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Using Virtual Reality to Increase Motivation in Poststroke Rehabilitation

  • Centro Medicina Reabilitacao Regiao Centro - Rovisco Pais, Portugal

Abstract and Figures

Virtual reality (VR) applications meet fundamental principles of rehabilitation: intensity, task oriented training, biofeedback, environments rich in stimuli, and motivation, all pivotal factors for the success of rehabilitation programs. This paper describes the development process of a set of VR minigames developed to increase the motivation of stroke patients while performing repetitive upper limb movements.
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DEPARTMENT: Applications
Using Virtual Reality to
Increase Motivation in
Post-Stroke Rehabilitation
VR therapeutic mini-games help in post-stroke recovery
VR applications meet fundamental principles of
rehabilitation: intensity, task oriented training,
biofeedback, environments rich in stimuli, and
motivation, all pivotal factors for the success of
rehabilitation programs. This paper describes the
development process of a set of VR mini-games
developed to increase the motivation of stroke
patients while performing repetitive upper limb
Technology may significantly improve the lives of people suffering from incapacity or deficien-
cy affecting millions worldwide. Virtual Reality (VR) is already used to help patients endure
pain and disease treatment1,2,3, 4 as well as recover from stroke,5,6 among other applications in
medicine. VR has a significant potential for rehabilitation7,8 as it allows the creation of Virtual
Environments (VEs) providing multiple stimuli and fostering the improvement of motor and
cognitive capacities while motivating and engaging the patients. Moreover, VR applications
may meet the four basic principles of rehabilitation: intensity, task oriented training, biofeedback
and motivation, all pivotal factors for the success of rehabilitation programs. 6,9,10 ,11
The following benefits of using VR in rehabilitation have been reported in the literature:7 better
performance, improvement of the affected limb and cognitive functions, neuroplasticity stimula-
tion, and greater autonomy in the daily life activities, while increasing the patients’ motivation
and collaboration during the rehabilitation program. In particular, some authors have ‘found
evidence that the use of virtual reality and interactive video gaming may be beneficial in improv-
Paulo Dias, Ricardo Silva
DETI/IEETA Universidade de
Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal
Paula Amorim, Jorge Laíns,
Eulália Roque, Inês Serôdio
Fátima Pereira
Centro de Medicina de
Reabilitação da Região Centro -
Rovisco Pais, Tocha, Portugal
Beatriz Sousa Santos
DETI/IEETA Universidade de
Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal
Mike Potel
Beatriz Sousa Santos
DETI/IEETA Universidade de
Aveiro Aveiro, Portugal
ing upper limb function and ADL (Activities of Daily Living) function when used as an adjunct
to usual care (to increase overall therapy time) or when compared with the same dose of conven-
tional therapy'. 7 This makes VR an exciting tool in the future of therapy, ‘not only because it
was proven to be effective among sick and healthy subjects but also because it had very little
side-effect and was much safer than other aggressive or offensive therapies’. 8
Recently, affordable sensors developed by the gaming industry have been explored for rehabili-
tation. 6,12 This synergy between benefits and affordable technology makes VR applications a
natural approach for stroke rehabilitation, one of the main causes of incapacity worldwide.
Aware of this potential, and concerned with the lack of motivation of stroke patients while per-
forming repetitive upper limb movements in acute, subacute, and chronic phases, a group of
professionals at ‘Centro de Medicina de Reabilitação da Região Centro – Rovisco Pais’, a na-
tional Rehabilitation Center in Portugal, contacted the Universidade de Aveiro to develop VR
therapeutic serious games aimed at increasing motivation by providing everyday life context to
the movements. Several VR applications were developed using a Leap Motion sensor
( to track upper limb movements. These applications help patients per-
form relevant shoulder, arm and hand movements, while immersing them in an informal game-
like Virtual Environment (VE). This paper describes the development of the applications and the
main results of a study involving a group of 12 patients of the Rehabilitation Center.
With the goal of maximizing the usefulness and efficacy of
the applications and taking into consideration the specific
nature of their users and context of use, the initial phase of
the process involved a series of visits to the Rehabilitation
Center and meetings, first with a group of interested physi-
atrists, and later also with physical and occupational thera-
pists. These meetings helped establish a common ground of
mutual understanding of what patients need and what the
technology can provide, thenceforth facilitating the com-
munication between the teams. The first outcome of these
meetings was the awareness that the ideal VR platform
should encompass not only a set of mini-games to moti-
vate patients during the essential but tedious sessions of
upper limb rehabilitation (the initial goal), but also the
possibility of personalization of the games as well as re-
mote monitoring of the patients progress, allowing a better
follow-up of the patients’ evolution beyond the Rehabilita-
tion Center. This is a very important feature allowing
patients to actively participate in their program at home. As
a result of this initial phase, a set of decisions concerning
the design and implementation of the applications were
made, and the physiatrists and therapists stayed involved
during the process, regularly giving feedback and helping
establish intermediate goals.
The Leap Motion controller was selected as the sensor to monitor both coarse gestures (shoulder
or elbow movement, detected due to change of hand position) and fine movements (finger pinch-
es) since it detects the position, orientation and current state of the hand. The games were devel-
oped in Unity3D ( This platform allows the creation of VEs as well as game logic
and facilitates the virtual world creation interface as well as native integration with an Oculus
Rift DK2 Head Mounted Display ( and the official Leap Motion SDK
The system includes a backend server controlling access to the database and the front-end 3D
applications used by patients, as well as a configuration web page. This allows for storage and
management of game configuration data (game instance, number of iterations, maximum com-
The VR platform
should encompass
not only a set of
mini-games to
motivate patients,
but also the
possibility of
and remote
monitoring of
patient progress
pletion time, difficulty level and other aspects of the game), and game results (task completion,
time elapsed and specific values concerning the patient’s movements as the longest distance
Our first goal was to define which gestures were relevant for the exercises to be performed by
patients during the games. The ‘Enjalbert Test’ was selected as the basis for the applications to
be developed since it was already used to evaluate patients’ progress at the Rehabilitation Center.
13 The test, a six-level scale, is used to access the current state of the upper limb movement re-
covery for a post-stroke victim and includes different movements, ranging from 0 (no upper limb
movement) to 6 (fine pincer movements with all fingers):
Lifting and holding the hand in place (shoulder)
Bringing the hand to the mouth (shoulder and elbow)
Opening and closing the hand (hand)
Executing fine pinch movements with the index and middle fingers (hand)
Executing fine pincer movements with the ring and pinky fingers (hand)
An important requirement was that the games should
evoke real life situations and be aimed at helping patients
recover capacities for an independent life. Thus, it was
decided to develop five mini-games, focused on move-
ments involved in progressing through the Enjalbert scale.
The games developed to exercise the first three gestures
passed a first round of tests with patients (in the same
order as the list above):
Lift: the patient should lift a dumbbell above a
specified line (Figure 1) and hold it for a prede-
fined time before bringing it back down. This
action should be repeated for a predefined num-
ber of times;
Apple Eater: the patient should reach one of the
2 apples (Figure 2) on a table and bring it to the
Dish Washer: the patient should wash the dish-
es, opening and closing their hand to turn on and
off the sink’s faucet (Figure 3). The patient must
keep the hand open until the dish is entirely clean;
Two more games were developed to exercise ‘finger pinch’ movements that required users to
pick objects from a box and drop them on a table using different pinch gestures. However, due
to the unreliability of the Leap Motion controller for very fine gestures, doctors concluded these
games were not responsive enough to be tested with patients.
Data such as the duration of each movement, number of repetitions, height of the barbell line,
number of apples on each side of the table, number of dishes, or what is considered an open hand
are configured through a backend web page. A calibration application was also developed to
configure the games according to the patient’s condition, essential for allowing the patients to
accomplish the task. With this application the limits for values such as ‘maximum height when
lifting arm’ or ‘maximum hand opening’ can be set for each patient and updated according to the
patients progress along their rehabilitation program.
The games should
evoke real life
situations and be
aimed at helping
patients recover
capacities for an
independent life.
Figure 1: The ‘Lift’ game: user lifts barbell to a specified height a target number of times.
Figure 2: The ‘Apple Eater’ game: user takes an apple to the mouth a number of times.
Figure 3: ‘Dish Washer’ game: user opens and closes the hand to wash the dish a number of times.
As part of the development process, several rounds of preliminary tests were performed at the
Rehabilitation Center with the help of doctors, therapists and volunteer patients who played the
games. This formative evaluation phase had a twofold purpose: identify and correct possible
limitations of the applications and assess whether the patients liked and were motivated by the
mini-games. Some modifications were made, mostly regarding the distance between the virtual
hand resting position and the interaction objects, since in an initial phase applications were only
tested by users with full control of their upper limb and these issues were not noticed. Another
relevant improvement was the addition of a score and a ‘success’ sound effect at the completion
of the task, in a way to provide positive feedback and encouragement, and allow for competition
among patients, features that were considered important to increase motivation. On the other
hand, when patients did not attain the goal, discouraging sounds or negative messages were not
given so as to avoid patient frustration.
Beyond testing the mini-games, these preliminary testing sessions were also meant to instruct the
therapists on how to use the system, especially the configuration settings, as they would be the
main users.
A VR system was installed at the Rehabilitation Center to enable its patients to use the devel-
oped applications. The VR setup is composed by the following elements, shown in Figure 4;
• A desktop computer to run the applications and local backend server (marked 1 in
the figure).
• A 4k definition monitor to display the VE, when running the applications in a non-
immersive setting (2).
• An Oculus Rift DK2 HMD (Head Mounted Display) to display the VE, when running
the applications in a fully immersive setting (3).
• A Leap Motion controller to track the position and orientation of the patient’s hands,
so they can be represented and used in the VE (4).
• A speaker positioned in front of the patient to provide audio feedback (5).
Figure 4: VR system used at the Rehabilitation Center: 1) computer, 2) monitor, 3) Oculus Rift head
Mounted display, 4) Leap Motion controller, 5) speaker.
To evaluate the developed mini-games, a pilot study was conducted after a formal authorization
by the Rehabilitation Center Ethics Committee and a careful selection of the patients that should
participate. The aim of this study was to establish which selection standards should be applied
regarding which patients could use the applications and benefit from them, as well as to obtain
data regarding the patients’ satisfaction with the games.
The main questions to be answered by our study were: 1) at what level of recovery could the
patients start using the mini-games? 2) which exclusion criteria should be used? 3) which partic-
ular stroke sequelae cause unusual results in a patient’s capability and enjoyment when playing?
4) is this type of treatment well accepted by the patients? 5) is there a preference regarding the
level of immersion (non-immersive vs. full immersion)?
A group of 12 patients (six female) aged between 39 and 71 in several phases of recovery and
suffering from different stroke sequelae were selected to test the applications, using both the
immersive and non-immersive versions of the games. The patients used the applications while
seated and then answered a questionnaire regarding their satisfaction with the mini-games, al-
ways accompanied by a developer and a therapist.
First, the patient was instructed about the test and the equipment he/she would be using. The
patient then played the mini-games twice, using the computer screen as the display and the Ocu-
lus Rift DK2 HMD. To prevent bias, half the patients used the non-immersive version of the
applications first, while the other half started by using the HMD.
After the games were concluded (successfully or not) the patient answered orally part of the
questionnaire (concerned with familiarity with technology; non-immersive versus fully immer-
sive and general questions). The remaining sections of the questionnaire (doctor/therapist cre-
dentials; patient information; occupation therapy) were answered by the doctors and therapists.
Although most patients were not familiar with computer games (9 out of 12 had never played
videogames) or VR (10 out of 12), the mini-games were well accepted both in the rate of success
and in satisfaction. Only 2 patients were not able to successfully complete all 3 mini-games and
only one was not able to complete any of them. And all the patients who were able to play came
away satisfied, claiming to have enjoyed the experience and expressing interest in including VR
as part of the rehabilitation therapy. ‘Lift’ was the preferred game, followed by ‘Dish Washer’.
Although no significant differences in performance or acceptance between the fully immersive
and non-immersive games were noted, when asked, most patients claimed to prefer the fully
immersive version of the system. Two patients preferred the non-immersive version of the mini-
games. One of the patients had never used a computer before and found full immersion to be too
invasive. The other patient suffered from proprioceptive sensitivity and, as explained by the
doctors, stroke victims with this particular sequela feel the need to look at their hand in order to
execute the movements. Thus, not being able to see the real hand when using the HMD may
have caused the patient to feel less attracted to the fully immersive version, despite being able to
successfully play in both versions.
No patients expressed feeling any type of cybersickness during or after playing. This was ex-
pected as none of the mini-games involves any virtual full body movements, or rapidly changing
images, which are important causes for this kind of side effect.
When asked in which setting, individual or social, they would prefer to play the games, the
results were approximately the same for both. It was also noted that one patient participating in
the study had previously played the mini-games, during the preliminary tests, with greater suc-
cess. Although being able to complete all three games both times, during the study the patient
was suffering from depression, which was considered to be a plausible cause for the decrease in
Some limitations were found regarding the use of the Leap Motion sensor as a tracker. Two
specific issues were considered relevant: the position of the sensor on top of the table proved too
hard to reach by patients in early phases of recovery. This obstacle was overcome by placing a
board on the patient’s lap and positioning the sensor on it. In the ‘Apple Eater' game, because the
patient’s mouth position in the virtual environment was static, unless the patient kept his/her
back straight throughout the full exercise, this position would no longer correspond to the actual
mouth area of the patient. This issue was amplified by the fact that the patients would lean for-
ward to reach the objects, and was alleviated by reminding the patients to keep their back straight
during the procedure.
Overall, the potential use of the mini-games in occupational therapy in post-stroke rehabilitation
was very well received by patients, doctors and therapists, with its major benefit being the in-
crease in a patient’s motivation for recovery through the use of fun and relaxed environments,
which successfully distract the patient from the dull clinical setting at an affordable cost.
The collaboration continues with the development of more applications, both aimed at upper
limb movement recovery and rehabilitation for other stroke sequelae and further tests to intro-
duce this approach in the routine therapy of the Rehabilitation Center at least in some phases of
their recovery. The next phase will be the evaluation of the efficacy of this approach as an addi-
tional therapeutic instrument in the rehabilitation of post-stroke patients in acute, sub-acute and
chronic phases, through a longitudinal study involving a larger number of patients with a wider
variety of conditions, both at the Rehabilitation Center and at home.
Augmented Reality (AR) based physical therapy games using smartphones might also be a
promising direction as they lower the barrier to greater home-based use and technological litera-
cy of the population is increasing. Compared to conventional approaches, AR alternatives allow
adapting the exercises to the patients’ interests and habits potentially increasing their motivation.
Nevertheless, immersive VR-based games may be ultimately more engaging.
We thank the students and patients who participated in the tests and user study. This work
was partially supported by FCT, under its project UID/CEC/00127/2013.
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Paulo Dias is assistant professor in the Department of Electronics Telecommunications and
Informatics (DETI) at the University of Aveiro and a researcher at the Institute of Electron-
ics and Informatics Engineering of Aveiro (IEETA). His research interests include visual
computing and robotics. Contact him at
Ricardo Silva obtained an MSc in Computer Engineering from the University of Aveiro,
Portugal, and he developed this work in the scope of his dissertation. Contact him at ri-
Paula Amorim is a Physical and Rehabilitation Physician at the Portugal Centre Region Re-
habilitation Medicine Centre Rovisco Pais (CMRRC-RP). Her current research interests in-
clude Telereabilitation, Virtual and Augmented Reality. Contact her at
Jorge Lains is a Physical and Rehabilitation Physician at the Portugal Centre Region Reha-
bilitation Medicine Centre Rovisco Pais (CMRRC-RP). Contact him at
Eulália Roque, Fátima Pereira e Inês Serôdio are occupational therapists at the Portugal
Centre Region Rehabilitation Medicine Centre Rovisco Pais (CMRRC-RP). Contact them
Beatriz Sousa Santos is associate professor in the Department of Electronics Telecommuni-
cations and Informatics (DETI) at the University of Aveiro and a researcher at the Institute
of Electronics and Informatics Engineering of Aveiro (IEETA), Portugal. Her research in-
terests include virtual and augmented reality. Contact her at
Contact editor Mike Potel at
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... External motion capture systems (4 out of 6) were more frequently used in occupational therapy than builtin motion capture systems (2 out of 6). Theses sensors include the pinch force sensor [34], IMU [41], and leap motion trackers [29,40] that were used to track precise and complex limb movements required in training tasks in occupational therapy. Based on this observation, one can suspect that built-in motion capture systems may not be that suitable for occupational therapy using virtual rehabilitation to some extent. ...
... As occupational therapy is developed for simulating a wide range of real-life activities, a higher degree of realism representation is required in the virtual scenarios. For example, FMR can support various activities with their hands, such as dish washing [29], using a hammer, pouring tea or water into a cup [38], as well as functional training with their arms [39]. Besides, AMR is also helpful in the occupational therapy targeted at fine motor skill training with users' fingers and wrists [34,41]. ...
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... VR provides an effective rehabilitation approach that offers the possibility to deliver goal-oriented tasks, multisensorial and performance feedback, and increased treatment intensity [13][14][15][16]. Several studies also suggested that VR could improve patients' adherence by increasing motivation [17,18]. The addition of playful interventions such as those provided by serious games may be an effective approach to increase adherence in patients with stroke [19]. ...
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Background After a stroke, experts recommend regular monitoring and kinematic assessments of patients to objectively measure motor recovery. With the rise of new technologies and increasing needs for neurorehabilitation, an interest in virtual reality has emerged. In this context, we have developed an immersive virtual reality version of the Box and Block Test (BBT-VR). The aim of this study was to assess the concurrent validity of the BBT-VR among patients with stroke and healthy participants. Methods Twenty-three healthy participants and 22 patients with stroke were asked to perform the classical Box and Block Test (BBT) and BBT-VR three times with both hands. Concurrent validity was assessed through correlations between these two tests and reliability of the BBT-VR through correlation on test–retest. Usability of the BBT-VR was also evaluated with the System Usability Scale. Hand kinematic data extracted from controller’s 3D position allowed to compute mean velocity (Vmean), peak velocity (Vpeak) and smoothness (SPARC). Results Results showed strong correlations between the number of blocks displaced with the BBT and the BBT-VR among patients with stroke for affected (r = 0.89; p < 0.001) and less-affected hands (r = 0.76; p < 0.001) and healthy participants for dominant (r = 0.58; p < 0.01) and non-dominant hands (r = 0.68; p < 0.001). Reliability for test–retest was excellent (ICC > 0.8; p < 0.001) and usability almost excellent (System Usability Scale = 79 ± 12.34%). On average participants moved between 30 and 40% less blocks during the BBT-VR than during the BBT. Healthy participants demonstrated significantly higher kinematic measures (Vmean = 0.22 ± 0.086 ms⁻¹; Vpeak = 0.96 ± 0.341 ms⁻¹; SPARC = − 3.31 ± 0.862) than patients with stroke (Vmean = 0.12 ± 0.052 ms⁻¹; Vpeak = 0.60 ± 0.202 ms⁻¹; SPARC = − 5.04[− 7.050 to − 3.682]). Conclusion The BBT-VR is a usable, valid and reliable test to assess manual dexterity, providing kinematic parameters, in a population of patients with stroke and healthy participants. Trial registration; Unique identifier: NCT04694833, Date of registration: 11/24/2020
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of interactive video games (IVGs) in rehabilitation motivation and walking and balance abilities in chronic stroke patients. Materials and Methods: In this dual-center controlled trial, 24 chronic stroke patients from rehabilitation centers A and B were randomly assigned to an experimental (IVGs + traditional neurodevelopment treatment [TNT], n = 12) or a control group (walking training + TNT, n = 12). The patients in both the groups underwent TNT for 4 weeks (5 days/week) before undergoing either IVGs or walking training (4 weeks, 3 days/week) depending on the group. The primary and secondary outcomes were rehabilitation motivation and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) score, Functional Reach Test (FRT) performance, and walking speed (WS), respectively. Results: The patients in both the groups showed significant increase in the BBS score, FRT performance, and WS; however, the experimental group showed more significant improvements in rehabilitation motivation (P = 0.02, η2 = 0.415) and WS (P = 0.05, η2 = 0.333) than the patients in the control group. Conclusion: This study suggests that the IVGs in combination with TNT provide effective rehabilitation motivation in chronic stroke patients. Clinical Trial Registration number: KCT0003408.
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脳卒中に伴う身体機能障害を有する患者に対し行われるリハビリテーションにおいて,医療機関への移動による身体的負荷や感染リスクを軽減するために,任意の場所でリハビリテーションを行えるシステムが望まれる.そのため動作を定量的に表す指標や患者に説明する評価理由の分析が必要である.そこで本研究では,人物の姿勢推定技術により各関節位置や可動角度の時系列情報を抽出し,定量的評価指標や評価理由の推定を試みる.具体的には,姿勢推定情報から体幹の傾斜や双肩の傾斜の二つの代償動作の度合いや肩や肘の関節の角度を算出する.また,Multi-Head Attention 層を含むニューラルネットワークを用いた評価モデルを構築し,時系列上での重要度を算出することで評価理由の推定を試みる.検証実験では,作業療法士が脳卒中後遺症の患者を模擬した動作に対し上肢機能の評価を行った.その結果,サンプル動作に対して療法士と同様の観察評価を得た.また,得られた観察評価を療法士に適切に提示する可視化方法について検討した.
Students' learning motivation and gains in the professional training are essential criteria for evaluating the vocational teaching level. This study designed the virtual reality guidance (VRG) system to teach the skills of urban railway vehicle overhaul. The VRG system aims to improve students' enthusiasm and gains from learning. The system has two modules, teaching and experiment modules, respectively. The teaching module added the independent design mode and evaluation mode to guide students to participate in and enjoy the teaching system actively. The experiment randomly divided 80 urban railway vehicle engineering students into the experimental and control groups. Participants underwent the entire pretest, teaching, and posttest process. The results show that the VRG system endows students with more effective operational skills learning rather than traditional teaching methods. Also, the novel system can guide students to discover their professional advantages and enhance their enthusiasm for professional learning.
Socially Assistive Robots (SARs) and immersive Virtual Reality (iVR) are interactive platforms that promote user engagement, which can motivate users to adhere to therapeutic frameworks. SARs use social presence to create affective relationships with users, leveraging the human tendency to be driven by social interactions. iVR uses spatial presence to provide an intense multisensory experience that submerges users in a virtual world. We adapted two such platforms – a SAR and an iVR – to deliver cognitive training (CT), by integrating established cognitive tasks in gamified environments that convey a strong sense of presence. Sixty-four participants underwent CT with both platforms. We tested: (1) their perception of both platforms; (2) whether they preferred one over the other in the short term; (3) their projected preferences for long-term training; and (4) whether their preferences correlated with personal characteristics. They preferred the virtual experience in the short term across age and gender. For long-term CT, there was equal projected preference for both platforms. It may be that a combination of social and spatial presence might yield engagement in long-term training.
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Background: Virtual reality and interactive video gaming have emerged as recent treatment approaches in stroke rehabilitation with commercial gaming consoles in particular, being rapidly adopted in clinical settings. This is an update of a Cochrane Review published first in 2011 and then again in 2015. Objectives: Primary objective: to determine the efficacy of virtual reality compared with an alternative intervention or no intervention on upper limb function and activity.Secondary objectives: to determine the efficacy of virtual reality compared with an alternative intervention or no intervention on: gait and balance, global motor function, cognitive function, activity limitation, participation restriction, quality of life, and adverse events. Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (April 2017), CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and seven additional databases. We also searched trials registries and reference lists. Selection criteria: Randomised and quasi-randomised trials of virtual reality ("an advanced form of human-computer interface that allows the user to 'interact' with and become 'immersed' in a computer-generated environment in a naturalistic fashion") in adults after stroke. The primary outcome of interest was upper limb function and activity. Secondary outcomes included gait and balance and global motor function. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently selected trials based on pre-defined inclusion criteria, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. A third review author moderated disagreements when required. The review authors contacted investigators to obtain missing information. Main results: We included 72 trials that involved 2470 participants. This review includes 35 new studies in addition to the studies included in the previous version of this review. Study sample sizes were generally small and interventions varied in terms of both the goals of treatment and the virtual reality devices used. The risk of bias present in many studies was unclear due to poor reporting. Thus, while there are a large number of randomised controlled trials, the evidence remains mostly low quality when rated using the GRADE system. Control groups usually received no intervention or therapy based on a standard-care approach. Primary outcome: results were not statistically significant for upper limb function (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.07, 95% confidence intervals (CI) -0.05 to 0.20, 22 studies, 1038 participants, low-quality evidence) when comparing virtual reality to conventional therapy. However, when virtual reality was used in addition to usual care (providing a higher dose of therapy for those in the intervention group) there was a statistically significant difference between groups (SMD 0.49, 0.21 to 0.77, 10 studies, 210 participants, low-quality evidence). Secondary outcomes: when compared to conventional therapy approaches there were no statistically significant effects for gait speed or balance. Results were statistically significant for the activities of daily living (ADL) outcome (SMD 0.25, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.43, 10 studies, 466 participants, moderate-quality evidence); however, we were unable to pool results for cognitive function, participation restriction, or quality of life. Twenty-three studies reported that they monitored for adverse events; across these studies there were few adverse events and those reported were relatively mild. Authors' conclusions: We found evidence that the use of virtual reality and interactive video gaming was not more beneficial than conventional therapy approaches in improving upper limb function. Virtual reality may be beneficial in improving upper limb function and activities of daily living function when used as an adjunct to usual care (to increase overall therapy time). There was insufficient evidence to reach conclusions about the effect of virtual reality and interactive video gaming on gait speed, balance, participation, or quality of life. This review found that time since onset of stroke, severity of impairment, and the type of device (commercial or customised) were not strong influencers of outcome. There was a trend suggesting that higher dose (more than 15 hours of total intervention) was preferable as were customised virtual reality programs; however, these findings were not statistically significant.
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In the progress of civilization, humans have developed various ways of pain management. Virtual reality (VR in short), a technology to create an illusion of presence in cyberspace is a new addition to this inventory. Because of its immersive and distractive nature, researchers believe that VR may be safer and more effective than traditional analgesic methods. There has been a number of studies in this field and the interest continues to grow. In order to summarize achievements obtained so far and figure out gaps for future research possibilities, by reviewing more than 100 articles, this article try to point out novel or unusual research perspectives so as to suggest future research possibilities.
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Interactive systems are being developed with the intention to help in the engagement of patients on various therapies. Amid the recent technological advances, Kinect™ from Microsoft (Redmond, WA) has helped pave the way on how user interaction technology facilitates and complements many clinical applications. In order to examine the actual status of Kinect developments for rehabilitation, this article presents a systematic review of articles that involve interactive, evaluative, and technical advances related to motor rehabilitation. Systematic research was performed in the IEEE Xplore and PubMed databases using the key word combination "Kinect AND rehabilitation" with the following inclusion criteria: (1) English language, (2) page number >4, (3) Kinect system for assistive interaction or clinical evaluation, or (4) Kinect system for improvement or evaluation of the sensor tracking or movement recognition. Quality assessment was performed by QualSyst standards. In total, 109 articles were found in the database research, from which 31 were included in the review: 13 were focused on the development of assistive systems for rehabilitation, 3 in evaluation, 3 in the applicability category, 7 on validation of Kinect anatomic and clinical evaluation, and 5 on improvement techniques. Quality analysis of all included articles is also presented with their respective QualSyst checklist scores. Research and development possibilities and future works with the Kinect for rehabilitation application are extensive. Methodological improvements when performing studies on this area need to be further investigated.
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Purpose: This study presents data on the feasibility and possible benefits of a psychological intervention that uses virtual reality to induce positive emotions on adult hospitalized patients with metastatic cancer. The patient's satisfaction and perceived utility was also examined. Method: The sample was composed of 19 patients (53 % men, aged from 29 to 85 years old; x = 60.9; standard deviation = 14.54). The intervention consisted of four 30-min sessions during 1 week in which patients navigated through virtual environments designed to induce joy or relaxation. Mood was assessed before and after each session using the Visual Analog Scale. Patient satisfaction was assessed after each session and at the end of the intervention. Qualitative data were also collected with open-ended questions. Results: There were no major difficulties with the use of devices, and any difficulties that did arise were solved through practice. There were adequate levels of pleasantness and perceived utility of the proposed intervention. The main perceived benefits were distraction, entertainment, and promotion of relaxation states. Regarding mood changes, an increase in positive emotions and a decrease in negative emotions were also detected. Conclusions: The intervention was positively assessed and rated as minimally uncomfortable. Future actions are discussed as well as the need to implement brief interventions that take into account the patients' medical state and physical discomfort level, especially with those in the advanced stages of disease.
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Telerehabilitation enables a remotely controlled programme to be used to treat motor deficits in post-stroke patients. The effects of this telerehabilitation approach were compared with traditional motor rehabilitation methods. Randomized single-blind controlled trial. A total of 36 patients with mild arm motor impairments due to ischaemic stroke in the region of the middle cerebral artery. The experimental treatment was a virtual reality-based system delivered via the Internet, which provided motor tasks to the patients from a remote rehabilitation facility. The control group underwent traditional physical therapy for the upper limb. Both treatments were of 4 weeks duration. All patients were assessed one month prior to therapy, at the commencement and termination of therapies and one month post-therapy, with the Fugl-Meyer Upper Extremity, the ABILHAND and the Ashworth scales. Both rehabilitative therapies significantly improved all outcome scores after treatment, but only the Fugl-Meyer Upper Extremity scale showed differences in the comparison between groups. Both strategies were effective, but the experimental approach induced better outcomes in motor performance. These results may favour early discharge from hospital sustained by a telerehabilitation programme, with potential beneficial effects on the use of available resources.
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This paper describes a system that combines haptic, virtual reality and game technologies in order to assist repetitive performances of manual tasks to patients, which are recovering from neurological motor deficits. These users are able to feel virtual objects by using a haptic device, which acts as a virtual guide taking advantages of its force feedback capabilities. A virtual environment is used forming a haptic interface between the patient and the game. The haptic device is driven under the users movements and assisted through the Magnetic Geometry Effect (MGE). Preliminary evaluation has been performed in order to validate the system in which two different tasks have been performed (throw down bricks in an hexagonal tower without and with haptic assistance) with the aim to obtain more information related to the accuracy of the device.
Background and purpose: Reinforced feedback in virtual environment (RFVE) therapy is emerging as an innovative method in rehabilitation, which may be advantageous in the treatment of the affected arm after stroke. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of assisted motor training in a virtual environment for the treatment of the upper extremity (UE) after stroke compared to traditional neuromotor rehabilitation (TNR), studying also if differences exist related to the type of stroke (haemorrhagic or ischaemic). Material and methods: Eighty patients affected by a stroke (48 ischaemic and 32 haemorrhagic) that occurred at least 1 year before were enrolled. The clinical assessment comprising the Fugl-Meyer UE (F-M UE), modified Ashworth (Bohannon and Smith) and Functional Independence Measure scale (FIM) was administered before and after the treatment. Results: A statistically significant difference between RFVE and TNR groups (Mann-Whitney U-test) was observed in the clinical outcomes of F-M UE and FIM (both p < 0.001), but not Ashworth (p = 0.053). The outcomes of F-M UE and FIM improved in the RFVE haemorrhagic group and in the TNR haemorrhagic group with a significant difference between groups (both p < 0.001), but not for Ashworth (p = 0.651). Comparing the RFVE ischaemic group to the TNR ischaemic group, statistically significant differences emerged in F-M UE (p < 0.001), FIM (p < 0.001), and Ashworth (p = 0.036). Conclusions: The RFVE therapy in combination with TNR showed better improvements compared to the TNR treatment only. The RFVE therapy combined with the TNR treatment was more effective than the TNR double training, in both post-ischaemic and post-haemorrhagic groups. We observed improvements in both groups of patients: post-haemorrhagic and post-ischaemic stroke after RFVE training.
This is the first controlled study to explore whether adjunctive immersive virtual reality (VR) can reduce excessive pain of soldiers with combat-related burn injuries during wound debridement. Patients were US soldiers burned in combat attacks involving explosive devices in Iraq or Afghanistan. During the same wound care session using a within-subject experimental design, 12 patients received half of their severe burn wound cleaning procedure (~6 minutes) with standard of care pharmacologies and half while in VR (treatment order randomized). Three 0 to 10 Graphic Rating Scale pain scores for each of the treatment conditions served as the primary variables. Patients reported significantly less pain when distracted with VR. "Worst pain" (pain intensity) dropped from 6.25 of 10 to 4.50 of 10. "Pain unpleasantness" ratings dropped from "moderate" (6.25 of 10) to "mild" (2.83 of 10). "Time spent thinking about pain" dropped from 76% during no VR to 22% during VR. Patients rated "no VR" as "no fun at all" (<1 of 10) and rated VR as "pretty fun" (7.5 of 10). Follow-up analyses showed VR was especially effective for the six patients who scored 7 of 10 or higher (severe to excruciating) on the "worst pain" (pain intensity) ratings. These preliminary results provide the first evidence from a controlled study that adjunctive immersive VR reduced pain of patients with combat-related burn injuries during severe burn wound debridement. Pain reduction during VR was greatest in patients with the highest pain during no VR. These patients were the first to use a unique custom robot-like arm mounted VR goggle system.
Pain following traumatic injuries is common, can impair injury recovery and is often inadequately treated. In particular, the role of adjunctive nonpharmacologic analgesic techniques is unclear. The authors report a randomized, controlled study of 21 hospitalized trauma patients to assess the analgesic efficacy of virtual reality hypnosis (VRH)-hypnotic induction and analgesic suggestion delivered by customized virtual reality (VR) hardware/software. Subjective pain ratings were obtained immediately and 8 hours after VRH (used as an adjunct to standard analgesic care) and compared to both adjunctive VR without hypnosis and standard care alone. VRH patients reported less pain intensity and less pain unpleasantness compared to control groups. These preliminary findings suggest that VRH analgesia is a novel technology worthy of further study, both to improve pain management and to increase availability of hypnotic analgesia to populations without access to therapist-provided hypnosis and suggestion.