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The influence of synchronous music on aerobic endurance performance, perceived exertion, flow and enjoyment

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Abstract

synchronous music; aerobic endurance performance; perceived exertion; flow; enjoyment; 6-minute run
According to a preliminary study and research this study examined
perceived exertion, flow and enjoyment by comparing the 6-minute
run of a selected number of probands without music vs. with music.
Because there is limited research in this area (Terry & Karageorghis,
2006), synchronous music was used.
The influence of synchronous music on
aerobic endurance performance, perceived
exertion, flow and enjoyment
11 sport students (7 male, 4 females, age: 22.2 ± 1.7 years)
performed the 6-minute run three times. The first one as a pretest,
the second run without music and the third run with specially
selected music adapted to the average heart rate of the pretest (164
bpm). The following songs (both 164 bpm) were played on a stereo
system for all subjects:
Paranoid Black Sabbath 2009 Remastered Version
Freestyler Bomfunk MC´s Alternative Radio Edit
Each test was done under equal conditions: same day of the week,
same time of the day and same sports hall. The students wore heart
rate monitors (Polar Electro, Model FT1).
In this small field study music synchronised to the average heart
rate had no influence on the aerobic endurance performance,
(perceived) exertion, flow and enjoyment. According to the average
results music leads to no significant change in both, negative or
positive side.
1 Sport and Education, University Bielefeld, Bielefeld, Germany 2 Steinhagener Gymnasium, Steinhagen, Germany
Graduate School Research Retreat
29th of November – 30th of November 2010
Graduate School Research Retreat
29th of November – 30th of November 2010
Research Question
Does listening to synchronous music have an effect on aerobic
endurance performance, perceived exertion, flow and enjoyment?
The Borg-RPE-scale showed no significant difference:
t = 0.733, p = .457, n = 11
The Flow-short-scale showed no significant difference:
t = -0.110, p = .915, n = 11
The PACES showed no significant difference:
t = -0.368, p = .721, n = 11
Table 1 Distance and heart rate
flow
Background and Research Question
Method
Conclusion
References
Terry, P. C., & Karageorghis, C. I. (2006). Psychophysical effects of music in sport and exercise: An update on theory, research and application. In Proceedings of the 2006 Joint Conference of the Australian Psychological Society and New Zealand
Psychological Society (pp. 415-419). Australian Psychological Society.
Results
Further research is needed with
(1) more subjects to achieve the necessary statistical power.
(2) a longer and more demanding test.
(3) individual music for each subject.
(4) a different age group (e. g. prepubertal children).
Milan Dransmann1 & Anita Sadoroschny2
exertion
aerobic endurance performance
enjoyment
Reached distances were not significantly higher:
t = -1.284, p = .228, n = 11
The average heart rates showed no significant difference:
t = -0.577, p = .577, n = 11
The maximum heart rates showed no significant difference:
t = -0.626, p = .545, n = 11
Validated questionnaires assessed per-
ceived exertion, flow and enjoyment after
the second (without music) and third (with
music) test: Borg-RPE-scale (RPE), Flow-
short-scale (FSS) and physical activity
enjoyment scale (PACES). Statistical
analyses were performed using the
software programm SPSS, version 24. For
all variables a paired t-test was calculated.
In all cases, p < .05 were taken as the level
of significance. The results are presented
as mean ± SD.
Without music With music
Distance (m) 1364.73 ± 106.01 1339.00 ± 115.58
HRAVG (bpm) 172.00 ± 9.50 170.91 ± 8.43
HRMAX (bpm) 184.45 ± 9.35 182.73 ± 7.73
Table 2 Perceived exertion, flow and enjoyment
Scale Without music With music
RPE 6 20 14.72 ± 2.74 14.18 ± 3.12
FSS 1 7 5.19 ± 0.55 5.17 ± 0.69
PACES 1 5 3.49 ± 0.75 3.45 ± 0.63
perceived exertion
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