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Allicin and Health: A comprehensive review

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Abstract

Background: Allicin is an organosulfur and defensive compound found in garlic (Allium sativum L.) and other Allium species. Its unique odor is easily detectable, and its effects on human health have been studied since ancient times. Scope and approach: In this compressive review we report the presence of allicin in different Allium species, their biosynthesis, pharmacokinetics, absorption, and safety profile. Among the main allicin applications highlight its antimicrobial and antiparasitic properties, reviewed in the present work from in vitro evidence and in vivo studies. Finally, special attention was also given to the allicin state of the art in human health, including in vitro and in vivo assays, and clinical trials, on antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic and immunomodulatory effects, besides to its contribution as a cardioprotective agent. Key findings and conclusions: The promising capacity of allicin to interact with thiol groups seems to be directly related to its antimicrobial potential, showing both antibacterial and antifungal activities. Allicin also displayed an interesting potential in the prevention and treatment of several diseases including diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Indeed, its antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects are some of the mechanisms that may explain their biological activities. Future applications should be directed to allicin pharmaceutical formulation, its delivery and its compatibility with food matrices and other drugs due to allicin biosynthesis, instability, reactivity, and volatility.

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... When garlic is broken, sulfoxide compounds contact with alliinase to form hyposulfonic acid, and the two hyposulfonic acid molecules spontaneously form thiosulfinates by dehydration condensation. The content of allicin is the highest, accounting for 70%-80% (w/w) of thiosulfinates, which is the cause of typical pungent odor of garlic (Salehi et al. 2019). Thiosulfinates are unstable in the nature (Santhosha, Jamuna, and Prabhavathi 2013), and can be instantly decomposed in vitro to form other compounds, such as DADS, DAS, diallyl tetrasulfide (DATTS), DATS, allyl methyl sulfide (AMS), dipropyl disulfide (DPDS), allyl methyl trisulfide (AMTS), allyl methyl disulfide (AMDS), 2vinyl-4H-1,3-dithiin, E-ajoene, 3-vinyl-4H-1,2-dithiin and Zajoene (Amagase et al. 2001;Salehi et al. 2019). ...
... The content of allicin is the highest, accounting for 70%-80% (w/w) of thiosulfinates, which is the cause of typical pungent odor of garlic (Salehi et al. 2019). Thiosulfinates are unstable in the nature (Santhosha, Jamuna, and Prabhavathi 2013), and can be instantly decomposed in vitro to form other compounds, such as DADS, DAS, diallyl tetrasulfide (DATTS), DATS, allyl methyl sulfide (AMS), dipropyl disulfide (DPDS), allyl methyl trisulfide (AMTS), allyl methyl disulfide (AMDS), 2vinyl-4H-1,3-dithiin, E-ajoene, 3-vinyl-4H-1,2-dithiin and Zajoene (Amagase et al. 2001;Salehi et al. 2019). There are a small amount of SAC and S-allylmercaptocysteine (SAMC) in the bulb, which are also produced by the catabolism of GSAC (Amagase et al. 2001;Suleria et al. 2015). ...
... Garlic is resistant to fungi, bacteria, viruses and parasites (Salehi et al. 2019). The antibacterial components in garlic are mainly allicin and sulfur-containing compounds including DAS, DADS and ajoene. ...
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This review highlights main bioactive compounds and important biological functions especially anticancer effects of the garlic. In addition, we review current literature on the stability and bioavailability of garlic components. Finally, this review aims to provide a potential strategy for using nanotechnology to increase the stability and solubility of garlic components, providing guidelines for the qualities of garlic products to improve their absorption and prevent their early degradation, and extend their circulation time in the body. The application of nanotechnology to improve the bioavailability and targeting of garlic compounds are expected to provide a theoretical basis for the functional components of garlic to treat human health. We review the improvement of bioavailability and bioactivity of garlic bioactive compounds via nanotechnology, which could promisingly overcome the limitations of conventional garlic products, and would be used to prevent and treat cancer and other diseases in the near future.
... Allicin (diallyl thiosulfinate) is a natural organosulphur thiosulphinate compound found in the garlic (Allium sativum L.) extract and it is a reaction product of the substrate alliin and enzyme allinase. The reaction can only take place when the garlic bulbs undergo external mechanical damage [2]. Allicin is one of the widely consumed natural products because it is recognized for its multi-functional physiologically properties and numerous health benefits [3]. ...
... Allicin is one of the widely consumed natural products because it is recognized for its multi-functional physiologically properties and numerous health benefits [3]. Allicin exhibits a vast variety of biological functions such as antithrombotic, antioxidant, immune enhancer, blood pressure regulator, cholesterol controller, antibacterial (including multidrug resistant strains) and antimalignancy properties [2,4]. Moreover, allicin activates the Nrf2 protein which is beneficial for reducing oxidative stresses during cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases [5]. ...
... So far, the studies on the application of the ultrasound in combination with non-ionic miceller solution for the extraction of phytochemicals especially allicin for achieving greater yield and stability is very rare. This field of study is still in its infancy and needs to be explored due to allicin's worldwide increasing demand [2,5,27]. ...
Article
Allicin is a bioactive phytochemical and a defense imitative compound of Allium sativum. Allicin's multidirectional health benefits (anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anticancer etc.) have drawn several research interests in the recent years. The present investigation demonstrates an indigenous sustainable hybrid extraction strategy, where a nonionic polysorbate surfactant based micellar solvent system was formulated and applied along with ultrasonication for intensifying the extraction of phytodrug allicin from garlic. The results revealed that at the optimized conditions of various process parameters viz., temperature 30°C, pH 7, ionic concentration of 1 mM Mg²⁺, solvent:clove ratio at 10:1 (ml/g), ultrasonic amplitude of 40%, duty cycle 80%, time 60 min, 0.07 mM tween 80 surfactant concentration, maximum extraction efficiency of the allicin (4.33 mg/g of clove) from fresh garlic were obtained. Further, this hybrid method was able to increase the final yield of allicin by ∼2.5 fold compared to the conventional type extraction. The micelle system reduced the loss of allicin due to degradation by ∼15%. Finally, the antibacterial assay reveals that this hybrid extraction process can uphold the bioactivity of the phytodrug allicin. Thus, this proposed method can be considered as suitable, effective and sustainable strategy to extract allicin.
... Hence, allicin is not well applied in practice. Allicin is almost fully decomposed at 80 • C, and the whole process only takes 30 min (Salehi et al., 2019). In chipped fresh garlic, the half-life of allicin at room temperature is only 2.5 d (Gruhlke et al., 2019). ...
... There are many factors affecting the stability of allicin, including temperature, light, pH, vacuum etc. Reportedly, allicin molecules at high temperature are prone to β-elimination reaction, inducing disulfide bond breakage and finally leading to decomposition to form S-containing compounds. It is almost fully decomposed at 80 • C and the whole process only takes 30 min (Salehi et al., 2019). After heating at 80 • C for 1 h, however, at least 9.2% is reserved, and the retention rate after ultrasound is over 10% (Fig. 7c). ...
Article
The processing instability and strong pungent smell limit the use of allicin. To overcome these shortcomings, emulsion gels loaded with allicin were constructed using soybean protein isolate (SPI) and gum Arabic (GA) through transglutaminase (TG) induction. The effect of ultrasonic modification on SPI and GA concentration on the physical properties of emulsion gels was investigated, and the protective effect of emulsion gel on allicin was evaluated. The results showed that ultrasonic pretreatment of SPI can significantly improve the water holding capacity, hardness, viscosity, and modulus of elasticity of emulsion gels, forming denser homogeneous network structure, and these properties were best when GA concentration was 0.3%. In the process of gel formation, ultrasound can change the spatial structure of protein, the introduction of polysaccharide can enhance the hydrogen bond between molecules, and TG enzyme can promote the intramolecular crosslinking, the three together to form a gel network. The encapsulation efficiency of the ultrasonic SPI-GA emulsion gel can reach 70.84%, while it is only 26.63% for the SPI emulsion gel. The degradation of allicin is inhibited under strong light and high temperature. This study provides a new idea for the development of functional food rich in allicin.
... Allicin is a substance that exhibits a strong antioxidant effect based on free radicals inhibiting [318,320]. It has antifungal and antimicrobic (the antibacterial activity against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains was noticed) properties [319,321,322]. The mechanisms of the biocidal action of the substance are not well known so far, but literature reports show that the formation of allylsulfide compounds changes l-cysteine, which is a free amino acid [318]. ...
... Cellulose nanoparticles doped with allicin exhibit antimicrobial properties which suggest that this complex could Fig. 13 Chemical structure of allicin [319] Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved. ...
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The article presents a literature review of the plant origin natural compounds with biocidal properties. These compounds could be used as modifiers of biodegradable materials. Modification of polymer material is one of the basic steps in its manufacturing process. Biodegradable materials play a key role in the current development of materials engineering. Natural modifiers are non-toxic, environmentally friendly, and renewable. The substances contained in natural modifiers exhibit biocidal properties against bacteria and/or fungi. The article discusses polyphenols, selected phenols, naphthoquinones, triterpenoids, and phytoncides that are natural antibiotics. Due to the increasing demand for biodegradable materials and the protection of the natural environment against the negative effects of toxic substances, it is crucial to replace synthetic modifiers with plant ones. This work mentions industries where materials containing natural modifying additives could find potential applications. Moreover, the probable examples of the final products are presented. Additionally, the article points out the current world’s pandemic state and the use of materials with biocidal properties considering the epidemiological conditions.
... Moreover, allicin is characterized by chemical instability and short life. For example, it can be inactivated by heating or at a pH below 3.5 [57]. Therefore, enteric-coated formulations have been developed to hamper stomach disintegration of many commercial garlic supplements and protect against allinase enzymes [35]. ...
Article
Phytochemicals have attracted attention in the oncological field because they are biologically friendly and have relevant pharmacological activities. Thanks to the intense and unique spicy aroma, garlic is one of the most used plants for cooking. Its consumption is correlated to health beneficial effects towards several chronic diseases, such as cancer, mainly attributable to allicin, a bioactive sulfur compound stored in different plant parts in a precursor form. The objective of this review is to present and critically discuss the chemistry and biosynthesis of allicin, its pharmacokinetic profile, its anticancer mechanisms and molecular targets, and its selectivity towards tumor cells. The research carried out so far revealed that allicin suppresses the growth of different types of tumors. In particular, it targets many signaling pathways associated with cancer development. Future research directions are also outlined to further characterize this promising natural product.
... Generally, organosulfur compounds-allicin, benzyl isothiocyanate, propyl-propane thiosulfonate and ajoene-showed high in vitro antibacterial activity. Allicin is the only compound from this group that was tested in animal models and clinical trials for the treatment of bacterial infections [227][228][229]. Table 8 lists the selected organosulfur compounds and their MICs against bacteria. ...
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Due to its large surface area, the skin is susceptible to various injuries, possibly accompanied by the entrance of infective agents into the body. Commensal organisms that constitute the skin microbiota play important roles in the orchestration of cutaneous homeostasis and immune competence. The opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is present as part of the normal biota of the skin and mucous membranes in both humans and animals, but can cause disease when it invades the body either due to trauma or because of the impaired immune response of the host. Colonization of livestock skin by S. aureus is a precursor for majority of bacterial skin infections, which range from boils to sepsis, with the best-characterized being bovine mastitis. Antibiotic treatment of these infections can contribute to the promotion of resistant bacterial strains and even to multidrug resistance. The development of antibiotic resistance to currently available antibiotics is a worldwide problem. Considering the increasing ability of bacteria to effectively resist antibacterial agents, it is important to reduce the livestock consumption of antibiotics to preserve antibiotic effectiveness in the future. Plants are recognized as sources of various bioactive substances, including antibacterial activity towards clinically important microorganisms. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on the major groups of phytochemicals with antibacterial activity and their modes of action. It also provides a list of currently known and used plant species aimed at treating or preventing bacterial skin infections in livestock.
... The study concluded that the water-dilutable microemulsion formed by garlic oil encapsulation in a nanoparticle vector is active in inhibiting Staphylococcus aureus than Escherichia coli. Sheppard et al. [36] screened chemical library containing nineteen synthesized pyridyl disulfides that emulate the chemical reactivity of allicin for antimicrobial properties against Gram-positive species including vancomycin-intermediate and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The results evidenced that pyridyl disulfides are stable alternatives to allicin with a comparable narrow spectrum profile and are believed to function as pro-oxidants in a manner suggestive of allicin. ...
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Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is well renowned for its antimicrobial potential and broadly consumed spice globally for its medicinal properties. Moreover, several studies advocate that garlic contains many bioactives that demonstrate strong therapeutic properties in treating cardiovascular diseases, digestive system, diabetes, cancer, obesity, hypertension, inflammation, antioxidant, and viral infection. Presently, therapeutics of natural origin are drawing major interest among consumers due to their antimicrobial efficacy and safety. Garlic extracts, chitosan by-products, several spices and antimicrobial peptides are illustrations for such products. The present review paper inspects briefly the major active ingredients and key biological functions of garlic-based nanoparticles discussing the relevant mechanisms of actions.
... Alinase converts alliin to allicin at pH 7.0. It can be inactivated by heating or at a pH below 3.5 (165). Therefore, an enteric-coated formulation has been applied to hamper stomach disintegration of many commercial garlic supplements and protect against allinase enzymes (166). ...
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Digestive system cancer tumors are one of the major causes of cancer-related fatalities; the vast majority of them are colorectal or gastric malignancies. Epidemiological evidence confirmed that allium-containing food, such as garlic, reduces the risk of developing malignancies. Among all compounds in garlic, allicin has been most researched, as it contains sulfur and produces many second degradation compounds, such as sulfur dioxide, diallyl sulfide (DAS), diallyl trisulfide (DATS), and diallyl disulfide (DADS) in the presence of enzymatic reactions in gastric juice. These substances have shown anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, antifungal, antiviral, antibacterial, and anticancer efficacy, including gastrointestinal (GI) cancers, leukemia, and skin cancers. Herein, we summarize the therapeutic potential of allicin in the treatment of GI cancers.
... The main pharmacological effects of garlic are due to its featured organosulphur compounds (Tapiero, Townsend & Tew, 2004) and associated with its distinctive pungent smell and other curative properties (Macpherson et al., 2005). Moreover, researchers have found that garlic has a lot of biological functions, such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-diabetic, anti-mutagentic, anti-carcinogenic, antioxidant and immune-modulation activities (Cullen et al., 2005;Kim, 2016;Salehia et al., 2019). ...
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Garlic ( Allium sativum ) is an essential vegetable that has been widely utilized as seasoning, flavoring, culinary and in herbal remedies. Garlic contains several characteristic organosulfur compounds, such as diallyl sulfide, allicin (diallyl thiosulphate), γ-glutamylcysteine, and S-allyl cysteine (alliin) and ajoene, which garlic has beneficial effects on inflammation, oxidative stress markers, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and endothelial function in vitro or in animal model. These bioactive molecules are also playing pivotal role in livestock and fisheries production apart from its application in humans. Supplementation of animal feed with garlic and its related products is consistent with the modern agricultural concept of organic animal husbandry. This review compiles the information describing the effects of feeding garlic and its extracts on selected performance parameters in animals (chicken, rabbits, ruminants, pigs and fish). This review may provide reference for scientists and entrepreneurs to investigate the applications of feeds added with garlic and allicin by-products for the improvement of animal husbandry and aquatic production.
... Garlic is even affective against the crustacean Lernantropus kroyeri which infected the European sea bass (11) and the monogenean Gyrodactylus turnbulli which infected the guppies Poecilia reticulata (12). Effects of garlic on cardiovascular diseases, anti-tumor, diabetes mellitus, chemically-induced hepatotoxicity as well as its anti-microbial, anti-protozoal, antifungal and antiviral properties were well reviewed [13,14,15]. ...
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Three concentrations (1000, 2000 and 3000 mg/kg of white laboratory mouse body weight) of water extracts of both bulbs of garlic (Allium sativum) and fruit shells of pomegranate (Punica granatum) were experimentally tested to kill Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica in Balb/c mice. Generally, the time required to kill G. lamblia and E. histolytica was found to be reversely proportional with the increase of concentration of water extracts. Water extracts of P. granatum with concentrations of 2000 and 3000 mg/kg were successfully affective against G. lamblia within a period less than the period which was required to kill this parasite by using 200 mg flagyl. The use of 3000 mg/kg A. sativum and 2000 and 3000 mg/kg of P. granatum were affective against E. histolytica within a period less than the period which was required to kill this parasite by using 200 mg flagyl.
... Garlic is even affective against the crustacean Lernantropus kroyeri which infected the European sea bass (11) and the monogenean Gyrodactylus turnbulli which infected the guppies Poecilia reticulata (12). Effects of garlic on cardiovascular diseases, anti-tumor, diabetes mellitus, chemically-induced hepatotoxicity as well as its anti-microbial, anti-protozoal, antifungal and antiviral properties were well reviewed [13,14,15]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Three concentrations (1000, 2000 and 3000 mg/kg of white laboratory mouse body weight) of water extracts of both bulbs of garlic (Allium sativum) and fruit shells of pomegranate (Punica granatum) were experimentally tested to kill Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica inBalb/c mice.Generally, the time required to kill G. lamblia and E. histolytica was found to be reversely proportional with the increase of concentration of water extracts. Water extracts of P. granatum with concentrations of 2000 and 3000 mg/kg were successfully affective against G. lamblia within a period less than the period which was required to kill this parasite by using 200 mg flagyl.The use of 3000 mg/kg A. sativum and 2000 and 3000 mg/kg of P. granatum were affective against E. histolytica within a period less than the period which was required to kill this parasite by using 200 mg flagyl.
... Allicin is one of the main active constituents in garlic [36,37], but it is highly unstable and is quickly decomposed in other stable organosulfur constituents, such as diallyl disulfide [33]. Alrumaihi [38] highlighted that allicin and diallyl disulfide are important active compounds that modulate several biological activities and help prevent pathogenesis. ...
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Garlic is a health promoter that has important bioactive compounds. The bioactive extraction is an important step in the analysis of constituents present in plant preparations. The purpose of this study is to optimize the extraction with the best proportion of solvents to obtain total phenolic compounds (TPC) and thiosulfinates (TS) from dried garlic powder, and evaluate the antioxidant activities of the optimized extracts. A statistical mixture simplex axial design was used to evaluate the effect of solvents (water, ethanol, and acetone), as well as mixtures of these solvents, after two ultrasound extraction cycles of 15 min. Results showed that solvent mixtures with a high portion of water and pure water were efficient for TPC and TS recovery through this extraction procedure. According to the regression model computed, the most significant solvent mixtures to obtain high TPC and TS recovery from dried garlic powder are, respectively, the binary mixture with 75% water and 25% acetone and pure water. These optimized extracts presented oxygen radical absorbance capacity. Pure water was better for total antioxidant capacity, and the binary mixture of water-acetone (75:25) was better for DPPH scavenging activity. These optimized extracts can be used for industrial and research applications.
... Thus, many bacterial sulfhydryl enzymes are oxidized and inhibited when exposed to allicin (Leontiev et al. 2018;Bayan et al. 2014;Borlinghaus et al. 2014;Fujisawa et al. 2009). Moreover, allicin is quite lipophilic, which leads to alterations in the structure and integrity of the microbial phospholipid membranes probably accounting for cellular content leakage (Salehi et al., 2019;Leontiev et al. 2018). An important advantage of allicin contained in garlic extract over most antibiotics is that it does not target a specific protein in the bacterial cell, and therefore it appears that resistance associated with modification of the target site on it should not occur (Muller et al. 2016). ...
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Garlic has long been known as the most effective plant species in treatment of bacterial infections. Considering the vast potential of garlic as a source of antimicrobial drugs, this study is aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Allium sativum extracts and their interactions with selected antibiotics against drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant isolates of emerging bacterial pathogens that are frequently found in healthcare settings. As shown by the in vitro data obtained in this study, the whole Allium sativum extract inhibited the growth of a broad range of bacteria, including multidrug-resistant strains with bactericidal or bacteriostatic effects. Depending on the organism, the susceptibility to fresh garlic extract was comparable to the conventional antibiotic gentamycin. Since the combinations of fresh garlic extract with gentamycin and ciprofloxacin inhibited both the drug sensitive and MDR bacteria, in most cases showing a synergistic or insignificant relationship, the potential use of such combinations may be beneficial, especially in inhibiting drug-resistant pathogens. The study results indicate the possibility of using garlic as e.g. a supplement used during antibiotic therapy, which may increase the effectiveness of gentamicin and ciprofloxacin.
... AA has been reported to have hepatotoxic effects [80]. Allicin is one of the active components in garlic bulbs [81], and has many biological benefits, including anticancer, hypolipidemic, blood-pressure-lowering, diabetes improvement, anti-hepatic-steatosis and anti-inflammation [82,83]. Allicin can inhibit AA-induced hepatocyte injury and toxicity by inhibiting intracellular ROS release and oxidative stress (OS) [84,85]. ...
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The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a key organelle responsible for the synthesis, modification, folding and assembly of proteins; calcium storage; and lipid synthesis. When ER homeostatic balance is disrupted by a variety of physiological and pathological factors—such as glucose deficiency, environmental toxins, Ca2+ level changes, etc.—ER stress can be induced. Abnormal ER stress can be involved in many diseases. NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3), an intracellular receptor, can perceive internal and external stimuli. It binds to apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) and caspase-1 to assemble into a protein complex called the NLRP3 inflammasome. Evidence indicates that ER stress and the NLRP3 inflammasome participate in many pathological processes; however, the exact mechanism remains to be understood. In this review, we summarized the role of ER stress and the NLRP3 inflammasome in liver disorders and analyzed the mechanisms, to provide references for future related research.
... Allicin, a sulfur-containing compound, is a kind of natural compound that can be extracted from garlic. Many studies have demonstrated its beneficial roles in anti-microbial, antiinflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-cancer activities (6,7). In addition, we previously reported that allicin, as an effective organic osmotic substance, plays an important role in regulating cells' adaptation to endoplasmic reticulum stress (8). ...
Article
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Gut barrier disruption is the initial pathogenesis of various diseases. We previously reported that dietary allicin improves tight junction proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum stressed jejunum. However, whether the allicin benefits the gut barrier within mycotoxin or endotoxin exposure is unknown. In the present study, IPEC-J2 cell monolayers within or without deoxynivalenol (DON) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenges were employed to investigate the effects of allicin on intestinal barrier function and explore the potential mechanisms. Results clarified that allicin at 2 μg/mL increased the viability, whereas the allicin higher than 10 μg/mL lowered the viability of IPEC-J2 cells via inhibiting cell proliferation. Besides, allicin increased trans-epithelial electric resistance (TEER), decreased paracellular permeability, and enhanced ZO-1 integrity of the IPEC-J2 cell monolayers. Finally, allicin supplementation prevented the LPS-induced barrier damages via activating Nrf2/HO-1 pathway-dependent antioxidant system. In conclusion, the present study strongly confirmed allicin as an effective nutrient to improve intestinal barrier function and prevent bacterial endotoxin-induced barrier damages.
... Besides its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, allicin can inhibit anti-bacteria and anti-fungi activities. In addition to allicin and alliin, there are other sulfur-containing compounds, such as diallyl disulfide, diallyl sulfide, diallyl trisulfide, S-allylcysteine, and S-allylmercaptocysteine, which are related to beneficial health effects such as impacting different stages of carcinogenesis (De Greef et al. 2020;Kaur et al. 2021;Salehi et al. 2019;Zilbeyaz, Oztekin, and Kutluana 2021). ...
Article
Allium sativum (garlic) certainly is one of the oldest horticultural crops in the world and presents bioactive compounds that are related to the garlic’s effects on human health. Several authors have shown beneficial effects on diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD), which are among the most relevant causes of mortality in the world. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of garlic in the risk factors of CVD and evaluate its economic importance. MEDLINE–PubMed, COCHRANE, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched. The included studies showed that the use of garlic can reduce blood pressure, waist circumference, body mass index, LDL-c, non-HDL-c, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and inflammatory markers. It also can increase the levels of HDL-c and can improve cardiovascular parameters such as coronary artery calcium, microcirculation, epicardial and periaortic adipose tissue, post occlusive reactive hyperemia, low attenuation plaque, carotid intima-media thickness; and carotid intima-media thickness. Due to these reasons, garlic can be considered in the prevention and treatment of CVD risk factors.
... This is likely due to the inactivation of alliinase, the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of alliin to allicin, in dried form of it (Rehman 2017). There were a number of studies partially proved the inhibitory properties of allicin toward urease (Bui Khanh Chi et al. 2019;Ranjbar-Omid et al. 2015;Salehi et al. 2019) Since inhibitor coated fertilizers are a suitable strategy for improving the sustainability of agricultural production by increasing the recovery of N-applied fertilizers there is a practical need to find a compatible binder to hold urea and the a inhibitor together on a fertilizer microsite. Thus, the use of biodegradable materials and natural by-products such as coating or adhesive agents proves to be a good replacement for synthetic material to reduce environmental hazard. ...
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This paper was focused on the use of allicin as inhibitor which binded with less valuable by-product, palm stearin on urea fertilizer as to increase its efficiency in soil. The coated urea was prepared in three models: urea + palm stearin (UPS), urea + allicin (UAL), urea + allicin + palm stearin (UALPS), whereas pure urea prills act as control (U) sample. The efficiency of the coating materials were investigated through characterization study and this followed by investigation on its N-transformation in soil through quantification of urea-N and ammonium-N remained in soil. Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) results proved palm stearin as a compatible binder for urea-allicin system as no significant chemical reaction or weight losses occurred compared to control sample, based on their spectrum respectively. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images demonstrated that the micro-structure of UALPS resulted in a smoother coated layer besides hardness test exhibits higher crushing strength. All coated urea fertilizer showed significantly higher nitrogen in urea form (urea-N) in soil compared to control sample. Consequently, nitrogen in ammonium form (ammonium-N) in coated urea fertilizer was lower than uncoated urea as this has proved the coating material has delayed the urea-N release. Besides, UALPS and UAL possess lowest ammonium-N content since the presence of allicin in their coating material had reduced the urease activity in the soil. In overall UALPS, found to be more efficient in reducing the hydrolyzation rate due to the dual effects of material, which may inhibit urease activity and reduce nitrogen (N) releases rate from fertilizer microenvironment.
... Studies [62,63] reviewed clinical trials and provided statistical data on the mechanisms of action of some major herbal products with potential in the treatment of NDD, according to their molecular targets, as well as their regional sources. A number of studies have demonstrated the beneficial properties of plant extracts or their bioactive compounds against NDDs [64,65]. Plant products potentially offer new treatment options for patients with NDD that are a cheaper and culturally acceptable alternative to traditional therapies for millions of people around the world with age-related NDDs [66,67]. ...
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Maintaining quality of life with an increase in life expectancy is considered one of the global problems of our time. This review explores the possibility of using natural plant compounds with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-glycation, and anti-neurodegenerative properties to slow down the onset of age-related changes. Age-related changes such as a decrease in mental abilities, the development of inflammatory processes, and increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes have a significant impact on maintaining quality of life. Herbal preparations can play an essential role in preventing and treating neurodegenerative diseases that accompany age-related changes, including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Medicinal plants have known sedative, muscle relaxant, neuroprotective, nootropic, and antiparkinsonian properties. The secondary metabolites, mainly polyphenolic compounds, are valuable substances for the development of new anti-inflammatory and hypoglycemic agents. Understanding how mixtures of plants and their biologically active substances work together to achieve a specific biological effect can help develop targeted drugs to prevent diseases associated with aging and age-related changes. Understanding the mechanisms of the biological activity of plant complexes and mixtures determines the prospects for using metabolomic and biochemical methods to prolong active longevity.
... Many authors have reported the antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, antiviral, the amoebicidal activity of garlic extracts and their major bioactive allicin (Cavallito and Bailey, 1944;Polat et al., 2008;Fujisawa et al., 2009;Perelló et al., 2013;Zalepugin et al., 2015;Müller et al., 2016;Torpol et al., 2018). Garlic thiols or organosulfur bioactive are potential therapeutic agents with a wide range of biological activities and are stated to be antithrombotic, antiatherosclerotic, antihypertensive, lipid-lowering, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, antidiabetic, and anticancer Rivlin et al., 2006;Chu et al., 2013;Salehi et al., 2019). Many studies have been undertaken on the role of chemical constituents in garlic and their therapeutic use Antony and Singh, 2011;Masum et al., 2019;Zhu and Zeng, 2020). ...
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Recent development in the synthesis of nanoparticles relies on the use of green chemistry with safe, biocompatible materials to manufacture composites, structures, and formulations based on nano for specific applications. The basic goal of green nanoparticle synthesis is to make use of the element's specific physicochemical and biological properties by linking bioactive from prokaryotes and eukaryotes for applications in various basic and applied science fields. Biogenic methods have the potential to provide advanced strategies for surface/material modification in the increasing carbonaceous materials market. Garlic is an extensively studied herb known for possessing a wide variety of bioactive. The major proportion of garlic bioactive is organosulfur or thiol based organic compounds that have numerous biological and therapeutic activities and thus target biogenic nanocomponents and formulations for synthesis. There is, however, very scant literature on its use in the agriculture sector. The present review focuses on the synthesis of garlic related nanoparticles and their applications across various scientific fields, and their potential environmental implications when used in agriculture.
... A study to determine the effects of fresh garlic extract (FGE) against Candida albicans ATCC 14053 demonstrated a suppression of the hyphae production and reduced expression of the gene, SIR2 (Low et al., 2008). Allicin (diallyl thiosulfinate) is a sulfur-containing organic compound that makes up a large portion (~70% w/w) of thiosulfinates found in garlic (Rybak et al., 2004;Salehi et al., 2019). Previous studies have indicated that allicin is a promising alterna Biome Journals biomescientia.com ...
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Candida-associated nosocomial infections are a persistent problem which has been steadily increasing over the years. The emergence of antimicrobial resistant strains has narrowed the spectrum of effective drugs that can be utilised and indicated the need for alternative therapeutics. Garlic is a spice often studied for its unique characteristics. Most of its antimicrobial properties have been attributed to the presence of allicin, which makes up more than 70% of thiosulfinates extracted from garlic. The present study aimed to determine the effects of fresh garlic extract (FGE) towards the expression of two major biofilm genes, Flo-8 and Ndt80 produced by C. albicans that enable the morphogenesis of yeast from planktonic cells to biofilm. Minimum concentration required for FGE to inhibit C. albicans was determined through agar well and disc diffusion assay. Effect of FGE towards preformed C. albicans biofilms was evaluated at ¼× and ½× inhibitory concentrations of FGE and Amphotericin B, respectively by XTT assay. RNA from FGE-treated C. albicans was extracted, reverse transcribed and analysed by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) to determine FGE effects towards the expression of Flo-8 and Ndt80. Inhibitory concentration of FGE was determined to be 100 mg/mL. Both genes appeared to be upregulated in the presence of FGE with a higher upregulation noted with Flo-8 (67.34 and 30.20-folds) when compared against Ndt80 (5.55 and 1.79-folds) at 5 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL, respectively. It is surmised that C. albicans upregulated these genes as a survival mechanism in the presence of FGE. The findings from this study indicate that FGE could inhibit C. albicans growth and biofilms. Further research is required to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) through broth microdilution and to understand the mechanism behind this phenomenon before it can be utilised as a potential therapeutic to combat Candida-associated nosocomial infections.
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Phytochemicals refer to active substances in plant-based diets. Phytochemicals found in for example fruits, vegetables, grains and seed oils are considered relatively safe for consumption due to mammal-plant co-evolution and adaptation. A number of human diseases are related to oxidative stress caused by for example chemical environmental contaminants in air, water and food; while also lifestyle including smoking and lack of exercise and dietary preferences are important factors for disease development in humans. Here we explore the dietary sources of antioxidant phytochemicals that have beneficial effects on oxidative stress, cardiovascular and neurological diseases as well as cancer. Plant-based diets usually contain phenolic acids, flavonoids and carotenoids, which have strong antioxidant properties, and therefore remove the excess of active oxygen in the body, and protect cells from damage, reducing the risk of cardiovascular and Alzheimer’s disease. In most cases, obesity is related to diet and inactivity and plant-based diets change lipid composition and metabolism, which reduce obesity related hazards. Cruciferous and Allium vegetables are rich in organic sulphides that can act on the metabolism of carcinogens and therefore used as anti-cancer and suppressing agents while dietary fibres and plant sterols may improve intestinal health and prevent intestinal diseases. Thus, we recommend a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and grains as its content of phytochemicals may have the potential to prevent or improve a broad sweep of various diseases.
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Background Garlic contains bioactive compounds such as organosulfur, phenols and saponins with biological activities, namely antioxidant, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory anticancer, hepatoprotective, cardiovascular protective, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, renal protective, neuroprotective antibacterial, and antifungal. However, its organosulfur compounds are chemically unstable and susceptible to degradation, volatilization and oxidation when exposed to harsh environmental conditions, such as high temperature, oxygen and light. Scope and approach This review describes the main encapsulation methods used to protect bioactive compounds obtained from two derived garlic products (garlic essential oil (GEO) and garlic extract (GE)). The fundamental principles, advantages, disadvantages/limitations of encapsulation methods, namely molecular inclusion, spray drying, complex coacervation, and three types of lipid-based nanoencapsulation methods (nanoemulsions, nanoliposomes and nanophytosomes) are highlighted. Each of these techniques is discussed, since the choice of the most suitable encapsulation technique depends upon the processing conditions involved during the production of nano(micro)particles and its final applications. This review also covers the techniques used to characterize the physicochemical, structural and thermal properties of nano(micro)particles, such as zeta potential, rheological measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM, respectively). Key findings and conclusions The spray drying technique revealed the least suitable technique, since the high inlet air temperature involved in the drying process causes loss of garlic heat-sensitive compounds. The GEO and GE nano(micro)particles have high potential to be used as active ingredients in food products, and to act as antimicrobial and insecticide agents.
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Diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs), some of the most important phycotoxins, are distributed almost all over the world, posing a great threat to human health through the food chain. Therefore, it is of great significance to find effective methods to reduce toxin accumulation in shellfish. In this paper, we observed the effects of four phytochemicals including cinnamaldehyde (CA), quercetin, oridonin and allicin on the accumulation of DSTs in the digestive gland of Perna viridis after exposure to the DSTs-producing Prorocentrum lima. We found that, among the four phytochemicals, CA could effectively decrease the accumulation of DSTs (okadaic acid-eq) in the digestive gland of P. viridis. Further evidence demonstrated that CA could reduce the histological alterations of the digestive gland of a mussel caused by DSTs. RT-qPCR showed that CA could suppress the CYP3A4 induction by DSTs, suggesting that the DSTs’ decrease induced by CA might be related to the inhibition of CYP3A4 transcription induction. However, further studies on the underlying mechanism, optimal treatment time, ecological safety and cost should be addressed before cinnamaldehyde is used to decrease the accumulation of DSTs in field.
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Philippine garlic ( Allium sativum L .) is arguably known to pack flavor and aroma in smaller bulbs compared to imported varieties saturating the local market. In this study, ethanolic extracts of Philippine garlic cultivars were profiled using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF). γ-Glu dipeptides, oligosaccharides and lipids were determined in Philippine garlic cultivars through bioinformatics analysis in GNPS Molecular Networking Platform and fragmentation analysis. Multivariate statistical analysis using XCMS Online showed the abundance of γ-Glu allyl cysteine in Batanes-sourced garlic while γ-Glu propenyl cysteine, γ-Glu methyl cysteine, and alliin are enriched in the Ilocos cultivar. Principal component analysis showed that the γ-Glu dipeptides found in local garlic influenced their distinct separation across PC1 from imported varieties. This presence of high levels of γ-Glu dipeptides and probiotic oligosaccharides may potentially contribute to the superior flavor and nutritional benefits of Philippine garlic.
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Despite the advancement in prognosis, diagnosis and treatment, cancer has emerged as the second leading cause of disease associated with death in the globe. With the remarkable application of synthetic drugs in cancer therapy and the onset of therapy-associated adverse effects, dietary phytochemicals have materialized as potent anticancer drugs owing to their antioxidant, apoptosis and autophagy modulating activities. With dynamic regulation of apoptosis and autophagy in association with cell cycle regulation, inhibition in cellular proliferation, invasion and migration, dietary phytochemicals have emerged as potent anticancer pharmacophores for cancer therapeutics. Dietary phytochemicals or their synthetic analogous as individual drug candidates or in combination with FDA approved chemotherapeutic drugs exhibit potent anticancer efficacy. With the advancement in medical sciences, dietary phytochemicals hold high prevalence for their use as precision and personalized medicine to replace conventional chemotherapeutic drugs. Hence, keeping these perspectives in mind, this review focuses on the diversity of dietary phytochemicals and their molecular mechanism of action in several cancer cells and tumor entities. Understanding the possible molecular key players involved, the use of dietary phytochemicals will thrive a new horizon in cancer therapy.
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This study investigates the enhancing effect of power ultrasound (US, 80 W) on the drying characteristics, quality properties and microstructure of jackfruit slices treated with infrared (IR) treatments of 900 W, 1200 W and 1500 W in the meantime. Results showed that when ultrasound was applied, the drying time was reduced by 31%, 35% and 25% compared to pure IR 900 W, 1200 W and 1500 W, respectively. Meanwhile, Deff values of dried samples were improved. The application of ultrasound significantly increased vitamin C retention and total phenolic content at IR 900 W. The micrographs indicate that ultrasound provided a more porous microstructure of dried jackfruit slices thus accelerating the drying process. The color characteristics of IR-US samples showed no significant change compared to IR drying slices. This study shows that infrared assisted with ultrasound can be a potential method for industrial production of dried jackfruit slices.
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In this study, it was aimed to determine the nutrient concentrations and antioxidant activity of Achillea millefolium L. (Yarrow), which is known to have medicinal properties. For this purpose, macro and micronutrient concentrations, total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) of water extract Yarrow plant, which is known to be collected from Divrigi district in Sivas province, were determined. The results have shown that the yarrow plant is sufficient in terms of some macro and micronutrient concentrations, and the nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and magnesium from macro elements, iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn) and copper (Cu) from micro elements concentrations were determined as 1.01% N, 0.63% P, 2.43% K, 2.22% Ca, 0.70% Mg, 360.4 mg kg-1 Fe, 47.6 mg kg-1 Zn, 85.5 mg kg-1 Mn and 28.3 mg kg-1 Cu, respectively. It has been determined that its antioxidant potential is moderate. In addition, the plant’s oxidant capacity and oxidative stress index were found to be low.
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Autoimmune and infectious diseases are the major public health issues and have gained great attention in the last few years for the search of new agents with therapeutic benefits on the host immune functions. In recent years, natural products (NPs) have been studied broadly for their multi‐targeted activities under pathological conditions. Interestingly, several attempts have been made to outline the immunomodulatory properties of NPs. Research on in‐vitro and in‐vivo models have shown the immunomodulatory activity of NPs, is due to their antiinflammatory property, induction of phagocytosis and immune cells stimulation activity. Moreover, studies on humans have suggested that phytomedicines reduce inflammation and could provide appropriate benefits either in single form or complex combinations with other agents preventing disease progression, subsequently enhancing the efficacy of treatment to combat multiple malignancies. However, the exact mechanism of immunomodulation is far from clear, warranting more detailed investigations on their effectiveness. Nevertheless, the reduction of inflammatory cascades is considered as a prime protective mechanism in a number of inflammation regulated autoimmune diseases. Altogether, this review will discuss the biological activities of plant‐derived secondary metabolites, such as polyphenols, alkaloids, saponins, polysaccharides and so forth, against various diseases and their potential use as an immunomodulatory agent under pathological conditions.
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Fatty liver disease (FLD), including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD), is a serious chronic metabolic disease that affects a wide range of people. Lipid accumulation accompanied by oxidative stress and inflammation in the liver is the most important pathogenesis of FLD. The plant-based, high-fiber, and low-fat diet has been recommended to manage FLD for a long time. This review discusses the current state of the art into the effects, mechanisms, and clinical application of plant-based foods in NAFLD and AFLD, with highlighting related molecular mechanisms. Epidemiological evidence revealed that the consumption of several plant-based foods was beneficial to alleviating FLD. Further experimental studies found out that fruits, spices, teas, coffee, and other plants, as well as their bioactive compounds, such as resveratrol, anthocyanin, curcumin, and tea polyphenols, could alleviate FLD by ameliorating hepatic steatosis, oxidative stress, inflammation, gut dysbiosis, and apoptosis, as well as regulating autophagy and ethanol metabolism. More importantly, clinical trials confirmed the beneficial effects of plant-based foods on patients with fatty liver. However, several issues need to be further studied especially the safety and effective doses of plant-based foods and their bioactive compounds. Overall, certain plant-based foods are promising natural sources of bioactive compounds to prevent and alleviate fatty liver disease.
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The present study aimed to examine the effect of ultrasonic pretreatment and hot air, microwave–hot-air, infrared–hot air, and freeze-drying on the drying time, specific energy (SE), qualitative properties (i.e., color, shrinkage, and rehydration ratio), and bioactive compounds’ properties (i.e., antioxidant activity, phenolic, and flavonoid contents) of hawthorn fruit. Drying of hawthorn was conducted from 45 min for the ultrasonic + microwave–hot-air drying to 1280 min for the freeze-drying method. The lowest amount of SE was obtained using the ultrasonic-microwave–hot-air drying method, which was 47.57 MJ/kg. The lowest values in color changes (12.25) and shrinkage (17.21%) were recorded for the freeze-drying method, while the highest amounts for these traits were 45.57% and 66.75% in the HA drying, respectively. In general, the use of different drying methods reduces the antioxidant capacity (AC), total phenolic content (TPC), and total flavonoid content (TFC) during processing compared to fresh samples. The highest values for AC, TPC, TFC, and the rehydration ratio were 30.69%, 73.07 mg-GAE/gdw, 65.93 mg-QE/gdw, and 2.02 for the freeze-drying method, respectively.
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During the production process of garlic seeds, about 15 - 20% are not suitable for seed use because of the small size of the cloves (<2.0 cm). Garlic powder has a potential to be developed as a seasoning in cooking, medicine, and industrial raw material. This research aimed to determine the effect of size reduction method and sodium bisulphite concentration on the characteristics of garlic powder from off-grade garlic. The raw material used was off grade garlic of Sangga Sembalun variety. The study was designed using a completely randomized design, which consisted of two factors, namely the size reduction method (x 1 : chopped and x 2 : sliced) and concentration of sodium bisulphite solution (y 1 : 0, y 2 : 0.5%, y 3 : 1.0%; y 4 : 1.5%), with three replication. The results showed that off grade garlic can be used as garlic powder with high lightness and allicin content. The garlic powder produced by the slice method and soaking in 0.5% of sodium bisulphite had a yield of 39.83%, moisture of 8.37%, ash of 3.47%, fat of 0.21%, protein of 18.30%, carbohydrate of 69.63%, allicin of 1.59%, chroma of 13.80, degree of Hue of 71.04, and degree of Lightness (L*) of 89.56.
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In the current study an Allicin delivering polymeric wound dressing was formulated using thermally induced phase separation method. Allicin was loaded into Chitosan/Polyvinyl Alcohol solution at weight ratios 3 %,5 %, and 10 % and then freeze-dried. The fabricated membrane's physiochemical and biological properties were assessed using scanning electron microscopy, cell viability assay, swelling capacity, mechanical strength, surface wettability, water vapor permeability, drug release profile, in vitro degradation, hemocompatibility, porosity measurement, microbial penetration assay, Anti-oxidant assay, and protein adsorption assay. According to cell MTT assay results, Chitosan/Polyvinyl Alcohol incorporated with 5 % Allicin had the highest cell viability compared with other formulations; therefore, this formulation was chosen for treating rat model of diabetic wounds. The results showed that the rats treated with Allicin loaded dressings exhibited 93.15 ± 6.38 % of wound closure after 14 days. In addition, this group showed 47.11 ± 3.67 μm of epithelial thickness and 72.31 ± 4.28% of collagen deposition at the end of 14th post-wounding. These values were significantly greater than that of Allicin-free dressings and control group, p value < 0.05. These preliminary results suggest potential applicability of Allicin loaded Chitosan/Polyvinyl Alcohol dressing in treating diabetic wounds in clinic.
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ABATRACT BACKGROUND Garlic scapes are easy to the browning and rot during the storage. In order to extend the storage time, controlled or modified atmosphere storage is usually used to maintain the postharvest quality. However, the low O2 or high CO2 damage is easy to occur during the atmosphere storage due to its respiration and unsuitable packaging. Therefore, the identification of low O2 threshold signal has been one of the urgent issue during the atmosphere storage. This work investigated the quality changes and threshold signal during the controlled atmosphere storage of garlic scapes by the detection of ethanol and chlorophyll fluorescence. RESULTS The results showed that 7% CO2/3% O2 treatment could effectively slow down the decrease of chlorophyll and ascorbic acid, inhibit the accumulation of ethanol and maintain good sensory quality. Under dynamic atmosphere, garlic scapes had a tolerable minimum oxygen threshold of 1.5% by the detection of ethanol, respiratory quotient and chlorophyll fluorescence F0. However, no obvious fluorescence Fv/fm breakpoint was detected during dynamic atmosphere storage. CONCLUSIONS Ethanol and chlorophyll fluorescence F0 could be used as an indicator of low oxygen damage during atmosphere storage of garlic scapes. The tolerable low oxygen threshold was 1.5% O2 for garlic scapes storage. This work provided a new insight into the preservation of garlic scapes during atmosphere storage. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Allicin, one of the main bioactive compounds in garlic, is an excellent feed additive. It is unknown whether allicin affects the expression of P-gp and BCRP, two important ABC efflux transporters related to the pharmacokinetics of antimicrobials in chickens. In this study, by bidirectional transport test and broiler jejunum in situ perfusion, we found that allicin inhibited the efflux transport of P-gp and BCRP for their substrates sulfadiazine and florfenicol, two commonly used antimicrobials in broilers. Furthermore, we observed that allicin decreased the mRNA expression of chicken jejunum P-gp and BCRP. Pretreatment with allicin changed the pharmacokinetic behavior of orally administered sulfadiazine, by increasing AUC (41.85 vs 31.24, P<0.01) and Cmax values (9.82 vs 8.40, P<0.05) and decreasing CLZ (0.45 vs 0.62, P<0.01). Similarly, pretreatment with allicin also altered pharmacokinetics of orally administered florfenicol, by increasing AUC (18.38 vs 13.52, P<0.01) and decreasing CLZ. The results indicate that allicin could inhibit jejunum P-gp and BCRP expression and efflux function, thereby increasing the plasma concentrations of their substrates in broilers.
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Synergistic therapy against the resurgence of bacterial pathogenesis is a modern trend for antibacterial chemotherapy. The phytochemical allicin, found in garlic extract is a commendable antimicrobial agent that can be used in synergistic combination with modern antibiotics. Determination of optimal antibacterial combination for the target species is vital for maximizing efficacy, lowering toxicity, total eradication of the bacterial cells and minimization of the risk of resistance generation. In this present investigation, Hill function-based pharmacodynamics models were employed to elaborate various time-kill kinetics parameters. The bactericidal potency of the synergistic combinations of allicin and individual antibiotic was assessed in comparison to their monotherapy application viz. using sole allicin and sole antibiotics (levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, oxytetracycline, rifaximin, ornidazole and azithromycin) on actively growing Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli bacteria. Here, all the synergistic combinations showed significantly better (t-test p-value < 0.05) killing effect and biofilm reduction potential compared to their respective monotherapy application, where the highest killing effect was observed with rifaximin-allicin combination (kill rate was more than 5.5 h⁻¹). Moreover, the average inhibition potential to protein denaturation by the synergistic combination group was significantly higher (3.4 fold) than the sole antibiotic's group manifests reduction in the dose-related toxicity. The potential of synergism between antibiotics and allicin combination demonstrated greater killing efficiency at significantly lower concentration compared to monotherapy with increased kill rates in all cases.
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Glioma is one of the most common malignancies of the central nervous system. Due to inadequate response to the current treatments available, glioma has been at the center of recent cancer studies searching for novel treatment strategies. This has prompted an intensive search using linkage studies and preliminary evidence to gain efficient insight into the mechanisms involved in the alleviation of the pathogenesis of glioma mediated by miRNAs, a group of noncoding RNAs that affect gene expression posttranscriptionally. Dysregulated expression of miRNAs can exacerbate the malignant features of tumor cells in glioma and other cancers. Natural products can exert anticancer effects on glioma cells by stimulating the expression levels of tumor suppressor miRNAs and repressing the expression levels of oncogenic miRNAs. In this review, we aimed to collect and analyze the literature addressing the roles of natural products in the treatment of glioma, with an emphasis on their involvement in the regulation of miRNAs.
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Allicin (diallylthiosulfinate) is a defense molecule produced by cellular contents of garlic (Allium sativum L.). On tissue damage, the non-proteinogenic amino acid alliin (S-allylcysteine sulfoxide) is converted to allicin in an enzyme-mediated process catalysed by alliinase. Allicin is hydrophobic in nature, can efficiently cross the cellular membranes and behaves as a reactive sulfur species (RSS) inside the cells. It is physiologically active molecule with the ability to oxidise the thiol groups of glutathione and between cysteine residues in proteins. Allicin has shown anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant properties and also serves as an efficient therapeutic agent against cardiovascular diseases. In this context, the present review describes allicin as an antioxidant, and neuroprotective molecule that can ameliorate the cognitive abilities in case of neurodegenerative and neuropsychological disorders. As an antioxidant, allicin fights the reactive oxygen species (ROS) by downregulation of NOX (NADPH oxidizing) enzymes, it can directly interact to reduce the cellular levels of different types of ROS produced by a variety of peroxidases. Most of the neuroprotective actions of allicin are mediated via redox-dependent pathways. Allicin inhibits neuroinflammation by suppressing the ROS production, inhibition of TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB, P38 and JNK pathways. As an inhibitor of cholinesterase and (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) it can be applied to manage the Alzheimer’s disease, helps to maintain the balance of neurotransmitters in case of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactive syndrome (ADHD). In case of acute traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) allicin protects neuron damage by regulating inflammation, apoptosis and promoting the expression levels of Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2). Metal induced neurodegeneration can also be attenuated and cognitive abilities of patients suffering from neurological diseases can be ameliorates by allicin administration.
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In order to overcome the problems caused by the release of toxic biocidal agents, both thyme and garlic as herbal antibacterial extracts were applied for the preparation of two novel chitosan-based membranes (TE-CS/PES and GE-CS/PES) by the surface modification of polyethersulfone (PES) membranes. Several analyses such as FESEM, contact angle, AFM, and FTIR confirmed that the chitosan layer was successfully formed on the PES base membrane. Antibacterial activities of prepared membranes were studied by four different methods, and the results indicated a good antibacterial ability. By incorporating garlic extract with chitosan solution, the pure water flux of the GE-CS/PES membrane was considerably increased (85.22 kg·m⁻²·h⁻¹). The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was dramatically enhanced by adding herbal extract on the membrane surface, whereas TE-CS/PES membrane exhibited the best rejection ability (98.71%). The antifouling property was improved, and the highest value of flux recovery ratio (90.56%) was attained for TE-CS/PES membrane.
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To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the efficiency of Allium sativum hydro-alcoholic extract (ASE) againstFigure growth, biofilm development, and soluble factor production of more than 200 biodeteriogenic microbial strains isolated from cultural heritage objects and buildings. The plant extract composition and antioxidant activities were determined spectrophotometrically and by HPLC-MS. The bioevaluation consisted of the qualitative (adapted diffusion method) and the quantitative evaluation of the inhibitory effect on planktonic growth (mi-crodilution method), biofilm formation (violet crystal microtiter method), and production of microbial enzymes and organic acids. The garlic extract efficiency was correlated with microbial strain taxonomy and isolation source (the fungal strains isolated from paintings and paper and bacteria from wood, paper, and textiles were the most susceptible). The garlic extract contained thiosulfinate (307.66 ± 0.043 µM/g), flavonoids (64.33 ± 7.69 µg QE/g), and polyphenols (0.95 ± 0.011 mg GAE/g) as major compounds and demonstrated the highest efficiency against the Aspergillus versicolor (MIC 3.12-6.25 mg/mL), A. ochraceus (MIC: 3.12 mg/mL), Penicillium expansum (MIC 6.25-12.5 mg/mL), and A. niger (MIC 3.12-50 mg/mL) strains. The extract inhibited the adherence capacity (IIBG% 95.08-44.62%) and the production of cellulase, organic acids, and esterase. This eco-friendly solution shows promising potential for the conservation and safeguarding of tangible cultural heritage, successfully combating the biodeteriogenic microorganisms without undesirable side effects for the natural ecosystems .
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Over the centuries, humans have traditionally used garlic (Allium sativum L.) as a food ingredient (spice) and remedy for many diseases. To confirm this, many extensive studies recognized the therapeutic effects of garlic bulbs. More recently, black garlic (BG), made by heat-ageing white garlic bulbs, has increased its popularity in cuisine and traditional medicine around the world, but there is still limited information on its composition and potential beneficial effects. In this study, the metabolite profile of methanol extract of BG (BGE) was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry in high-resolution mode. Results allowed to establish that BGE major components were sulfur derivatives, saccharides, peptides, organic acids, a phenylpropanoid derivative, saponins, and compounds typical of glycerophospholipid metabolism. Characterization of the BGE action in cancer cells revealed that antioxidant, metabolic, and hepatoprotective effects occur upon treatment as well as induction of maturation of acute myeloid leukemia cells. These results are interesting from the impact point of view of BG consumption as a functional food for potential prevention of metabolic and tumor diseases.
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The interaction of allicin with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and the effect of allicin binding on the structure of protein were investigated. The BSA fluorescence displayed decreased fluorescence strength after binding with allicin, which quenched BSA fluorescence in a concentration-dependent manner. The number of binding sites and binding constants were measured by fluorescent quenching method. The result of reverse phase HPLC showed that the peak of BSA shifted to higher retention time, which indicated that allicin had bound to BSA. 88.4% of total free thiol groups of BSA have bound to allicin at the allicin/BSA molar ratio of 0.1. Allicin could destabilize the secondary and tertiary structure of BSA. At the allicin/BSA ratio of 0.1, the BSA's circular dichroism spectrum showed that allicin caused a decrease of α-helix content and a significant increase of the β-sheet content (p < 0.05). Changes in surface hydrophobicity indicated that more hydrophobic groups were exposed due to the action of allicin. These results provide important insight into the study of prevailing role of protein in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.
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As an antioxidant, lycopene has acquired importance as it prevents autoxidation of fats and related products. Tomatoes are an important agricultural product that is a great source of lycopene. It contains many vitamins and minerals, fiber, and carbohydrates and is associated with various positive effects on health. The antioxidant potential of tomatoes is substantially explained with lycopene compounds. Diet is a major risk factor for heart diseases which is shown as the most important cause of death in the world. It has been observed that the lycopene taken in the diet has positive effects in many stages of atherosclerosis. The serum lipid levels, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, blood pressure, and antioxidative potential are mainly affected by lycopene. These natural antioxidants, which can also enhance the nutritional value of foods, may lead to new ways if used in food preservation. In this review study, the antioxidant potential and cardiovascular protection mechanism of lycopene are discussed.
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BACKGROUND Garlic (Allium sativum L.), whose bioactive components are mainly organosulfur compounds (OSCs), is a herbaceous perennial widely consumed as a green vegetable and a condiment. Yet, the metabolic enzymes involved in OSCs' biosynthesis are not identified in garlic. RESULTS Here, a full-length transcriptome of purple garlic was generated via PacBio and Illumina sequencing, to characterize the garlic transcriptome and identify key proteins mediating OSCs' biosynthesis. Overall, 22.56 Gb of clean data were generated, resulting in 454 698 CCS reads, of which 83.4% (379206) were identified as being full-length non-chimeric reads—their further transcript clustering facilitated identification of 36 571 high-quality consensus reads. Once corrected, their genome-wide mapping revealed that 6140 reads were novel isoforms of known genes, and 2186 reads were novel isoforms from novel genes. We detected 1677 alternative splicing events, finding 2902 genes possessing either two or more poly(A) sites. Given the importance of serine O-acetyltransferase (SERAT) in cysteine biosynthesis, we investigated the five SERAT homologs in garlic. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a three-tier classification of SERAT proteins, each featuring a serine acetyltransferase domain (N-terminal) and one or two hexapeptide transferase motifs. Template-based modeling showed that garlic SERATs shared a common homo-trimeric structure with homologs from bacteria and other plants. The residues responsible for substrate recognition and catalysis were highly conserved, implying a similar reaction mechanism. In profiling the five SERAT genes' transcript levels, their expression pattern varied significantly among different tissues. CONCLUSION This study's findings deepen our knowledge of SERAT proteins, and provide timely genetic resources that could advance future exploration into garlic's genetic improvement and breeding. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Garlic ( Allium sativum ) is an important vegetable crop that is widely used in cooking and medicine. The greening phenomenon of garlic severely decreases the quality of garlic and hinders garlic processing. To study the mechanism of garlic greening, comprehensive full-length transcript sets were constructed. We detected the differences in greening between Pizhou (PZ) garlic and Laiwu (LW) garlic that were both stored at −2.5°C and protected from light at the same time. The results showed that 60,087 unigenes were respectively annotated to the NR, KEGG, GO, Pfam, eggNOG and Swiss Prot databases, and a total of 30,082 unigenes were annotated. The analysis of differential genes and differential proteins showed that PZ garlic and LW garlic had 923 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), of which 529 genes were up regulated and 394 genes were downregulated. Through KEGG and GO enrichment analysis, it was found that the most significant way of enriching DEGs was the phenylpropane metabolic pathway. Proteomics analysis found that there were 188 differentially expressed proteins (DAPs), 162 up-regulated proteins, and 26 down-regulated proteins between PZ garlic and LW garlic. The content of 10 proteins related to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in PZ garlic was significantly higher than that of LW garlic. This study explored the mechanisms of garlic greening at a molecular level and further discovered that the formation of garlic green pigment was affected significantly by the phenylpropanoid metabolic pathway. This work provided a theoretical basis for the maintenance of garlic quality during garlic processing and the future development of the garlic processing industries.
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Since antiquity, the survival of human civilization has always been threatened by the microbial infections. An alarming surge in the resistant microbial strains against the conventional drugs is quite evident in the preceding years. Furthermore, failure of currently available regimens of antibiotics has been highlighted by the emerging threat of biofilms in the community and hospital settings. Biofilms are complex dynamic composites rich in extracellular polysaccharides and DNA, supporting plethora of symbiotic microbial life forms, that can grow on both living and non-living surfaces. These enforced structures are impervious to the drugs and lead to spread of recurrent and non-treatable infections. There is a strong realization among the scientists and healthcare providers to work out alternative strategies to combat the issue of drug resistance and biofilms. Plants are a traditional but rich source of effective antimicrobials with wider spectrum due to presence of multiple constituents in perfect synergy. Other than the biocompatibility and the safety profile, these phytochemicals have been repeatedly proven to overcome the non-responsiveness of resistant microbes and films via multiple pathways such as blocking the efflux pumps, better penetration across the cell membranes or biofilms, and anti-adhesive properties. However, the unfavorable physicochemical attributes and stability issues of these phytochemicals have hampered their commercialization. These issues of the phytochemicals can be solved by designing suitably constructed nanoscaled structures. Nanosized systems can not only improve the physicochemical features of the encapsulated payloads but can also enhance their pharmacokinetic and therapeutic profile. This review encompasses why and how various types of phytochemicals and their nanosized preparations counter the microbial resistance and the biofouling. We believe that phytochemical in tandem with nanotechnological innovations can be employed to defeat the microbial resistance and biofilms. This review will help in better understanding of the challenges associated with developing such platforms and their future prospects.
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In this study, pea protein isolated/pullulan electrospun nanofiber films (PPI/PUL NFs) were successfully cross-linked by heating through Maillard reaction. PPI/PUL NFs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and water contact angles (WCAs). The morphological analysis illustrated that the cross-linking degree of these NFs varied with the glucose content, and the maximum glucose content was 3.0% (w/v). The fiber structure was broken down when the glucose content exceeded 3.0% (w/v), which was attributed to partial swelling and fusion of nanofibers after cross-linked by glucose. FTIR results indicated that the Maillard reaction occurred between the PPI and glucose during the thermal crosslinking process. Cross-linking dramatically improved the thermal stability, WCAs, insolubility and barrier properties of PPI/PUL NFs, which were needed to be solved urgently in biobased food packaging material. The cross-linked PPI/PUL NFs with a 2.0% glucose showed the most hydrophobic surface (WCAs of 104.5° and water vapor transmission rate of 29.3%). The antimicrobial activity of allicin-loaded PPI/PUL NFs (PPI/PUL-AC NFs) was evaluated, and the maximum size of the inhibition zone of cross-linked PPI/PUL-AC NFs against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was 16.5 mm and 12.8 mm, respectively. This study not only offered an effective pathway to protect the biological activity of allicin under heating conditions by electrospinning but also provided a reference on novel crosslinking approach of PPI/PUL NFs, which allowed PPI/PUL-AC NFs to be a highly promising platform for antimicrobial food packaging.
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In this narrative review, we have comprehensively reviewed the plant sources used as antiulcer agents. From traditional uses as herbal remedies, we have moved on to preclinical evidence, critically discussing the in vitro and in vivo studies focusing on plant extracts and even isolated phytochemicals with antiulcerogenic potential. A particular emphasis was also paid to Helicobacter pylori activity, with emphasis on involved mechanisms of action. Lastly, the issue of safety profile of these plant products has also been addressed.
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Allicin is considered responsible for most of the pharmacological activity of crushed raw garlic cloves. However, when garlic supplements and garlic foods are consumed, allicin bioavailability or bioequivalence (ABB) has been unknown and in question because allicin formation from alliin and garlic alliinase usually occurs after consumption, under enzyme-inhibiting gastrointestinal conditions. The ABB from 13 garlic supplements and 9 garlic foods was determined by bioassay for 13 subjects by comparing the area under the 32-h concentration curve of breath allyl methyl sulfide (AMS), the main breath metabolite of allicin, to the area found after consuming a control (100% ABB) of known allicin content: homogenized raw garlic. For enteric tablets, ABB varied from 36⁻104%, but it was reduced to 22⁻57% when consumed with a high-protein meal, due to slower gastric emptying. Independent of meal type, non-enteric tablets gave high ABB (80⁻111%), while garlic powder capsules gave 26⁻109%. Kwai garlic powder tablets, which have been used in a large number of clinical trials, gave 80% ABB, validating it as representing raw garlic in those trials. ABB did not vary with alliinase activity, indicating that only a minimum level of activity is required. Enteric tablets (high-protein meal) disintegrated slower in women than men. The ABB of supplements was compared to that predicted in vitro by the dissolution test in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP); only partial agreement was found. Cooked or acidified garlic foods, which have no alliinase activity, gave higher ABB than expected: boiled (16%), roasted (30%), pickled (19%), and acid-minced (66%). Black garlic gave 5%. The mechanism for the higher than expected ABB for alliinase-inhibited garlic was explored; the results for an alliin-free/allicin-free extract indicate a partial role for the enhanced metabolism of γ-glutamyl S-allylcysteine and S-allylcysteine to AMS. In conclusion, these largely unexpected results (lower ABB for enteric tablets and higher ABB for all other products) provide guidelines for the qualities of garlic products to be used in future clinical trials and new standards for manufacturers of garlic powder supplements. They also give the consumer an awareness of how garlic foods might compare to the garlic powder supplements used to establish any allicin-related health benefit of garlic.
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Allicin (diallylthiosulfinate) is a defence molecule from garlic (Allium sativum L.) with broad antimicrobial activities in the low µM range against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, including antibiotic resistant strains, and fungi. Allicin reacts with thiol groups and can inactivate essential enzymes. However, allicin is unstable at room temperature and antimicrobial activity is lost within minutes upon heating to >80 °C. Allicin's antimicrobial activity is due to the thiosulfinate group, so we synthesized a series of allicin analogues and tested their antimicrobial properties and thermal stability. Dimethyl-, diethyl-, diallyl-, dipropyl- and dibenzyl-thiosulfinates were synthesized and tested in vitro against bacteria and the model fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae, human and plant cells in culture and Arabidopsis root growth. The more volatile compounds showed significant antimicrobial properties via the gas phase. A chemogenetic screen with selected yeast mutants showed that the mode of action of the analogues was similar to that of allicin and that the glutathione pool and glutathione metabolism were of central importance for resistance against them. Thiosulfinates differed in their effectivity against specific organisms and some were thermally more stable than allicin. These analogues could be suitable for applications in medicine and agriculture either singly or in combination with other antimicrobials.
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Allicin (2-propene-1-sulfinothioic acid S -2-propenyl ester, diallyl thiosulfinate) is the main biologically active ingredient in garlic. The present study investigated the protective effect of allicin against cardiomyocyte apoptosis that was induced by ischemia in vitro and the potential molecular mechanisms that were involved in this antiapoptotic effect. The results indicated that allicin increased H9c2 cell activity and attenuated the rate of apoptosis that was induced by ischemia/hypoxia. Intracellular calcium concentrations significantly decreased in the allicin-treated groups. Bax expression significantly decreased, and Bcl-2 expression increased in allicin-treated rats. Nitric oxide blockade significantly inhibited these effects. Allicin also increased the activity of SOD and NO release and decreased MDA levels. Allicin significantly increased the expression of eNOS, Nrf2, and HO-1 proteins. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that allicin protects H9c2 cells against apoptosis, and this protective effect appears to occur via eNOS/NO pathway-mediated antioxidant activity.
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DOI No: 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00738.7 ABSTRACT: ________________________________________ Allium sativum is a species in the onion genus, Allium. Its close relatives include the onion, shallot, leek, chive, and Allium chinense. With a history of several thousand years of human consumption and use, garlic is native to the region between the Mediterranean and China, and has long been a common seasoning worldwide. Herbs such as garlic with the potential to significantly modulate the activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes (notably cytochrome p450 isozymes) and/or the drug transporter P-glycoprotein participate in potential pharmacokinetic interactions with anticancer drugs. Among the active compounds present in the plant, DTS and DDS are the most active against yeasts and ajoene is the main compound responsible for the antiviral activity of garlic. A great deal of low quality clinical research has been conducted to determine the effect of garlic on preventing cardiovascular diseases and on various biomarkers of cardiovascular health, but as of 2015, the results were contradictory and it was not known if there are any effects. Because garlic might reduce platelet aggregation, people taking anticoagulant medication are cautioned about consuming garlic. Meta-analysis found decreased rates of gastric cancer associated with garlic intake, but cited confounding factors as limitations for interpreting these studies. Further meta-analyses found similar results on the incidence of gastric cancer by consuming allium vegetables including garlic. Garlic is known to cause bad breath (halitosis) and body odor, described as a pungent "garlicky" smell to sweat. This is caused by allyl methyl sulfide (AMS). KEYWORDS: ________________________________________ A review, Anti-microbial, Anti-inflammatory, Cardiovascular, Allium sativum.
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BACKGROUND Hyperlipidemia is one of the important diseases in pregnancy that causes fetal abnormalities during pregnancy and after the birth. Unfortunately, the usual anti-fat drugs are associated with high morbidity in fetus and due to people's inclination towards taking herbs, it is required to identify side effects of medicinal herbs in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to present hypolipidemic herbs that would not any complications for mother and fetus. METHODS In this review article, the major electronic databases such as EBSCO, Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), China Network Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Cochrane, Google scholar, MEDLINE, SciVerse, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched using the key words “herbal” and “hyperlipidemia”, “herbal” and “pregnancy” matched by MeSH from their respective inceptions till September, 2016. Total of 1723 publications (145 review articles, 855 original research articles, and 723 abstracts) about the effect of herbals on hyperlipidemia and 682 publications (200 abstracts, 423 original research articles, and 59 review articles) about the effect of herbals in pregnancy were retrieved. At the end, a list of medicinal plants effective on hyperlipidemia alongside their effects on pregnancy was developed. Finally, the plants effective on hyperlipidemia and safe during pregnancy were determined and their dosage, complications, mechanism of action, and side effects were reported. RESULTS A total of 110 effective herbs on hyperlipidemia were identified and complications of 95 plants in pregnancy were studied. At last, among the 55 selected plants effective on hyperlipidemia and examined for pregnancy, we reported 12 herbs with their dosage and special considerations that can be used to treat hyperlipidemia during pregnancy. CONCLUSION Some medicinal plants can be used to treat hyperlipidemia during pregnancy without any significant side effects both on mother or fetus.
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Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a common and severe complication of diabetes and results in high mortality. It is therefore imperative to develop novel therapeutics for the prevention or inhibition of the progression of DCM. Oxidative stress is a key mechanism by which diabetes induces DCM. Hence, targeting of oxidative stress-related processes in DCM could be a promising therapeutic strategy. To date, a number of studies have shown beneficial effects of several natural products on the attenuation of DCM via an antioxidative mechanism of action. The aim of the present review is to provide a comprehensive and concise overview of the previously reported antioxidant natural products in the inhibition of DCM progression. Clinical trials of the antioxidative natural products in the management of DCM are included. In addition, discussion and perspectives are further provided in the present review.
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The present study was designed to systematically evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of garlic supplement in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI) were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) by using the terms garlic and T2DM up to April 2017. The quality of included RCTs was assessed by the Cochrane tool of risk of bias, and data of outcomes were pooled by REVMAN 5.3. Clinical factors were handled by meta-regression and subgroup analysis, and risk of publication bias was explored by inverted funnel plots. Nine RCTs involving 768 T2DM patients were included in the meta-analysis, and the dose of daily garlic (allicin) supplement ranged from 0.05g to 1.5g. A significant reduction in the level of fasting blood glucose in 1–2 weeks [SMD = −1.61, 95%CI (−2.89, −0.32)], 3–4 weeks [SMD = −2.87, 95%CI (−4.74, −1.00)], 12 weeks [SMD = −9.57, 95%CI (−12.39, −6.75)], and 24 weeks [SMD = −21.02, 95% CI (−32.47, −9.57)] was achieved in favour of the garlic group rather than the control group. Significantly decreased fructosamine and glycated hemoglobin (both in 12 and 24 weeks) were also found in garlic group. Meanwhile, significantly improved blood liquids of total cholesterol [SMD = −1.93, 95%CI (−2.98, −0.87), 3–4 weeks], high density lipoprotein [SMD = −0.41, 95%CI (−0.83, −0.00), 3–4 weeks] and low density lipoprotein [SMD = −3.47, 95%CI (−5.76, −1.18), 12 weeks] were confirmed after garlic administration. There was no significant difference in complications. Current data confirms that garlic supplement plays positive and sustained roles in blood glucose, total cholesterol, and high/low density lipoprotein regulation in the management of T2DM.
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Purpose: To evaluate the protective and restoring effects of allicin in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Methods: 1 week after receiving allicin (20 mg/kg body weight) orally, the buccal pouches of hamsters were painted daily with 0.5% 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in liquid paraffin for 14 weeks and then every other day for another 2 weeks, after receiving allicin orally and thereafter for 14 weeks. The protective effects of allicin was evaluated by measuring the tumour incidence, tumour volume and tumour burdens as well as the levels of glycoconjugates were analyzed by using specific colorimetric methods. Animals not exposed to allicin and/or DMBA, those exposed to DMBA alone and others exposed to allicin alone served as controls. Results: Allicin significantly reduced the tumour incidence, tumour volume and tumour burden. DMBA-altered glycoconjugates in plasma, buccal mucosa tumour tissues and erythrocyte membrane of tumour bearing hamsters were normalized after treated with allicin. Conclusion: The results suggest that allicin has considerable potential to protect and restore the cell surface glycoconjugates moieties in the presence of allicin or possibly other oral carcinogenic agents. © Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. All rights reserved.
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PurposeDoxorubicin (DOX) is a highly active antineoplastic agent; however, its clinical use is limited due to associated cardiotoxicity. This study was performed to evaluate the beneficial effects of allicin, a dietary garlic active constituent against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Methods Forty male Swiss albino mice were divided into five groups, which received normal saline, oral allicin (20 mg kg−1 once daily), intraperitoneal DOX (on the 7, 9 and 11th day of the experiment), or DOX plus once daily allicin at 10 or 20 mg kg−1. Sera were collected for evaluation of cardiac injury markers and proinflammatory cytokines. Additionally, heart tissue spacemen were harvested for determination of oxidative stress markers, as well as for histopathological examination and immunohistochemical analysis. ResultsDOX administration induced significant (p < 0.05) reductions in cardiac tissue level of reduced glutathione and activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase). Moreover, it induced significant (p < 0.05) elevations in cardiac tissue concentrations of nitric oxide and malondialdehyde as well as serum levels of cardiac injury biomarkers (lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and creatine kinase-MB) and proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha). The histopathological examination showed necrotic and degenerative changes in the cardiac tissue, while immunohistochemical analysis revealed marked myocardial expression of activated caspase-3 and cyclooxygenase-2, following DOX adminstration. Allicin pretreatment significantly improved (p < 0.05) all examined parameters, and restored the cardiac architecture. Conclusion The current study demonstrated that allicin effectively mitigates cardiac oxidative damage, apoptosis and inflammation, induced by acute DOX intoxication. Therefore, allicin could be a promising cytoprotective agent against DOX cardiotoxicity.
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The current strategy for the control of helminth infections relies on chemotherapy. However, resistance appearance is promoting the necessity of developing new drugs against trematodes. Herein, potential trematocidal effects of garlic (Allium sativum) are investigated in the context of intestinal foodborne trematodes, employing the Echinostoma caproni-mouse model. Daily administration of dietary doses of garlic was conducted in three groups of mice: (i) before infection (prophylaxis), (ii) after infection (therapeutic) and (iii) both, before and after infection (continuous). A fourth group of mice, not exposed to garlic, was used as control. No differences in worm recovery, fecundity and local cytokine expression profiles were found with respect to control infections. However, considerable alterations in tegument structure, including swelling, furrowing, vacuolization and changes in secretory bodies were detected in garlic-exposed parasites using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Protein secretion was markedly reduced in response to garlic, whereas up-regulation of several proteins, such as major vault protein and tER-ATPase, was observed in treated worms. The results presented herein provide new insights in the anthelminthic activity of bioactive garlic compounds and the manner that parasites respond to toxins.
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Urea is the most widely used form of N fertilizer in agriculture. However, if it is not incorporated into soil soon after application, urea has the disadvantage of undergoing considerable losses as ammonia gas due to hydrolysis in the presence of soil urease. Urease inhibitors are some of the most commonly used approaches to overcome nitrogen losses in fields, as they delay urea hydrolysis and thus increase the chances of urea incorporation into soil. Among the known soil urease inhibitors is the chemical based N(butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) but it is found to cause some phytotoxic effect on plants among assimilation issues. Allicin, a natural based bio-inhibitor from garlic (Allium sativum L.), has shown potential to inhibit urease activity. In this context, laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the effect of different allicin concentrations on soil urease inhibition period. The loss of applied urea was quantified, using diacetylmonoxime (DAM) calorimetric method, following application of urea with and without allicin. Urea and a mixture of urea and allicin at different concentrations (5%, 10% and 15% w allicin/w urea) were surface-applied at a rate of 1000 μg Urea N/kg soil to small circular containers. The soil was irrigated to maintain the moisture content between 25-30% throughout the study. This study suggest that prilled form urea application gave more consistent results than when urea was dissolved and added to the soil as a solution. Through this study, it was shown that allicin exerts inhibitory effects on urease in soil for agricultural applications, where 5% weight allicin to weight urea applied resulted in the best urease inhibition. At the given operating parameters, allicin inhibition was about 75% less than NBPT at steady state. While this study demonstrated the potential of allicin as a viable bio-inhibitor to retard the loss of urea in soil and thus it may be used along with urea for improved utilization of the applied –N by plants.
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Background & Aims Metformin is currently the most widely used first-line hypoglycemic agent for diabetes mellitus. Besides glucose-lowering action, there is increasingly interest in the potential anti-inflammatory action of this drug. In the present study, we investigated the actions of metformin on experimental insulitis using STZ-induced diabetic mice. Methods Mice with acute diabetes induced by STZ were administered metformin by gavage. Changes of blood glucose and body weight, and the daily amount of food and water intake were measured. Pancreatic tissues were collected for histologic analyses. Pathological assessment and immunohistochemistry analysis were used to determine the effect of metformin on insulitis. Inflammatory cytokines in the pancreas and insulin levels were measured through ELISA analysis. Results Metformin significantly reduced blood glucose levels and improved aberrant water intake behavior in experimental diabetic mice. No significant differences were observed in terms of body weight and food intake behavior in metformin-treated animals. In the STZ-induced model of diabetes, we found the appearance of pronounced insulitis. However, metformin administration reduced the severity of insulitis assessed by blind pathological scoring. In addition, metformin treatment improved insulin levels in experimental diabetic mice. ELISA assay revealed decreased levels of inflammatory response marker IL-1β and TNF-α in the pancreatic tissues following metformin treatment. Conclusion Metformin attenuated insulitis in the STZ-induced mice model of diabetes. This islet-protective effect might be partly correlated with the anti-inflammatory action of metformin.
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Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has been used as a spice and medicinal plant since ancient times. Garlic produces the thiol-reactive defence substance, allicin, upon wounding. The effects of allicin on human lung epithelium carcinoma (A549), mouse fibroblast (3T3), human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC), human colon carcinoma (HT29) and human breast cancer (MCF7) cell lines were tested. To estimate toxic effects of allicin, we used a standard MTT-test (methylthiazoltetrazolium) for cell viability and 3 H-thymidine incorporation for cell proliferation. The glutathione pool was measured using monobromobimane and the formation of reactive species was identified using 2 ,7-dichlorofluoresceine-diacetate. The YO-PRO-1 iodide staining procedure was used to estimate apoptosis. Allicin reduced cell viability and cell proliferation in a concentration dependent manner. In the bimane test, it was observed that cells treated with allicin showed reduced fluorescence, suggesting glutathione oxidation. The cell lines tested differed in sensitivity to allicin in regard to viability, cell proliferation and glutathione oxidation. The 3T3 and MCF-7 cells showed a higher proportion of apoptosis compared to the other cell types. These data show that mammalian cell lines differ in their sensitivity and responses to allicin.
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This work was performed to study the effect of allicin on hypertension and cardiac function in a rat model of CKD. The groups were control, CKD (5/6 nephrectomy), and CKD-allicin treated (CKDA) (40 mg/kg day/p.o.). Blood pressure was monitored (weekly/6 weeks). The cardiac function, vascular response to angiotensin II, oxidative stress, and heart morphometric parameters were determined. The CKD group showed hypertension and proteinuria. The coronary perfusion and left ventricular pressures were decreased in CKD group. In contrast, the vascular response to angiotensin II and expression of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) were increased. These data were associated with the increment in morphometric parameters (weight of heart and left ventricle, heart/BW and left ventricular mass index, and wall thickness). Concurrently, the oxidative stress was increased and correlated inversely with the expression of Nrf2, Keap1, and antioxidant enzymes Nrf2-regulated. Allicin treatment attenuated hypertension and improved the renal and the cardiac dysfunctions; furthermore, it decreased the vascular reactivity to angiotensin II, AT1R overexpression, and preserved morphometric parameters. Allicin also downregulated Keap1 and increased Nrf2 expression, upregulated the antioxidant enzymes, and reduced oxidative stress. In conclusion, allicin showed an antihypertensive, nephroprotective, cardioprotective, and antioxidant effects, likely through downregulation of AT1R and Keap1 expression.
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The chemical composition of garlic essential oils (GEOs) extracted from two different cultivars has been characterized using GC–MS analysis. GEO that was extracted from the white-skin cultivar (WGO) had a lower percentage of the major constituents diallyl trisulfide and diallyl disulfide (45.76 and 15.63%) than purple-skin cultivar (PGO) which contained higher percentages (58.53 and 22.38%) of the same components, respectively. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of WGO and PGO delivered in organic solvent (isopropanol) showed dose-dependent antimicrobial activity against the tested pathogenic bacteria and fungi, especially with WGO. On the other hand, formulation of both GEOs in water-based emulsions totally suppressed the antimicrobial activity of GEO. Re-formulation of GEOs in water-based microemulsion (particle size 10.1 nm) showed better antimicrobial activity than emulsions at the same concentration of GEOs. This study can assist in designing the proper water-based delivery system of GEO for application in food preservation.
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Garlic has the charisma of a potent remedy and holds its repute of a therapeutic panacea since the dawn of civilization. An integrated approach was adopted to evaluate the genetic diversity among Chinese garlic cultivars for their antifungal potency as well as allicin content distribution and, furthermore; a bioassay was performed to study the bio-stimulation mechanism of aqueous garlic extracts (AGE) in the growth and physiology of cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Initially, 28 garlic cultivars were evaluated against four kinds of phytopathogenic fungi; Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Verticillium dahliae and Phytophthora capsici, respectively. A capricious antifungal potential among the selected garlic cultivars was observed. HPLC fingerprinting and quantification confirmed diversity in allicin abundance among the selected cultivars. Cultivar G025, G064, and G074 had the highest allicin content of 3.98, 3.7, and 3.66 mg g −1 , respectively, whereas G110 was found to have lowest allicin content of 0.66 mg g −1. Cluster analysis revealed three groups on the basis of antifungal activity and allicin content among the garlic cultivars. Cultivar G025, G2011-4, and G110 were further evaluated to authenticate the findings through different solvents and shelf life duration and G025 had the strongest antifungal activity in all conditions. minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of Allicin aqueous standard (AAS) and AGE showed significant role of allicin as primary antifungal substance of AGE. Leaf disk bioassay against P. capsici and V. dahliae to comparatively study direct action of AGE and AAS during infection process employing eggplant and pepper leaves showed a significant reduction in infection percentage. To study the bioactivity of AGE, a bioassay was performed using cucumber seedlings and results revealed that AGE is biologically active inside cucumber seedlings and alters the defense mechanism of the plant probably activating reactive oxygen species at mild concentrations. However, at higher concentrations, it might cause lipid peroxidation and membrane damage which temper the growth of cucumber seedlings. At the outcome of the study, an argument is advanced that current research findings Frontiers in Plant Science | www.frontiersin.org 1
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Background: Leishmania is a unicellular protozoan parasite that produces several human diseases, ranging from localized self-healing cutaneous lesions to deadly visceral infections. Objective: The effect of allicin on the growth of Leishmania major (L. major) promastigotes was evaluated under in vitro conditions. Moreover, the efficacy of a topical allicin cream was examined in BALB/c (Bagg albino, laboratory-bred strain of the House Mouse) mice with cutaneous leishmanial lesions compared to the currently used drug, sodiumstibogluconate (pentostam). Methods: Cytotoxiciy and promastigote proliferation were measured. Different concentrations (50, 100, 150, and 200 μM) of liquid allicin were tested on L. major promastigotes twice: after 24 and 48 hours using an MTT colorimetric assay. In the in vivo condition, the efficacies of allicin cream and liquid allicin at two concentrations (0.15 μM/mouse and 0.30 μM/mouse) were evaluated. Serum factors of the control and treated groups were tested to evaluate the toxic effects of allicin on the liver and kidney. Results: Allicin at a concentration of 50 μM inhibited the growth of Leishmania promastigotes. Topical application of allicin cream reduced lesion sizes in mice. No significant differences in biochemical analysis were observed between the control and treated groups. Conclusions: Allicin has antileishmanial effects under in vitro and in vivo conditions and may be used in clinical applications.
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Background: Vascular endothelial apoptosis is significantly associated with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases, for which oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is a major risk factor. Allicin, the primary active ingredient of garlic, has been found to have cardiovascular protective effect by changing the fatty-acid composition, but its effect on ox-LDL-induced vascular endothelial injury remains unclear. We investigated the protective effect of allicin on cell viability, LDH release, apoptosis and apoptotic signaling in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Methods: In cultured HUVEC cell line, ox-LDL induced injury was investigated. The cell viability and injury were evaluated by using cell proliferation Assay kit and LDH release assay. The apoptosis was evaluated by the Annexin V-FITC kit. The activity of caspase-3 was assessed using a colorimetric caspase-3 assay kit. The ROS production was evaluated by fluorometric assay and NADPH oxidase activity was assessed with a GENMED kit. Results: Exposure of HUVECs to ox-LDL (150 μg/ml) reduced cell viability, induced apoptosis and increased activity of caspase-3, NADPH oxidase, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The pretreatment with allicin (30 and 100 μM) significantly rescued the cell viability, inhibited ox-LDL-induced apoptosis and activity of caspase-3, NADPH oxidase and ROS production in HUVECs, and the protective effect is concentration-dependent. The allicin (100 μM) alone did not show significant difference from control. Our study demonstrated that allicin protected HUVECs from ox-LDL-induced endothelial injury by reducing the apoptosis, mediated by inhibition of caspase-3 and NADPH oxidase related apoptotic signaling. Conclusions: Allicin prevents ox-LDL-induced endothelial cell injury by inhibiting apoptosis and oxidative stress pathway.
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Drug resistance and hepatic dysfunction are the two major factors that limit the application of chemotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It has been reported that allicin has the hepatic protective effect and antitumor activity. Hence allicin may be an ideal enhancer to chemotherapy regimen of HCC. In the present study, we demonstrated that allicin enhanced 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) inducing cytotoxicity in HCC cells. In vivo experiment, combined treatment group with allicin (5 mg/kg/d; every two days for 3 weeks) and 5-FU (20 mg/kg/d; 5 consecutive days) showed a dramatic inhibitory effect on the growth of HCC xenograft tumors in nude mice. The co-treatment group showed highly apoptotic level compared with 5-FU treated alone. Cells combined treatment with allicin and 5-FU increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), activated caspase-3 and PARP, and down-regulated Bcl-2 compared with DMSO, allicin and 5-FU treated alone. Moreover, the increase of activated caspase-3 and PARP was blocked by the ROS inhibitor antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate that allicin sensitized HCC cells to 5-FU induced apoptosis through ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway. These results provided evidences for the combination used of allicin and 5-FU as a novel chemotherapy regimen in HCC.
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Allicin (diallyl thiosulfinate) from garlic is a highly potent natural antimicrobial substance. It inhibits growth of a variety of microorganisms, among them antibiotic resistant strains. However, the precise mode of action of allicin is unknown. Here, we show that growth inhibition of Escherichia coli during allicin exposure coincides with a depletion of the glutathione pool and S-allylmercapto modification of proteins, resulting in overall decreased total sulfhydryl levels. This is accompanied by the induction of the oxidative and heat stress response. We identified and quantified the allicin-induced modification S-allylmercapto cysteine for a set of cytoplasmic proteins by using a combination of label-free mass spectrometry and differential OxICAT labeling. Activity of isocitrate lyase AceA, an S-allylmercapto-modified candidate protein, is largely inhibited by allicin treatment in vivo. Allicin-induced protein modifications trigger protein aggregation, which largely stabilizes RpoH and thereby induces the heat stress response. At sublethal concentrations, the heat stress response is crucial to overcome allicin stress. Our results indicate that the mode of action of allicin is a combination of a decrease of glutathione levels, unfolding stress, and inactivation of crucial metabolic enzymes through S-allylmercapto modification of cysteines.
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Objective: In the Mexican ethno-medicine, a number of plants have shown a successful anthelmintic activity. This fact could be crucial to identify possible green anti-parasitic strategies against nematodes affecting animal production. This research evaluated the in vitro and in vivo nematocidal effects of two single and combined plant extracts: bulbs of Allium sativum (n-hexane) and flowers of Tagetes erecta (acetone). The in vivo assay evaluated the administration of extracts either individually or combined against Haemonchus contortus in experimentally infected gerbils. Methods: The in vitro larvicidal activity percentage (LAP) of A. sativum and T. erecta extracts against H. contortus (L3) was determined by means of individual and combined usage of the extracts. Similarly, the extracts were evaluated in terms of reduction in the parasitic population in gerbils infected with H. contortus by individual and combined usage. Results: The LAP at 40 mg/mL was 68% with A. sativum and 36.6% with T. erecta. The combination caused 83.3% mortality of parasites. The oral administration of A. sativum and T. erecta extracts at 40 mg/mL, caused 68.7% and 53.9% reduction of the parasitic burden, respectively. Meanwhile, the combined effect of both extracts shown 87.5% reduction. Conclusion: This study showed evidence about the effect of A. sativum and T. erecta plant extracts by means of individual and combined usage against H. contortus in in vitro and in vivo bioassays in artificially H. contortus-infected gerbils as a model.
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