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The Use of Polymer Nanocomposites in the Aerospace and the Military/Defence Industries

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Abstract

Previously, applications of composites were limited to the military aerospace. This is because civilian aircraft with composites inclusions was considered to be too expensive. The use of composite in aircrafts, instead of steel, has resulted in lightweight aircraft structures and has consequently reduced the level of fuel consumption and costs of fuel, thereby reducing CO2 emissions. Undoubtedly, nanocomposites applications abound in several aspects of human life and the use of nanoparticle in materials dates back to the understanding of the nature of these materials. This chapter will focus on the use of nanopolymers in the aerospace and in the military. Particular attention will be given to nano military weapons, nanocoating for military applications, nanotechnology for military drones, nanotechnology in military suits, gloves, boots and nanotechnology in armored military vehicles, aircraft, and military ships and in military medicine.

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... PNC is a class of polymer composites having its polymer matrix reinforced with particles at the nanoscale (nanoparticles) thereby possessing excellently improved fatigue and fracture resistance. PNCs are used for producing military devices, materials, and structures that are lighter, smaller, cheaper, more accurate, smarter, and stronger [67,68]. ...
... When shear thickening fluids (a fluid containing a dispersion of nanoparticles) such as silica nanoparticles in polyethylene glycol are further applied, they will lead to the production of more flexible, dense, and stronger body armors. These body armors aid flexible movements of the wearer, protect the body against chemicals and toxins, and resist the impact of high-speed bullets as well as protection against blunt weapons like bars, stones, and sticks [67][68][69]. Figure 5 shows a typical example in Russia's recent battle suit made of PNCs. The "Star Wars" high-tech armor capitalizes on the unique properties of graphene nanofiller which possesses excellent strength (it is 100 times stronger than steel), lightweight, high hydrophobicity capacity, high stamina, excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, and ballistic capacity. ...
... The "Star Wars" high-tech armor capitalizes on the unique properties of graphene nanofiller which possesses excellent strength (it is 100 times stronger than steel), lightweight, high hydrophobicity capacity, high stamina, excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, and ballistic capacity. The armor consists of a tinted night vision helmet, radio cable, exoskeleton layer, gloves, padded khaki, and firearm [67]. More on the benefits of graphene, nanofillers in polymer composites for military applications are extensively covered by some previous researchers [70][71][72][73][74][75][76]. ...
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... Another polymerbased composite thatis commonly used for fabricating aircraft components is carbon-fiber reinforcement polymers (CFRPs). Other potential replacements for aluminum (Al) in aircraft structures are BFRPs and AFRPs [1,6,55]. Research has shown that several natural fibers-reinforced thermosets and thermoplastics meet performance requirements of aircraft interior panels such as specific weight, good resistance to heat and flame, ease of maintenance, and recoverability. ...
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... Recently, manufacturing polymer nanocomposites have received much attention due to its advantages as easy processing and enhanced electrical, optical, and mechanical properties. [1][2][3][4][5][6][7] In particular, the polymer nanocomposites that possess high dielectric permittivity have paid great attention. This may be attributed to joining superiorities of both the embedded filler with its high electrical conductivity and permittivity of hosting polymer with its mechanical flexibility. ...
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