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Blended Synchronous Learning-A Handbook for Educators Blended synchronous learning: a handbook for educators

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The Blended Synchronous Learning Handbook is the primary output of the Blended Synchronous Learning Project. It includes the summative findings of the Blended Synchronous Learning case studies, a Blended Synchronous Learning Design Framework, and a range of other resources and information to support blended synchronous learning design research and practice.
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... However, the crucial findings are that the success stories of the blended learning approach were from studies on the learning satisfaction of local (European) students (Francis & Shannon, 2013;Johnson et al., 2016;Prasad et al., 2018). Bower et al. (2014) believed that changes are needed to the existing blended learning to include skilful integration of online and face-to-face teaching materials and ensure purposeful design to address the special needs of learners. Chang and Cheung (2001) have identified a challenge to blended learning due to the barriers to international students' full acceptance of technology (see also Kennedy et al., 2008). ...
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Although the pedagogy of blended learning in higher education has been well-accepted since 2000, its dimension has been changing, mainly due to the incessant technological innovations. The impact recorded on students’ experience has been reliant on various factors. Some of these factors are cultural diversity, technical abilities, level of organisational support, language difficulties, educational background, learning environment, and instructional design, among others. In this study, the acceptance and use of technology by international MBA students have been reassessed in the blended learning environment. The motivation for the selection of the cohort of international MBA students as a sample was to enable the inclusion of diversity as one of the focal points of the study. A two-cycle model of action research was adopted to reassess the use of technology and compare the attainment of learning outcomes between the blended and traditional learning approaches. Moreover, multiple regressions were employed using the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) to test the significance of each variable collected from the survey on the students’ learning experience and engagement. Our results have suggested that students’ engagement is determined by positive learning experience without any bias toward traditional or blended learning approach. Students’ age group was found to be relevant in the determination of behavioural intention, social influence, effort expectancy, performance expectancy and facilitating conditions towards the effective use of technology and blended learning. Students’ gender was an irrelevant factor in the success of a blended learning approach.
... More recently, a number of other authors have subdivided blended learning into blended synchronous and blended asynchronous learning (Bower et al., 2014;Wang, Choon & Hu, 2017). A blended synchronous learning environment is one in which the same lesson is delivered simultaneously to both classroom and online students while in a blended asynchronous environment, a face-to-face session is carried out in the physical classroom and another is delivered online via technologies such as a learning management system (Wang, Choon & Hu, 2017). ...
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Thanks, in part, to the rapid development and widespread adoption of the Internet and other online technologies, academic institutions are increasingly using analytics to enhance learning and teaching. Through the use of data mining techniques, this study examines some of the determinants at a course level that affect the academic performance of adult learners (which we will refer to as students in this paper) in the Singapore University of Social Sciences (SUSS). Formerly known as SIM University, SUSS is an institution that caters mainly to the learning needs of working adults although it offers a number of full-time undergraduate degree programmes to fresh school leavers. The data analysis found that students taking introductory blended courses performed better than those who took face-to-face courses of the same level. Furthermore, students of similar age taking level-2 courses outperformed students taking similar courses where the age difference was more significant. The findings indicate that no single optimal course design will lead to improved academic performance across all courses. Instead, educators should be ready to consider the nature, level, discipline and coursework component of each course to cater to the various students’ needs.
... Online learning platforms use internet technology and amass massive learning resources, producing a large amount of learning information after integration. However, this integration is not very effective (Bower et al., 2014), resulting in a significant amount of redundancy and repetition of online learning and traditional classroom learning information. When the amount of information that needs to be handled exceeds students' processing ability, students cannot effectively integrate, absorb, and utilize the information, leading to information overload (Karr-Wisniewski & Lu, 2010). ...
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The rapid development and extensive application of information and communication technologies has facilitated blended instruction, which is regarded as the “new normal” in the field of modern education and has become the focus of academic research. This study thus explored the influencing mechanism of blended instruction on students’ learning effectiveness from the perspective of complementarity and conflict with the support of flow. This study collected 349 survey data from universities in Southwest China that adopted a blended instruction mode and analyzed them using the structural equation model. The results demonstrated that complementary advantages and practical conflicts in blended instruction influenced students’ flow experience during the learning process. Flow experience plays an important role in blended instruction and influences positively students’ cognitive, emotional, and behavioral engagement. Learning engagement impacted positively students’ learning effectiveness. In addition, self-efficacy positively moderated the relationship between students’ learning engagement and learning effectiveness in blended instruction. These findings contribute to related research on blended instruction. The implications and limitations of this study are discussed.
... Les recherches pionnières sur le sujet datent du début des années 2000, et s'intensifient après 2010 (Raes et al., 2020). Le Blended Synchronous Learning Project mené en Australie et la Nouvelle Zélande à partir de 2011 témoigne de la richesse des expérimentations et de la recherche sur le bimodal sous forme de vidéo-conférences, voire de mondes virtuels (Bower et al., 2014). Dès 2020, avec les risques sanitaires liés à la pandémie Covid-19, les offres de cours en bimodal explosent. ...
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Abstract. This article provides feedback from students (N=152) and faculty (N=11) who experienced a semester of concurrent bimodal instruction, choosing between participating on campus or at a distance. Distance was overwhelmingly chosen for organizational reasons and on campus for social reasons. No favouritism was perceived by the students on the part of the teachers. Students who tested both modalities said they were more active in presence than at a distance, yet these same students felt that the learning activities were more varied when they were at a distance. Students were generally satisfied with the experience, especially those on campus. The teaching teams were also satisfied with their experience. However, simultaneous bimodal teaching creates a complex interactional space. It offers new opportunities such as multiple communication channels, but also challenges, such as managing technology, relationships with distance students, and preparation for two modalities. Finally, some teachers felt a loss of control compared to the relatively self-contained space of the traditional classroom. Résumé. Cet article croise les regards d'étudiants (N=152) et d'enseignants (N=11) ayant vécu une expérience d'enseignement bimodal simultané (sur le campus ou à distance) durant un semestre. La distance est massivement choisie pour des raisons organisationnelles et le campus pour des raisons sociales. Aucun favoritisme de la part des enseignants n'a été perçu par les étudiants. Les étudiants ayant testé les deux modalités se disent plus actifs en présence qu'à distance, néanmoins ils ont davantage l'impression que les activités d'apprentissage sont variées quand ils sont à distance. La plupart des étudiants sont satisfaits de l'expérience, en particulier les présents. Les équipes enseignants sont également satisfaites de leur expérience. Cependant le bimodal simultané crée un espace interactionnel complexe. Il offre de nouvelles possibilités telles que les multiples canaux de communication, mais aussi des défis, tels que la gestion de la technologie et des relations avec les étudiants à distance, et la préparation pour deux modalités. Enfin, certains enseignants ont ressenti une perte de contrôle par rapport à l'unité d'espace que représente une salle de classe traditionnelle.
... En même temps, certains travaux ont mis en évidence les caractéristiques d'un enseignement « efficace » intégrant du distanciel (Amadieu & Tricot, 2014) Une des principales caractéristiques de l'enseignement hybride est la souplesse sur plusieurs plans : une plus grande accessibilité à la formation universitaire (CSE, 2015), moins de contraintes espace-temps (Bédard & Pelletier, 2013), une meilleure gestion étude-travail-vie personnelle (Bower et al., 2014), un bon dosage interactions humaines-interactions technologiques (Endrizzi, 2012). Cette souplesse dépend du degré d'hybridité d'un cours. ...
Conference Paper
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Ce texte présente les fondements et méthodes mobilisés dans l’élaboration de dispositifs collaboratifs d’un nouveau genre : les Ingénieries Hybrides Didactiques Cliniques Coopératives (IHD2C). Cette création originale postule le pari d’une compatibilité épistémologique et méthodologique de plusieurs ancrages scientifiques : la didactique clinique et ses trois phases méthodologiques : déjà-là, épreuve et après-coup (Carnus, Terrisse, 2013), l’ingénierie didactique et son protocole en quatre phases : analyses préalables, conception et analyse a priori, expérimentation, analyse a posteriori et validation interne (Artigue, 1990) et enfin l’ingénierie didactique coopérative (Sensevy, 2011, 2016).
Chapter
Die Corona-Pandemie hat Hochschulen in die digitale Lehre und bereits vorhandene, bis dahin wenig genutzte digitale Tools, in den Fokus der Lehre gerückt. Meist vollzog sich hier ein ad-hoc-Start der virtuellen Lehrformate, die einige Herausforderungen, aber auch viele Chancen mit sich brachten. Eruiert man die Chancen, die sich aus einer stärker digital orientierten Welt für die Zukunft der Lehre ergeben, zeigt sich, dass die zeitliche und räumliche Flexibilität steigt und dadurch auch zukünftig starre Strukturen aufgebrochen werden können. Die Kombination der Neuerungen und der traditionellen Lehr-/Lernformate bieten das Potenzial, personalisierte Lehr-/Lernszenarien zu entwickeln. Aus der Erweiterung der digitalen Kompetenzen ergeben sich neue Kommunikations- und Austauschformate. Eine der größten Herausforderungen ist es, die Chancen zu erkennen und adäquat zu nutzen, um etwaige individuelle und hochschulspezifische Hürden zu überwinden. Der Beitrag betrachtet sowohl die Chancen als auch Herausforderungen und erarbeitet anhand dieser Anregungen für die Hochschulbildung der Zukunft.
Conference Paper
The past years have triggered the established blended learning format to develop into other kinds of online teaching formats, with, for example, combinations of a/synchronous learning with more flexible (co-)location requirements for teachers and students. This has led to a renewed exploration of ways to ensure accessible and life-long learning through developed educational practices. Comparing online education formats can be challenging but is necessary. Building on case study methodology, the objective of this study was to explore online learning situations (n = 21): Asynchronous Distance Education (ADE) (n = 15) and (synchronous) Emergency Remote Teaching (ERT) (n = 6), to develop a method to systematically analyse and evaluate different formats of online education using engagement theory. To do so, a schema was developed through which visual representations of learning situations were analysed. Results show that visual representations of learning situations enable nuanced comparisons across different formats of online education. Analysis reveals that the format of education affects the conditions under which the teacher more readily facilitates student engagement and that asynchronous and synchronous formats supported different nuances of engagement.KeywordsVisual representationVisual displayMethod EngagementLearning design
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This study aims to investigate Jordanian EFL Learners' perceptions of the utility of synchronous and asynchronous online instruction in foreign language education. Following a quasi-experimental research in which four groups of Jordanian ninth-grade students were taught face-to-face and synchronously, asynchronously, and both synchronously and asynchronously online, respectively, the sixty students who constituted the three experimental groups responded to a 30-item questionnaire 1 in the first semester of the academic year 2021/2022. The findings revealed highly favorable perceptions of synchronous online instruction, and moderately favorable perceptions of both asynchronous and combined synchronous and asynchronous online instruction. Pedagogical implications and recommendations are put forth.
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https://lenguasmodernas.uchile.cl/index.php/LM/article/view/66437/69926 // Resumen: En el contexto de pandemia global ocasionada por la COVID-19, la enseñanza universitaria se ha orientado enormemente hacia el uso de las nuevas tecnologías para contrarrestar las limitaciones asociadas a la presencialidad en un panorama educativo con asistencia del alumnado por turnos, aislamiento por contacto o enfermedad e imposibilidad de desplazamiento por cierres perimetrales. El presente trabajo describe la adaptación de la asignatura "Interpretación en el ámbito sanitario. Inglés-español" hacia un entorno bimodal para el curso 2020/2021 del Máster CITISP de la Universidad de Alcalá (Madrid, España). Con este objetivo, se describe la transformación de la impartición teórica de contenidos y estrategias, el desarrollo de actividades prácticas y la prueba de evaluación final. Así, se pretenden revisar las ventajas e inconvenientes de esta experiencia docente y proponer mejoras que puedan servir como buenas prácticas en propuestas futuras orientadas a explotar las posibilidades didácticas de la bimodalidad en la interpretación sanitaria y, por extensión, la TISP. // Abstract: In the context of the global pandemic resulting from COVID-19, teaching at the university has relied massively on new technologies to counter the capacity limitations of onsite attendance in an education environment where students had to take turns to attend class, with lockdowns for those who tested positive or had contact with someone who did and with other mobility restrictions imposed by the authorities. This article describes the process of adapting the subject entitled “Healthcare interpreting: English-Spanish” to a bimodal education model in the 2020/2021 academic year of the Master’s Degree in Intercultural Communication and Public Service Interpreting and Translation of the University of Alcalá (Madrid, Spain). To this end, the authors describe the transformation of the subject’s theoretical content and strategies, the implementation of practical activities and the final exam. Thus, it reflects on the advantages and disadvantages of this teaching experience to suggest improvements that may serve as a basis for good practices in future endeavors that will explore the possibilities of bimodal education in healthcare interpreting and, consequently, PSIT or community interpreting.
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ABSTRACT During the autumn 2020 semester, UniDistance Suisse, experimented a new synchronous hybrid class format in five modules as an experiment to better understand its value and the challenges it presents for a distance learning university with a diverse student body. At the end of the semester, we collected data from both the students and teaching teams, offering a rich understanding from the different points of view. Students were asked to respond to an online survey about the reasons for their choice of mode of participation (in person, online or not at all) and their learning experience. We also carried out semi-structured interviews with the teaching teams, focusing on two main topics: the technological aspects of synchronous hybrid teaching, and the pedagogical experience. Overall, both in-presence and online students felt they were engaged and treated in the same way, although they did not experience all aspects of the module in the same way (variety of activities, sense of belonging). They were all generally satisfied with their learning experience, which could be explained through engagement and cognitive consistency theories. From the teachers’ perspective, the technological setup was a challenge and required a sharing of tasks between the professor and assistant. Simple technological solutions and strong support are essential. Although it was the preferred teaching solution for all interviewees given the circumstances, synchronous hybrid teaching creates a complex interactional space. Teachers experience a high cognitive load as well as the feeling of a loss of control compared to the traditional classroom.
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This study explores students' choices of verbal and text interaction in a synchronous Live Virtual Classroom (LVC) environment that mixed onsite and online learners. Data were collected from analysis of recorded LVC sessions and post-course interviews with students in two different offerings of a graduate instructional design course that used Adobe Connect as a live virtual classroom. Students could choose whether to participate onsite in a computer classroom or "live" online using Connect. Over the course of both semesters students increasingly chose to participate online and, overall, students chose to participate online (57%) morethan onsite (43%). However, some students-especially international students-preferred to participate onsite even though it was less convenient and also meant that they were more likely to be "called on" for verbal responses. Analysis ofLVC recordings andpost-course interviews showed that text interaction in which students asked questions or made comments in the LVC chat box during the instructor'slectures was a preferred mode of interaction for students when they were participating both online and onsite. The emergent pedagogical strategy of integrated text interaction during lecture suggests a benefit of synchronous online learning.
Article
Every day, teachers design and test new ways of teaching, using learning technology to help their students. Sadly, their discoveries often remain local. By representing and communicating their best ideas as structured pedagogical patterns, teachers could develop this vital professional knowledge collectively
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The purpose of this case study was to determine the feasibility of delivering a course on-campus and in real time, simultaneously transmitting it to students who were remotely accessing the same course. In future years, it is anticipated that universities will have inadequate physical facilities to meet the demands of an increasing student population. Additionally, with warnings of impending pandemics, universities need to be prepared to deliver courses in alternative ways to ensure continuity of instruction. Thus, this pilot project was designed to deliver a course to a large section of students while also allowing off-campus students access to the course in real time. The planning and delivery of the course is described, including the technology used, the support provided by the university and technology support staff, the course that was used for the pilot project, and how students were selected to participate as the off-campus students. The perspectives of the instructor, teaching assistant, students (both on- and off-campus), and technology support personnel are summarized.
Article
Higher education students can and do take courses delivered in a variety of ways. But, to date, little research has been done on the effectiveness of different delivery modes. This study sought to fill that void by comparing the effectiveness of three undergraduate course delivery modes: classroom, online, and video conference at a technical institute in a mid-Atlantic state. Students (N = 1,206) and faculty (N = 160) completed questionnaires on effectiveness, in terms of satisfaction, for each mode. The questionnaire response rates were 74% for students and 86% for faculty. In terms of student satisfaction, the results revealed that classroom delivery was more effective than technologically delivery with online being slightly more effective than video conference. The same results were found for faculty satisfaction. The results of this research should assist leaders in higher education to understand the benefits associated with different undergraduate course delivery modes. In addition, by developing and testing a framework that can be used for estimating effectiveness of different delivery methods, the study provides leaders with a useful tool for securing and applying this type of information when making decisions about the modes best suited to serve their academic communities.