Conference Paper

Planning PBL in Computing Education An Approach Based on a Collaborative Toolkit

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The implementation of the extension in the engineering course complies with the Brazilian government's directive for the implementation of extension in the Brazilian undergraduate courses. The objective of this article is to describe the implementation of extension activities in the area of technology and production in a module of professional discipline of an engineering course in a Brazilian federal university in the form of workshops in the field of technology and production. We did a participatory action research in which it was tried to meet the new requirements of Higher Education legislation in relation to the 10% extension that should be included in the higher courses. We did this research on a degree in engineering course. The results were auspicious, enabling compliance with the legal requirements and the satisfaction of the local academic community.
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The Problem-Based Learning method has become an alternative to develop problem solving skills and abilities strongly required by the current labor market. However, studies indicate that due to the subjectivity of PBL concepts and the lack effective instruments for its implementation, the PBL teaching planning is compromised and strongly dependent on the teacher's ability. In addition, related studies indicate the existence of guidelines to support high level planning for the courses and disciplines in PBL such as infrastructure. Given that context, this paper proposes a tool for supporting PBL planning in Computing Education based on Backward Design Model that will lead teachers to structure their planning in order to comply with PBL processes and principles, maximizing the adherence of proposed activities to the PBL culture considering usability principles. The validation comprised the usability and acceptance evaluation of the tool proposed as well as its structure for conducting teachers planning their learning activities as much adherent as possible to PBL process and principles. The results analyzed indicate good usability scores and acceptance of the tool proposed through usability questionnaires as well as indicated the approach would assist in PBL educational planning process, supporting to maximize maturity in PBL.
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In order to exploit the benefits of PBL and mitigate the risk of failure when implementing it, the NEXT (iNnovative Educational eXperience in Technology) research group has been working on methods and tools focused on managing the PBL approach as applied to Computing. In this context, this article proposes a teaching and learning methodology based on PBL, called xPBL, consisting of elements that reinforce PBL principles, namely: real and relevant problems; a practical environment; an innovative and flexible curriculum; an authentic assessment process; close monitoring by technical tutors and process tutors, and finally, professional practitioners as teachers and tutors. Based on these elements, the paper describes the design of a PBL approach for a Design course, grounded on acquired knowledge of Design content and past PBL experiences in Software Engineering courses. This approach provides an insightful guide to implementing PBL from xPBL methodology, and provides instruments based on management techniques such as 5W2H (what, why, who, when, where, how and how much) and the production of artifacts to support the conception process of courses based on PBL.
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The increasing application of student-centered teaching approaches to solve real problems, driven by the market's demand for professionals with better skills, has prompted the use of PBL in different areas, including in Computing. However, since this represents a paradigm shift in education, its implementation is not always well understood, which adversely affects its effectiveness. Within this context, this paper puts forward a model for assessing the maturity of teaching processes under the PBL approach, the PBL-Test, with a view to identifying points for improvement. The concept of maturity is defined in terms of teaching processes adhering to PBL principles, taken from an analysis of the following authors: Savery & Duffy (1995), Barrows (2001) Peterson (1997) and Alessio (2004). With a view to validating the applicability of the model, an empirical study was conducted by applying the PBL-Test to three skills in the Computing area. Results showed that although the model has shown it needs further enhancement, it has already been possible to identify improvements in PBL teaching processes that clearly affect the effectiveness of the approach.
Conference Paper
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In computing courses, the teaching and learning approach normally emphasizes theoretical knowledge at the expense of practical knowledge. The major disadvantages of this approach are learners' lack of motivation during class and their quickly forgetting the knowledge they have acquired. With a view to overcoming these difficulties, Problem Based Learning (PBL), an institutional method of teaching, has been applied to teaching computing disciplines. Despite the growth of the practice of PBL in various disciplines of Computing, there is little evidence of its specific characteristics in this area, the effectiveness of different PBL methodological approaches, or of benefits and challenges encountered. In this context, this paper presents a systematic mapping study in order to identify studies which involve best practices when using the PBL method in Computing between 1997 and 2011, answering five research questions: “What are the main characteristics of PBL that support teaching in Computing?”; “What are the criteria for applying PBL effectively in this area?”; “How is the PBL methodology applied?”, “What are the advantages and benefits of applying PBL in Computing?” and, finally, “What are the main challenges about learning in PBL in Computing?”.
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The increasing application of student-centered teaching approaches to solve real problems, driven by the market´s demand for professionals with better skills, has prompted the use of PBL in different areas, including in Computing. However, since this represents a paradigm shift in education, its implementation is not always well understood, which adversely affects its effectiveness. Within this context, this paper puts forward a model for assessing the maturity of teaching processes under the PBL approach, the PBL-Test, with a view to identifying points for improvement. The concept of maturity is defined in terms of teaching processes adhering to PBL principles, taken from an analysis of the following authors: Savery & Duffy (1995), Barrows (2001) Peterson (1997) and Alessio (2004). With a view to validating the applicability of the model, an empirical study was conducted by applying the PBL-Test to three skills in the Computing area. Results showed that although the model has shown it needs further enhancement, it has already been possible to identify improvements in PBL teaching processes that clearly affect the effectiveness of the approach.
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Problem-Based Learning (PBL) method emphasizes students' own activity in learning about problems, setting up their own learning goals and actively searching for and analyzing information. In this paper, we describe and discuss our experiences on applying PBL, especially the seven steps method widely used in medical faculties, in an introductory computer programming course. We explain how the method is implemented, give examples and identify different kinds of PBL cases, and describe how the method is supplemented by other learning methods in our course. According to our experience, the PBL method increases the commitment of the students which results in a significantly lower drop-out rate: the average is 17% versus 45% in our traditional programming courses. In addition to computer programming, students also learn generic skills related to group work, collaborative design work, independent studying, and externalization of their knowledge.
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The foundation courses in Computer Science pose particular challenges for teacher and learner alike. This paper describes some of these challenges and how we have designed Problem-Based Learning (PBL) courses to address them. We discuss the particular problems we were keen to overcome: the pure technical focus of many courses; the problems of individual learning and the need to establish foundations in a range of the areas which are important for computer science gradu-ates. We then outline our course design, showing how we have created Problem-Based Learning courses. The paper reports our evaluations of the approach. This has two parts:assessment of a trial, with a three-year longitudinal follow up of the students; reports of student learning improvements after we had become experienced with full implementation of PBL. We conclude with a summary of our experience over three years of PBL teaching and discuss some of the pragmatic issues of introducing the radical change in teaching, maintaining staff support and continuing refinement of our PBL teaching. We also discuss some of our approaches to the commonly acknowledged challenges of PBL teaching.
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This paper proposes the yPBL learning methodology, based on the well-known PBL method and adapted to software engineering process by using the "y" methodology. The yPBL methodology is defined as a mapping between the roles and phases considered in PBL methodologies to the roles, iterations and phases considered in the "y" methodology. Moreover, the yPBL method includes different situations of active and passive learning roles not only for the students involved in a course but also for the instructors. Indeed, software engineering instructors face the same challenge of any software engineer and needs to continuously update their knowledge in software technologies. The yPBL method has been designed using the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and the various interactions points between the various process actors as well as the information to be exchanged during the synchronous and asynchronous learning process have been specified using this language. Finally, interesting preliminary results of the experience of using this methodology in the INSA of Toulouse are included in this paper.
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The PBL (Problem-Based Learning) methodology provides many benefits to those who use it in teaching. In this light, it is important to plan well when using this methodology, efficient to the purposes established by an educator, in a way to avoid those vital aspects to educational planning in the PBL approach that are neglected or forgotten. However, there is a lack of specific tools to help educators in the task of planning their teaching, specifically geared to the PBL approach. As an alternative to this problem, this paper proposes a tool consisting of a Canvas PBL and a set of cards intended to guide the planning of teaching in the PBL approach.
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This book provides guidelines for practicing design science in the fields of information systems and software engineering research. A design process usually iterates over two activities: first designing an artifact that improves something for stakeholders and subsequently empirically investigating the performance of that artifact in its context. This validation in context is a key feature of the book - since an artifact is designed for a context, it should also be validated in this context.
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The design of problems is crucial for the effectiveness of problem-based learning (PBL). Research has shown that PBL problems have not always been effective. Ineffective PBL problems could affect whether students acquire sufficient domain knowledge, activate appropriate prior knowledge, and properly direct their own learning. This paper builds on the 3C3R problem design model, which is a systematic conceptual framework for guiding the design of effective and reliable problems for PBL. To help practitioners apply the 3C3R model, this paper introduces a 9-step problem design process. The initial steps guide an instructional designer through analyses on learning goal, content, and context to help select problems. Later steps ensure that the problem appropriately affords the specifications identified in the analyses. The last two steps incorporate a reflection component, as well as ensure the integrity of the 3C3R components in the problem.
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Problem-based learning (PBL) is an instructional approach that has been used successfully for over 30 years and continues to gain acceptance in multiple disciplines. It is an instructional (and curricular) learner-centered approach that empowers learners to conduct research, integrate theory and practice, and apply knowledge and skills to develop a viable solution to a defined problem. This overview presents a brief history, followed by a discussion of the similarities and differences between PBL and other experiential approaches to teaching, and identifies some of the challenges that lie ahead for PBL.
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The increasingly popular term 'problem-based learning' does not refer to a specific educational method. It can have many different meanings depending on the design of the educational method employed and the skills of the teacher. The many variables possible can produce wide variations in quality and in the educational objectives that can be achieved. A taxonomy is proposed to facilitate an awareness of these differences and to help teachers choose a problem-based learning method most appropriate for their students.
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Project Model Canvas: gerenciamento de projetos sem burocracia
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FINOCCHIO JÚNIOR, José. Project Model Canvas: gerenciamento de projetos sem burocracia. Elsevier Brasil, 2014.
Problem-Based Learning in the Life Science Classroom
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MCCONNEL, T. J., PARKER, J. M., & EBERHARDT, J. (2016). Problem-Based Learning in the Life Science Classroom, K-12. Alexandria, VA: NSTA Press.
The ICT Profession Body of Knowledge
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Computer science curricula 2013
"Computer science curricula 2013," Assoc. Comput. Mach. (ACM) and IEEE Comput. Soc., Washington, DC, USA, Tech. Rep., Dec. 2013. Accessed on Aug. 7, 2017. [Online].