017).
Values based leadership
People become effective leaders when they are rooted in who they are and what matters most
to them (Clarke, 2018). Becoming the best kind of leader isn't about emulating a role model or
a historic figure. Rather, the leadership must be rooted in who the leader is and what matters
most to her / him. When the leader truly knows her / himself and what s/he stands for, it is
much easier to know what to do in any situation. It always comes down to doing the right thing
and doing the best s/he can (Jansen Kraemer, 2011).
Values based leadership has received attention as many charismatic and seemingly
transformational leaders had emerged that lacked a moral, authentic and ethical dimension
(Copeland, 2014).
Values based leadership is the only true style of leadership that separates the great from the
rest (Clarke, 2018). Leaders must lean on the values of the organization to drive performance,
especially during times of change. An organization's values should be the bedrock of why the
institution exists, how it makes decisions and its true purpose. They must be authentic and
relatively specific so they actually resonate with the team (Gleeson, 2017).
Values based leadership within the organization manifests the institutional ethos. Institutional
ethos clearly articulates values and culture. Everything employers and employees do is guided
by the institutional ethos. Because it means that leaders have come together to ensure alignment
on what the organization stands for. What the long term vision is. It guides decision-making,
recruiting and selection, how the organization trains its members and how the institution fights,
and the overall expectations (Barret Values Center, 2018).
Values based leadership means communicating organisational values that tell members how to
behave in order to fulfil the organisation’s mission. They talk about these values in a way that
connects with employees’ personal values, so that employees come to identify strongly with
both the organisation and its mission (Daskal, 2016). Such leaders focus on core values - the
enduring guiding principles that capture the organisation’s strengths and character. Because
the core values represent the soul of the organisation, they are likely to remain steadfast in the
face of changing market trends and fads (Clarke, 2011). In order for employees to believe in
the sincerity and depth of the organisation’s values, the leadership team must lead by example
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and communicate the values on an ongoing basis to the entire workforce. The values’
effectiveness lies in how well they are embodied by the organisation as a whole (Clayton,
2013).
The values based leadership is related to leading the team and evaluating performance - both
leader’s own and the team's - based more so on the organization's set of values rather than
specific metrics and milestones. Leaders still have to oversee their team member's ability to
execute and be accountable for their role in mission success, but values based evaluations can't
be an afterthought (Gleeson, 2017).
Values based leadership describes behaviors that are rooted in ethical and moral foundations
including spiritual, servant, authentic, ethical and transformational leadership (Copeland,
2014). The four principles of values based leadership are distinguished by Jansen Kraemer
(2011):
The self-reflection. The leader must have the ability to identify and reflect on what s/he
stands for, what her / his values are, and what matters most to the leader. To be a values
based leader, s/he must be willing to look within her / himself through regular self-
reflection and strive for greater self-awareness.
The balance. It means the ability to see situations from multiple perspectives and
differing viewpoints to gain a much fuller understanding. Balance means that the leader
considers all sides and opinions with an open mind.
The true self-confidence. It means that the leader accepts her / himself as s/he is. The
leader recognizes personal strengths and weaknesses, and strives for continuous
improvement. With true self-confidence the leader knows that there will always be
people who are more gifted, accomplished, successful and so on than s/he (the leader),
but the leader accepts the self as s/he is.
The genuine humility. The leader should not forget who s/he is or where s/he came from.
Genuine humility keeps life in perspective, particularly as the leader experiences success
in her / his career. In addition, it helps the leader value each person s/he encounters and
treats everyone respectfully.
Prilleltensky’s (2000) model for values based leadership focuses on individual, collective, and
relationship wellness that together indicate that perceiving one’s own values and values of the
group (emloyees), and building relationships to bind the two are the foundations for operating
through a values based framework in organisation. The researcher asserts that failure to address
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these three areas of wellness leads those in an organisation to focus on individual gain, and the
concept of doing what is best for the collective becomes lost.
Values based leaders are those with an underlying moral, ethical foundation (Copeland, 2014).
Thus the successful values based leader will recognize personal and professional values;
determine how much variance from established values will be tolerated, and understand the
values of internal stakeholders. This model relies heavily on recognition of the individual’s
role in upholding personal and organisational values. After all, an organisation may have
established values, but it is up to the individuals in that organisation to embody them (Graber
& Kilpatrick, 2008).
The values based leadership is not about realizing leader's personal needs for status, fame, or
ego satisfaction. Instead, her / his actions are based on helping their followers realize their true
needs. Values based leaders consistently act on behalf of their followers, seeking to provide
the conditions and resources those constituencies couldn’t provide on their own. The
importance of this servant leadership quality is identified, but what is most unusual about these
leaders is the consistency of that behavior: unlike paternalistic leaders, they do not seek to
impose their personal agendas on their followers; unlike situational leaders, there is a complete
and predictable integrity to all their actions; unlike transformational leaders, they do not seek
to change their opponents (their every action demonstrates respect for their followers and
enemies alike). And they each display a high degree of selflessness. That does not mean they
are without ambition, but rather their ambition is of an unusual sort: they find personal
satisfaction and fulfillment by providing the opportunity for others to realize their goals and
potential (O'Toole, 2008).
Conclusion
Today there is widespread lack of confidence in leadership, in business, government, education
and elsewhere. Every leader needs to regain and maintain trust. Positive values based
leadership goes beyond leveraging strengths and making meaning. Values based leaders who
engage their employees and help them flourish in life. And for their institutions / organisations
they boost productivity, creativity and financial returns. Values based leadership may not be a
cure for everything that ails us, but it's definitely a good place to start. But leading and
evaluating success based on values is the best way to build a high-performance culture in
organisation.
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Submitted 2018-10-13
Received 2018-10-13
Accepted 2018-11-30
... Some of the values communicated include respect, trust, inclusion (understanding and compassion), and integrity (morals and good behavior), which resonate well with the indicators of VBL (Garg & Krishnan, 2003). When leaders possess these values, they do not think twice while acting or making decisions because they guide them to make the right decisions and assume a significant leadership role (Vilma, 2018). In addition, the research on the values of school principals reveals that values serve as their compass and grant meaning to their everyday activities (Abu-Hussain & Essawi, 2014). ...
... While positive values, such as friendship, trust, and creativity, help us to socialize with others and make a positive contribution to society (James, 2014), possibly restricting or potentially limiting values, blame, bureaucracy and status-seeking, on the other hand, do just the opposite (Vilma, 2018). ...
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This research assessed the practice of value-based leadership (VBL) of two ranks of primary school teachers in Kajiado North, Kenya. The study incorporated an explanatory sequential mixed-methods approach that utilized a pragmatic paradigm epistemology. Survey questionnaires were used to collect data from the teachers in the first quantitative phase and analyzed using (SPSS), v.25. In the second phase, interviews were conducted to gather qualitative information, which was thematically analyzed using Miner Lite software. The results from the quantitative phase showed a positive and significant relationship between the teachers’ VBL and the head teachers’ VBL. The practice of VBL in the two ranks of teachers was found to be consistent in integrity, trust, listening, respect, and inclusion and was inconsistent in vision and clear thinking. In the second phase, teachers described VBL as; leading through values and qualities, leadership that you see, leading by example, helping people grow and adding value to what they do, and doing what you are supposed to do by observing professional ethics. Consistency in the practice of VBL is critical in schools because it creates a uniform space where effective learning of values takes place. The study recommends the training of head teachers in VBL traits, in particular communication skills that will help them in delivering on vision and clear thinking. A replica of the study in the secondary school level is recommended to validate the findings.
... Some of the values communicated include respect, trust, inclusion (understanding and compassion), and integrity (morals and good behavior), which resonate well with the indicators of VBL (Garg & Krishnan, 2003). When leaders possess these values, they do not think twice while acting or making decisions because they guide them to make the right decisions and assume a significant leadership role (Vilma, 2018). In addition, the research on the values of school principals reveals that values serve as their compass and grant meaning to their everyday activities (Abu-Hussain & Essawi, 2014). ...
... While positive values, such as friendship, trust, and creativity, help us to socialize with others and make a positive contribution to society (James, 2014), possibly restricting or potentially limiting values, blame, bureaucracy and status-seeking, on the other hand, do just the opposite (Vilma, 2018). ...
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Keywords: Value-based Leadership, Teachers, Head teacher, Consistency, Values This research assessed the practice of value-based leadership (VBL) of two ranks of primary school teachers in Kajiado North, Kenya. The study incorporated an explanatory sequential mixed-methods approach that utilized a pragmatic paradigm epistemology. Survey questionnaires were used to collect data from the teachers in the first quantitative phase and analyzed using (SPSS), v.25. In the second phase, interviews were conducted to gather qualitative information, which was thematically analyzed using Miner Lite software. The results from the quantitative phase showed a positive and significant relationship between the teachers' VBL and the head teachers' VBL. The practice of VBL in the two ranks of teachers was found to be consistent in integrity, trust, listening, respect, and inclusion and was inconsistent in vision and clear thinking. In the second phase, teachers described VBL as; leading through values and qualities, leadership that you see, leading by example, helping people grow and adding value to what they do, and doing what you are supposed to do by observing professional ethics. Consistency in the practice of VBL is critical in schools because it creates a uniform space where effective learning of values takes place. The study recommends the training of head teachers in VBL traits, in particular communication skills that will help them in delivering on vision and clear thinking. A replica of the study in the secondary school level is recommended to validate the findings. ©CIKD Publishing
... Leaders have their own set of personal values that will drive their value creation for the organisation (Ertosun & Adiguzel 2018). According to Zydziunaite (2018), there are four principles of value-based leadership: self-reflection, balance, true self-confidence and genuine humility. The competing values of democracy and bureaucracy in the public sector environment require leaders to redefine old values to guide employees more effectively (Molina 2009). ...
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... He lives by the moral code derived from the Zoroastrian motto, "Good thoughts, good words and good deeds" [8]. The authentic and the ethical persona of Adi helped him to remain humble and grounded, which is a principle on which VBL is based upon (Zydziunaite, 2018). The Godrej Group's core values i.e. integrity, trust and respect for others are a sole reflection of their leader, which are integral across all their operations, functions and business activities. ...
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