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Interior Architectural Elements that Affect Human Psychology and Behavior


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This research will inspect factors with higher impact that are predicted to be more influential in the relation between architecture, interior architectural design and the psychological status of residents and users. The level of awareness about the importance of this relation is the basic introductory factor. Identity, privacy and safety impacts, health concerns, accessibility degree, open spaces feature, aesthetic sense are the main parts of the research. Most parts consist of two divisions. The first identifies the nature of each factor. The second recognizes the important architectural consideration needed to realize the psychological condition of residents and users. The research aims to increase the concern about the importance of the interaction between interior architectural design and human psychological behavior. An introduction of a group of important consideration can be used to help designers choose and apply a suitable interior architectural design that match psychological needs through sound relations between architecture, interior architecture and the psychological status of residents and users.
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ARChive Online ISSN: 2537-0162
International Journal on: The Academic Research Community Publication
pg. 1
The International Conference : Cities’ Identity Through Architecture and Arts (CITAA)
Interior Architectural Elements that Affect Human
Psychology and Behavior
DOI: 10.21625/archive.v1i1.112
Heba-Talla Hamdy Mahmoud 1
1 Lecturer of interior architecture Decor department Faculty of Fine Arts Mansoura University
Awareness; Identity; Privacy;
Functionality; flexibility Safety;
Health concern; Accessibility;
Open space; Aesthetic;
This research will inspect factors with higher impact that are predicted to be
more influential in the relation between architecture, interior architectural design
and the psychological status of residents and users. The level of awareness about the
importance of this relation is the basic introductory factor. Identity, privacy and
safety impacts, health concerns, accessibility degree, open spaces feature, aesthetic
sense are the main parts of the research. Most parts consist of two divisions. The
first identifies the nature of each factor. The second recognizes the important
architectural consideration needed to realize the psychological condition of residents
and users. The research aims to increase the concern about the importance of the
interaction between interior architectural design and human psychological behavior.
An introduction of a group of important consideration can be used to help designers
choose and apply a suitable interior architectural design that match psychological
needs through sound relations between architecture, interior architecture and the
psychological status of residents and users.
1. Introduction
The psychological attitude of a human is affected by the design of interior architecture through various aspects. every
person receives, perceives and responds in different way, this is due to physical and psychological differences in addition
to the differences in personal experience. Culture, physical status, age, education level, gender, socioeconomic class and
ambitions are factors with special concerns that shaping occupantsneeds. The interaction between interior architecture
and the psychological condition is engaged with both humanitarian characteristics and the interior architecture approach
of design. "Architecture leans towards programming i.e. determining needs and proposing a draft and finally suggesting
a suitable location in accordance with needs and building of the site. behavioral sciences on the other hand are concerned
with how environment is used in terms of consistency with needs of society" (Razjoyan, 1996)."The mental and
psychological effects of architectural frames on human beings have been considered from the early shelters to today ́s
modern structure. Since the human behavior is performed in defined spaces, it is necessary to design the physical space
based on people’s behavioral characteristics". (Tabaeian, 2011). The focal point of the architectural side is the background
and capability of the designer to create a comprehensive vision with respect to the psychological intervention of all
parameters involved in his design and to identify the considerations must be taken into account. "One of the essential
roles of architecture is to provide built environments that sustain the occupants’ psychological well-being. This role is
made even more important because, in modern society, more than 70% of a person’s lifespan is spent indoors" (Kim,
2. Research methodology
The methodology of this research is generally based on a descriptive and interpretive approach. An initial survey to
investgate the relation between architecture, interior architectural design and the psychological status of residents and
Heba-Talla Hamdy Mahmoud/ Interior architecture elements affect human psychology and behavior
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users was conducted. Questions included the following: What is the backgrounds and scopes of architecture, interior
architecture designer needed for the designe to recognize in order to create a right vision? What are the most effective
parameters that impact this relationship? This research selects the most effective factors (identity, privacy, functionality
and felexability, safety and health concern, accessibility, open space, aesthetic) that interact with the relation between
architecture, interior architectural design and the psychological status of residents and users. Other questions include: What are the
main distinctive considerations that should be taken in to account to handle these factors? Many data sources included
books, journals, conferences, and specific official internet sites.
3. Interior architecture design psycological awareness
The achievement of interior architectural design, with awareness of the psychological impacts on residents, needs a wide
scope of knowledge about the different dimensions and circumstances that should be taken into account Figure 3-1. "As
practitioners, we solve the design problems for humans who use and inhabit the space by considering their needs, whether
functional, social, psychological or environmental by understanding how to use research to help identify and clarify the
relationship between human behavior and the built environment" (Perolini, 2006). Different methods of investigating and
different approaches were used to recognize and shape the complex network of relations between architecture, interior
architecture design and the psychological status of residents and users. "A useful model for seeing the scope of available
environment behavior information Figure3-2m first proposed by the architectural psychologist Irwin Altman1 includes
three main components: environment-behavior phenomena, user groups, and settings" (Burris, 2014). A different
approach to identify the wide scope of comfort in homes through a multi-dimensional survey was composed of three main
proposed dimensions (Meaning of Comfort at Home, Home Environment, and Comfort), Figure3-3.
Figure 3-1: Factors impacts human psychology (Moore 1979).
1 The former dean of Social and Behavioral Science College, Utah University authored 20 books and over 130 professional journal
articles and book chapters
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Figure 3-2: The scope of environment behavior information. (Snyder JC 1797)
Figure 3-3: Dimensions and sub-dimensions of home comfort (Burris 2014)
4. The psychological impact of identity
Human perceptions of the space they live in, work, or spend time in are directly impacted by the reflection of personal,
socil, and cultural identities on these places. It is convenient that places remind us of the main features of our identity,
"there is a complex interaction between a person and a space. The person defines the space, the space defines the person;
the person gives meaning to the space, the space gives meaning to the person. In other words, there is a complex and
bilateral interaction between the person and the space in its cultural, psychological, economic and physical dimensions"
(Ayalp, 2012). The sense of psychological identity about the architecture of space grows when we start to identify
ourselves with places. "The field of psychology and the social sciences of architecture, emphasizing the influence of the
physical environment on identity and self-perception" (Hauge, 2007). The psychological identity sense and its interaction
with interior architecture occurs in both larger scale domains such as culture, religion, nation, city, gender, social roles or
social class and in smaller domains such as neighborhood, family, homes and rooms. Generally, we can say that humans
have always showed their dedication to their roots. It can be said that every civilization or ethnic group offers a specific
architectural identity in accordance with their cultures and traditions at different times. The psychological identity about
space is affected by the international architectural trends due to globalization and its nature as a standardizing force in
economics, politics, culture, and consequently in architecture. The architucture of Hassan Fathy is considered a
remarkable style of the interaction between authenticity in the orientation of identity and contemporary architecture. "The
invaluable legacy of Hassan Fathy constitutes inspiration for younger architects whose prime concerns are to preserve
cultural identity in architecture while providing appropriate and affordable shelters for the disinherited of this world"
(Richards, 1985). It essential to recognize that identity does not depend on the composition and form of physical space
only, but it is linked to the concept of meaning and sense. There are numerous factors that shape identity and self-
expression such as the structure of family and relatives, and child-raising methods.
Interior architecture consideration for identity
Architecture and interior architecture designers should maintain the identity of peoples and communities and respect their
daily routine of life. The appropriate implementation of design aims to achieve the present needs of users and make it
suitable for future generations."People feel comfortable in the places that are concurrent with their place identities.
Moreover, with reflecting true cultural identities, designer can take part in sustainability of cultural value. The typical
features that are creating the image are the basic elements in designing new images" (Ayalp, 2012). Figure 4-1 is an
interior space in Japan that reflects japanese interior architectural concepts and their identity. Figure 4-2 is a facade of
building in Yemen, it represents the character of Yemeni architecture as a remarkable identity. The following are examples
of architecture and interior architectural considerations with psychological impacts related to identity:
The design should demonstrate the background and motives of residents.
The design should demonstrate the structure of religions, cites, families and neighborhoods.
Usage of local materials and technique such as plaster, stone and marble.
Architectural treatments of openings, windows and doors, especially in the main entrance framing and decoration.
The diversity and richness of arts and architectural treatments that belong to the local and national tradition.
Social and special niches, signs and icons.
"The level of modern influence by western and international style concepts in comparison to the accustomed norm of
the traditional architecture of the region can be categorized as follows:
Copying the traditional architecture of the region without any modifications with no change.
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Minor changes: Partial change of system elements
Adaptations: Mixing the source with new elements
Major changes: Changing the system relation
Total changes: Altering the system rules and regulations" (Baper, 2010).
Figure 4-1: Interior space pattern in Japan Figure 4-2: Building's façade in Yemen
5. The psychological impact of privacy
Privacy in general is the right of individuals, groups, organization, and institutions to determine for themselves when,
how and to what extent information about them is communicated to others. In a public space, there is no restriction of
communication, while isolated spaces completely constrain all types of communication. In between there are intermediate
levels of privacy. Space privacy is considered one of the most important types of overall privacy. People deal with the
concept of space privacy with special concerns, they feel discomfort, anger and anxiety when their space privacy is
exposed beyond their desires. "According to environmental psychology, each person is realized and perceived through
an invisible shelter or a series of shelters surrounding his body, Figure 5-1. These personal protective spheres, by which
privacy is controlled, vary from person to person and from culture to culture. They also differ from period to period as
society and social bonds are continually transformed and reconstructed. Hall defines accordingly four such spheres;
intimate, personal, private and public. When the most intimate of these private areas is intruded by other individuals, the
person starts to act defensively or to say at least extraordinarily. A typical example of the above fact is indicated by the
abnormal behavior of people when standing in an elevator" (Hall, 1969).
Figure 5-1: The main four categories of space, the hidden dimension 1990
Interior architectural considerations for privacy
The central aspect of achieving privacy is how to find a balance between privacy and social relationships. Accessibility,
visibility, proximity, vocals and olfactory are the main parameters of privacy interaction with the human psychology.
Each parameter requires numerous suggestions of considerations, nevertheless the general guidance can be performed
through using space sizing and organizing with vertical, horizontal boundaries, partitions and conversation shields. The
degree of light and illumination distribution with direct and indirect lighting needs to be controlled. Using appropriate
types of sound-blocking , soundproofing, curtains, floor walls, furniture, and equipment. "The careful design of enclosed
space enhances privacy through auditory isolation, dimmed lighting, and a semi-transparent divider between penitent and
priest, stimulates a moment of reflection, serenity, and honesty" (Petermans. A, 2014)."According to the degrees of
proximity, there are four categories of privacy with specific consideration for each…Intimate distance of eighteen inches
or less, the presence of another person is unmistakable and may at times be overwhelming because of the greatly stepped-
up sensory inputs. In its close phase (6 inches or less) intimate distance lends itself primarily to nonverbal communication.
This is distance is usually reserved for very close friends and family. Personal distance from 11⁄2 to 4 feet can be thought
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of as a small protective sphere or bubble that an organism maintains between itself and others. Social distance ranges
from 4 to 12 feet, it’s a psychological distance, one at which the animal apparently begins to feel anxious when he exceeds
its limits. We can think of it as a hidden band that contains the group. Public distance is the largest of the zones and it
exists only in human relationships. At the close phase (12 to 25 feet), a more formal style of language and a louder voice
is required" (Hall, 1969). The following are examples of architecture and interior architectural considerations with
psychological impacts related to privacy:
Public and private spaces should be clearly defined by means of applicable well-defined boundaries,
The degree of interrelationship and connectivity with adjacent spaces.
The type of mass zone and courtyard which is surrounding the space.
The difference between the street level and the ground floor level.
Number of entrances, is there one entrance or more.
The implementation of privacy practices through a monitoring service.
The type of transitional space behind each access and the degree of exposure to inside spaces.
The existence of a part of, or an entire floor below ground level (basement).
Type of walls and insulation partition.
The type of main movement system, even if it’s radial, is linked to one axis or another
The style, size and direction of openness (windows, doors) regarding the overall size and orientation.
Kitchen design and type (closed or open plan kitchen).
The orientation of private rooms' doors and openings toward the open and living spaces.
Roof type, degree of exposure to inside spaces.
6. The psychological impact of functionality and flexability
The satisfaction and psychological status of users and residents is directly linked to a well-planned and designed feature
that makes spaces more usable and beneficial. Functionality consideration encourages people to live and work effectively.
The psychological and physical comfort of residents is linked to the degree of feasibility and flexibility of the design. The
possibilities of flexible design to change the shape and size of internal space (Figure 6-1), and the impact of feasible
functions of interior design in addition to the using of the space as integrated environment make our interior more livable.
"Interior architecture can have to function as a platform for happiness and human flourishing, as a combination of positive
feelings and optimal human functioning. It is clear that design can function as a direct source of pleasure or facilitate
pleasurable activities. Such a vision incorporates a view on interior architecture as an activating and dynamic platform
that facilitates the occurring of meaningful activities for its inhabitants" (Petermans, 2014). "User flexibility is an
important design objective of modern dwelling units. The provision of various possible spatial configurations of interior
space sub-division. Created within defined dwelling space, is a natural necessity resulting from altering dwelling needs
over life span, change in living standards, use of modern household appliances and variation in life style and fashion. The
majority of dwellers face the necessity of enlarging their dwelling space as a result of familial growth. Conducting work
from home and enjoying hobby activity. This process could later be reversed when grown up children leave home and the
need for space is decreased. The possibility to move to another dwelling unit is not always attainable as a result of financial
situation. Social factors and children education. User flexibility is. Therefore, called for to provide dwellers with a variety
of possibilities to sub-divide given dwelling space and use it in the best possible manner" (Karni, 2000).
Figure 6-1: The flexibility of furniture design and space usage
Interior architectural considerations for functionality and flexability
Maximizing the functionality and flexibility of space requires that some important questions be answered by the designer.
Who will be there? What is their lifestyle throughout the course of time? What features and facilities are most important
to them? The differentiation between the multiple building types, whatever residences, workplaces, healthcare facilities,
learning environments, and retail spaces is a vital element of functionality and flexibility considerations. From the
financial point of view, smart functional characteristics are considered an effective way for reducing expenditure
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consuming less products, space and energy. Subsequently, this will be reflected on the psychological state of peoples.
"Maximum & optimum utilization of the interior space requires flexible design of furniture in the space. Many furniture
pieces are designed using folding patterns or drawers included with mechanical or electrical features and this furniture
can the interior space very efficient through ergonomic and human fitness" (Emamgholi, 2011). The following are
examples of architecture and interior architectural considerations with psychological impacts related to functionality and
Apply appropriate design for windows and doors to adopt all diverse physical abilities.
Adopt the concept of one space that can reflect different social functions.
Chose appropriate colors for switches and sockets that contrast with its background to be reached easily.
Equipment such as fans, air conditioning or the fuse box are easy to locate and operate.
Design the living room to accommodate various functions and sizes of group activities.
Sufficient lighting in the kitchen, over bathroom, hand-basin and work areas.
Select a wall system that offers a complete range of options from private space to open plans
In public buildings, the lobby should be broken down into smaller areas, where groups can gather.
Make multiple furniture configurations available.
Ensure that the design provides contemporary technology requirements.
Select durable floors, ceilings and walls finishing materials.
Select durable furniture designs and materials.
Ensure adequate cable interfaces with precise placements to offers appropriate degrees of flexibility.
The kitchen design should incorporate work surfaces for both standing and seated use.
Increase the size of desk tops surfaces and maximize vertical space.
7. The psychological impact of safety and health concerns
One of the main psychological concern of users and residents depends on having homes and settings that are safe and free
from physical hazards. "The quality of housing conditions plays a decisive role in the health status of the residents. Many
health problems are either directly or indirectly related to the building itself, because of the construction materials that
were used and the equipment installed, or the size or design of the individual dwellings. Representing the spatial point of
reference for each individual, the home also has a broad influence on the psychosocial and mental well-being by providing
the basis for place attachment and identity as well as a last refuge from daily life. However, especially, for this mental
dimension of housing satisfaction and the meaning of home to the resident, not much data on the relation between health
and well-being, and subjective satisfaction, and housing perception are available" (Bonnefoy, 2007). Architects and
interior architects share the responsibility with both occupants and administrative authorities with regards to safety and
health considerations of occupants and users according to rules and instructions. The psychological effect of safety and
health care increased when related to children, elder people and people with disabilities. Most Injuries such as fall burns,
and poisonings usually occur at home due to improper architectural design. "There are two common strategies in building
design that are employed to deal with the indoor environmental quality (IAQ). The first one is to improve the indoor air
quality by increasing the ventilation rate, which in turn reduces air pollutant. The second is by reducing the source of
pollution within and outside the building in order to reduce the introduction of pollutants in the indoor air" (Alhorr, 2016).
"A home perceived as safe and intimate provides major psychosocial benefits. It represents a protected refuge from the
outside world, enables the development of a sense of identity and attachment as an individual or as a part of a family,
and provides a space to be oneself. Any intrusion of external factors or stressors strongly limits this feeling of safety,
intimacy, and control, thereby reducing the mental and social function of the home" (Kearns, 2000)."There are many
indoor stressors (e.g. thermal factors, lighting aspects, moisture, mould, noise and vibration, radiation, chemical
compounds, particulates) that can cause their effects additively or through complex interactions (synergistic or
antagonistic). It has been shown that exposure to these stressors can cause both short-term and long-term effects"
(Bluyssen, 2013).
Interior architectural considerations for safety and health concerns
Architects and interior architects have a wide range of options to apply safety and health concerns considerations by
adapting their design to utilize the features of climate environmental conditions through controlling the degree of sun
exposure, temperature, wind, humidity and veneration. They should be aware of the materials they choose for their design,
such as glass, paints, fabric types. the strength of friction as slip resistance. They need to be careful about the causes of
toxicity and pollution that affect indoor air quality for preventing any chemical contamination especially with all types of
paints, fabric and wall floor coverings. They are responsible for applying codes, rules and standards. The following are
examples of architecture and interior architectural considerations with psychological impacts related to health concerns:
Ensure safety fence with secured access to the interior space.
Signs should be useful with adequate size with right orientation and clear text and figures.
Avoid sudden changes of level which could trip people, if they are present, it must be made clearly visible with
contrasting colors.
Convenient entrances, people should be able to safely enter and exit without obstruction.
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Make the floor slip-resistant, non-reflective light, glare-free and easy to clean.
Solid core construction for interior spaces doors.
Enhance the levels of lighting where it’s needed, it should also be easy to control and adjust.
Enhance the implementation of safety practices with technical equipment such as intercom system and security
cameras with monitoring response service.
Stairs should be in appropriate width, right steps dimension, strong handrails and adequate lighting. (Figure 7-1)
The appropriate distribution of appliances in accurate positions such as stoves and air conditioners.
Install automatic smoke detector system.
Choose comfortable and safe furniture with healthy design.
Maximize the daylight availability through opening (windows - doors) dimensions, materials and design.
Figure 7-1: Stairs safety consideration.
8. The psychological impact of accessibility and circulation
Architecture circulation and interior architecture movement and accessibility is a continuous process that we exercise in
our daily life. This process may be as easy as moving from one room to another or as difficult as trying to escape a
building on fire. Efficient navigation through the exteriors and interiors of any space saves physical efforts, enhancing
emotional status and introduce a primary impressions about the overall quality of the architectural design. Circulation
difficulties may cause problems such as loss of time, decreased safety, or causes stress and discomfort. Accessibility and
circulation tasks are affected by two major factors, the architecture and interior architectural design of the space and the
degree of information clearness and accuracy. The impact of accessibility on physical and psychological conditions take
further importance when related to public buildings, particularly public buildings with large complex facilities such as
shopping centers, airports and hospitals. Spaces and buildings must be accessible to all people with special concern to
children, old people and persons with disabilities.
Interior architectural considerations for accessibility and circulation
The designs of interior architectural accessibility and circulation vary according to space type, size, layout and user
requirements. The design of these processes need wide scopes more than putting up signs or just design an entrance. All
routes of both horizontal circulation elements and vertical circulation elements within any space or building should be as
free as possiple of obstacles and
they should be
easy to distinguish. The following are examples of architecture and
interior architectural considerations with psychological impacts related to accessibility and circulation:
Approaches from streets toward a building or space should be leveled, clearly identified, and slip resistant. Figure8-1
Entrances should be clearly defined and furnished with adequate light
Use signs to identify the paths of horizontal and vertical circulation systems.
Lobbies should accommodate visitors with waiting areas and privide information about the space.
Halls and corridors should provide safe and adequate circulation between space units.
Stairs to the upper level should be suitable for people with disabilities.
Elevator should have adequate space in comparison with the volume of use.
Elevator should be visible with wide-angle from entrance.
Lighting plan should illuminate all space parts with suitable and adequate light.
Let room's space design allow access to furniture, storage, windows and appliances.
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Figure 8-1: Approaches should be leveled, clearly identified, slip resistant
9. The psychological impact of outdoor and open spaces
The physiological studies about the outdoors and open spaces indicate that the natural environment can contribute to
reducing anger, anxiety, and helps in relaxation management and improves the overall health outcome. Both visual access
and being actually within a green space helps to improve the ability to focus and increase the level of alertness. Outdoors
and green spaces encourage social contact, leisure and cultural activities by sharing activities with others and enhance the
desire of knowledge. Outdoors and open spaces provide the availability of physical activity like walk and exercise. "Over
the past several decades, research in a variety of fields such as workplaces, hospitals, urban environments, and
experimental laboratories shows that contact with nature generates emotional, physiological, social, and cognitive
benefits. Furthermore, the findings point consistently to the value of particular natural features such as large trees, flowers,
gardens, and water. Studies also show that benefits of nature occur in many ways -- through direct contact (sitting in an
outdoor garden), indirect contact (through a window view), and from simulations using nature decor such as posters or
paintings" (Heerwagen, 2006).
Interior architectural considerations for outdoors and open spaces
Outdoor and open spaces are a broad term covering a wide range of residential and areas. It’s important to recognize that
the psychological consideration of inhabitant's usage of outdoor and open spaces in private spaces like houses and homes
vary from those in public spaces. The designer needs to understand and evaluate the opportunities available for his or her
space to utilize every positive option of environmental conditions and nature like sun, air, and greening.
Create visual harmony between the indoor spaces and outdoors spaces.
Appropriate fence design, with regards to form, height, and the degree of transparency with exterior spaces
Ensure that entrances, openness and pathways enable people to move freely, Figure 9-1.
Ground surfaces should be a mix of hard and soft surfaces according to the nature of use.
Electrical and network interfaces should be available with easy to use potential technology.
Design should be planned to minimize negative factors like exterior noise and smoke.
Sufficient night-time lighting to enhance safety, security and ensure efficient usage of space.
Design should be planned to enhance the visibility degree.
Vegetation with colored flowers and leaves provide an attractive view.
Design should provide multiple sitting areas and cooking facilities, Figure 9-2.
The selection of outdoor furniture should depend on their strength, durability, beauty and appropriate formation.
Figure 9-1: Pathways enable peoples move freely Figure9-2: Multiple sitting areas and cooking facilities
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10.The psychological impact of the aesthetic aspect
Aesthetics play an essential role in the emotional satisfaction of users and residents when it comes to the architecture and
interior architectural design. It’s directly associated with human pleasure and spirit. The success of interior architecture
designers to reach the aesthetics of a space depends on the degree by which he or she understands human sensitivity to
beauty and expression perception. "Settings and traditional towns are examples of pleasant atmospheres often arising
from aesthetically rather uninteresting units. Such urban atmospheres are most often created by specific materiality, scale,
rhythm, color or formal theme with variations"( Pallasmaa, 2014). Aesthetics are defined by each individual, each family,
each group and each society. As a result, the aesthetical status of space will function properly when we investigate
inhabitant's definitions of beauty and consider their vision. This investigation should include the foundation of local
traditions, the present community and aspirations for future. "Aesthetic appreciation is both expressed in and influenced
by the environment. To define aesthetic qualities, the designer needs to understand that the concept of beauty differs with
time and place, purpose and context. Values captured under the label "aesthetic" can best be understood at a universally
comprehensible level. These aspects of a design go beyond the functional and constructional concerns, and are associated
with the specific way the design presents itself to the human senses" (Cheung, 1997).
Interior architectural considerations for the aesthetic aspect
Interior architectural designers express the aesthetics and beauty of a certain space through using the main factors that
influence the implementation of aesthetics and beauty (form - texture - color - light). "Forms are constructed from points,
lines, planes, surfaces and volumes that are made richer by texture, color and material. In combination, these elements of
form create a design, and similarly all of these elements contribute to our perception of its meaning. The designer could
be cast in the role of a communicator whose messages to the user concern the symbolic qualities of products. Just as a
journalist creates informative messages from a vocabulary of terms, so could a designer be thought of as having a
collection of forms at his disposal with which he creates arrangements that can be understood as a whole in their essential
parts and that are usable by a receiver because of this communicated understanding" (Mothersill, 2014). Every surface
has its texture which can be smooth or rough, glossy or unpolished, bumpy or flat. Textural contrast sensibility has its
direct impact on the mind based on our memory of touching similar surfaces. The impression of color is categorized
within the maximum impact of space factors that interact with the psychological mood. Light can be used to achieve
emotional responses. We can produce certain moods such as restfulness, activity, warmth, and coolness through using
lighting patterns of varying levels of illumination. The following are examples of architecture and interior architecture
considerations with psychological impacts related to the aesthetic aspect:
Create forms that express the user's meanings and preference.
Maximize the use of natural lights in compatible balance with artificial light.
Feasible utilization of modern materials that display a flowing and multilayered curves construction.
Estimate the appropriate contrast between floor, walls and ceilings.
Consider the flexibility and level of illumination for specific tasks.
Understand the impact of each color on the human psychological mood.
Choose color plans based on the analysis of color preferences of users and residents.
Appropriate geometric lines and ornamental decorations.
Display interesting artworks, photos and other personal items.
Ensure convenient relations between the major pieces of furniture, walls, and floors regarding the size and balance.
Find a balance between unity and variety, too much unity without variety is boring and too much variation without
unity is confusing.
The scope of the mutual relation between interior architecture and human psychology is so wide, that is due to the multiple
interaction with social, cultural, physical and environmental factors. Most studies about the interaction between interior
architectural design and the psychological status of people are comparatively a contemporary approach, a detailed
understanding still needs to be refined. The successful design for achieving welfare and happiness of interior architecture
depends on how the designer finds a balance between the most dominant factors such as identity, privacy, safety,
accessibility, functionality, flexibility, community interaction, and the provision of adequate space, should be given due
weight. Ultimately the success of setting up interior architectural design with active psychological conception judged by
how the design fulfills values, needs, preferences and satisfactions of users. The main question is, what are the designers'
experience, qualifications and imagination about the various factors of interior architecture that affect human psychology
and behavior.
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... Users are the main object using the interior space, which "Humanized design is the unity of human and design, which emphasizes not only the functions, forms and significance of space but takes people in the indoor environment as the only criterion to decide, create and judge a space" (Fan, 2016(Fan, , p. 1126. Mahmoud (2017) and Kaup, Kim, & Dudek (2013) mentioned the comfort human zone in the interior space could be affected by the culture, social, physical environment, and psychological factors. The flexibility of the furniture has a role in the interior space value. ...
... The flexibility of the furniture has a role in the interior space value. The researcher explained the relationship between architecture and interior design, which both should consider the human needs in the design process (Mahmoud, 2017). However, architecture circulation and interior architecture movement and accessibility is a continuous process that we exercise in requirements. ...
... All routes of both horizontal circulation elements and vertical circulation elements within any space or building should be as free as possible of obstacles and they should be easy to distinguish. Moreover, the aesthetic aspect had mentioned as a necessary aspect in the comfortable interior space (Mahmoud, 2017;Sorrento, 2012). ...
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The interior space in the educational building has a role in the sustainability of using that building, which students are the main users of that space. Unfortunately, this space is the results of designing the building. However, designers should give more effort to design these spaces according to users and function needs. The architecture and interior design linked the users’ needs to space. The study focuses on the interior space of architectural engineering departments, university of Mosul as a case study. The research question of the current study is “what are the sustainable factors that can make the interior space liveable in the educational spaces”. Therefore, the study approach is quantitative, using survey and VGA image analysis. The sampling follows the random method for those students that used the space. The results show that factors are related to the environment and design systems. The area and volume are not important to the students. However, the interior design elements and movement system show the high impact on users’ behaviour. The architectural space should respond to the needs of the function and users to create a liveable space within educational space.
... Rengel (2016) asserted that a good interior environmental design should combine both functionality and aesthetics. Mahmoud (2017) described that visitors' pleasures from the atmosphere can be created by properly arranging the design elements: shapes, textures, colors and lights. Furthermore, Zumthor (2006) explained that different senses from hot or cold temperature, smells of food, sounds of people talking or wind blowing, or even the silence from noise protection inside the room can arouse different feelings as well. ...
... Our conceptual framework is based on the following: perceptible environmental elements in the atmosphere (space, furniture, equipment, lights, and air) in the idea of Zumthor (2006), Pallasmaa (2014), and Mahmoud (2017); the theory of perceived stimuli in the environment of Russell (1980); positive environmental elements by using various colours and shapes reported by Wright (2018) and Wang & Zhang (2016); positive feelings evoked by color lights in a study by Abbas (2006); positive feelings evoked by background music in the atmosphere, an idea of Herrmann (2009); human, physical, and external factors derived from the concept of finding evidence for design programming of Palmer (1981); combining all environmental elements according to functionality and aesthetics expounded by Rengel (2016); and the concepts of the 5 aspects of a place mentioned above set forth by Craik (1971). The design and development of the interior environment of a leisure learning area in the National Gallery of Thailand was done in 2 steps: design and assessment of the design. ...
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The aim of this research study was to design and assess the design of the interior environment for a leisure learning area in the National Gallery of Thailand. The study used a combined quantitative and qualitative methodologies: interviewing the curator, 2 staff members, and the executive director of the National Gallery of Thailand; a physical survey of areas in the gallery; and a questionnaire survey of users’ preferences of art activity area. The survey of users’ preferences was conducted with a sample group of 600 potential users who were randomly and systematically sampled from a population of first-year students majoring in applied arts in several governmentally-supported universities in Bangkok. The obtained data on the designs that were based on the concept of functional and aesthetic design and a ‘circumplex model of affect’ in cognitive theory were analyzed accordingly. The preliminary designs were three arrangement patterns of environmental elements that provided positive stimuli: 1) a pattern for low level of stimuli; 2) one for moderate level; and 3) one for high level of stimuli. These patterns are illustrated in this paper as a layout plan and 3 computer-generated 3D perspectives that were assessed by 10 design experts on a 1-5 Likert rating scale. The means and standard deviations achieved by the 3 patterns indicated that the patterns for medium level and high level of stimuli was of a very high quality with ̄X = 4.5, SD = 0.14 and ̄X = 4.59, SD = 0.19, respectively. In other words, both patterns were active, functional, aesthetically-pleasing, and proper overall designs for the environmental interior of the intended area in the National Gallery of Thailand.
... The quality of the space in the present study in represented in the settings of the interior space, which including the rules, elements, and factors of the interior space. The interior architecture elements can affect the quality of the space through the physical components (Mahmoud, 2017). The quality of interior space is connected to the quality of the elements, which is used to achieve the cultural and traditions needs. ...
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The interior design of the Islamic style in traditional cites included tangible and intangible influences, which organized the interior space according to the needs of the users and following the rules of Islam as a religion and cultural values. The quality of the interior space referred to the three points, the Rules, Elements, and Factors. However, the designers face difficulties in designing an interior space within the Islamic style. The studies in the Islamic interior design show the elements and component of the style, but few of these studies analyze in depth the quality of this style, especially, heritage houses. The research question of the current study is "What are the original components, rules, and factors that reflect the quality of the interior design of the Islamic style". The aim of the study is to identify these components, rules, and factors as a guideline. The study used a mixed methodology; the qualitative mode used the in-depth interview with experts selected by purposeful sampling technique. While the quantitative mode used a checklist to observe the visual analysis of the interior space of the selected buildings. The selected building was chosen under special criteria depending on the heritage value and availability of information. The results showed that the quality of interior design reflected by the level of the details of the interior elements. However, 72% of samples reflected the originality of the design. The quality of interior space in traditional and heritage houses in old Mosul City related to the details of the interior elements, such as materials.
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The concept of privacy, personal space, territoriality, and crowding are central to the study of environment and behavior relationships. Each has received increasing attention by social scientists and environmental designers in the past decades for somewhat d ifferent reasons. The study of crowding has been spurred on by a burgeoning world population, and some experts are predicting ecological doom as more and more people consume decreasing resources and as pollution of air, water and other natural resources increases. Some social and behavioral scientists believe because of the interpersonal stresses that occur fro m too much contact with too many people. It is likely that research on the areas of crowding, personal space, privacy and their relationship to the built environ ment will probably increase in the coming decades.
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Much more than a building: Reclaiming the Legacy of the Bibliotheca Alexandrina By Ismail Serageldin Alexandria, Egypt: Bibliotheca Alexandrina, c2007 – ISBN 978-977-6163, DDC 027.0621
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We find environmental psychology at the intersection between architecture and psychology. This article discusses the ways in which individuals are affected by architecture, departing from an early source on the psychology of architecture and taking three architectural examples as illustrations: a public place in Berlin, a health environment in Sweden, and a fitness centre in Denmark. Each of these architectural examples creates what might be called its own psychological emotions, and these are analysed and discussed using a psychodynamic and existential attempt to understand the interrelationship between individuals and spatial reality. A health oriented existential approach is used as a methodological basis to conceptualise the psychological effects of various forms of architecture.
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In recent years there have been major advances in the science of complex systems that are clearly relevant for the theory and practice of design. It is now recognised that the objects of most domains are "complex systems", including natural systems, social systems and artificial systems. The science of complex systems cuts across the particular domains, seeking principles and methods that can be applied to complex systems in general. Science is increasingly concerned with what 'could be', as an extension of what 'is'. For example, biology blurs the distinction between a dispassionate study of plants and animals, and the desire to apply the knowledge gained to medicine, industry, agriculture and ecosystem management. Increasingly science is motivated by the need design and manage complex socio-technical systems whose behaviour depends on interactions between physical laws and human behaviour. Science is increasingly concerned with the artificial and the synthetic, and the science of complex systems is increasingly motivated by design.
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In early stages of architectural design, as in other design domains, the language used is often very abstract. In architectural design, for example, architects and their clients use experiential terms such as "private" or "open" to describe spaces. If we are to build programs that can help designers during this early-stage design, we must give those programs the capability to deal with concepts on the level of such abstractions. The work reported in this thesis sought to do that, focusing on two key questions: How are abstract terms such as "private" and "open" translated into physical form? How might one build a tool to assist designers with this process? The Architect's Collaborator (TAC) was built to explore these issues. It is a design assistant that supports iterative design refinement, and that represents and reasons about how experiential qualities are manifested in physical form. Given a starting design and a set of design goals, TAC explores the space of possible designs in search of solutions that satisfy the goals. It employs a strategy we've called dependency-directed redesign: it evaluates a design with respect to a set of goals, then uses an explanation of the evaluation to guide proposal and refinement of repair suggestions; it then carries out the repair suggestions to create new designs. A series of experiments was run to study TAC's behavior. Issues of control structure, goal set size, goal order, and modification operator capabilities were explored. In addition, TAC's use as a design assistant was studied in an experiment using a house in the process of being redesigned. TAC's use as an analysis tool was studied in an experiment using Frank Lloyd Wright's Prairie houses.
Once we believe in ourselves, we can risk curiosity, wonder, spontaneous delight, or any experience that reveals the human spirit.