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Amperometric biosensor modified with platinum and palladium nanoparticles for detection of lactate concentrations in wine

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  • Киевский национальный университет технологий и дизайна
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Detection of the lactate content is of great importance in clinical diagnostics, fermentation industry, and control of the quality of food products. The work was aimed at the development of a sensitive element of the amperometric biosensor, based on enzyme lactate oxidase and carbon electrodes modified with platinum and palladium nanoparticles (Pt&Pd), for the lactate analysis in the presence of interfering substances. The voltamperometric characteristics of the modified sensor were studied, the enzyme stabilization was carried out. An influence of the medium parameters on the biosensor operation was comprehensively investigated. The working characteristics of the biosensor were thoroughly analyzed, its stability and selectivity were investigated. An increase in the bioselective membrane activity as a result of using Pt&Pd nanoparticles was shown. The developed biosensor for the measurement of lactate concentration is characterized by the linear range of 0.05–0.8 mM, the lower detection limit 0.1 µM and sensitivity of 3.03 nA mM⁻¹ cm⁻². The main interferents were shown to have no effect on the work of created lactate biosensor. The lactate content in several types of wine and must was determined with created biosensor (lactate concentration in wine ranges from 0.5 to 5 g/l), and the results were compared with those obtained by the traditional spectrophotometric method; good correlation was shown (the correlation coefficient R² = 0.98). The developed sensor can be used in winemaking for selective detection of lactate in raw material during fermentation and control of the final quality of wine.
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SN Applied Sciences (2019) 1:306 | https://doi.org/10.1007/s42452-019-0315-9
Research Article
Amperometric biosensor modied withplatinum andpalladium
nanoparticles fordetection oflactate concentrations inwine
L.Shkotova1 · A.Bohush3· I.Voloshina4· O.Smutok5· S.Dzyadevych1,2
© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019
Abstract
Detection of the lactate content is of great importance in clinical diagnostics, fermentation industry, and control of the
quality of food products. The work was aimed at the development of a sensitive element of the amperometric biosensor,
based on enzyme lactate oxidase and carbon electrodes modied with platinum and palladium nanoparticles (Pt&Pd),
for the lactate analysis in the presence of interfering substances. The voltamperometric characteristics of the modied
sensor were studied, the enzyme stabilization was carried out. An inuence of the medium parameters on the biosensor
operation was comprehensively investigated. The working characteristics of the biosensor were thoroughly analyzed, its
stability and selectivity were investigated. An increase in the bioselective membrane activity as a result of using Pt&Pd
nanoparticles was shown. The developed biosensor for the measurement of lactate concentration is characterized by the
linear range of 0.05–0.8mM, the lower detection limit 0.1µM and sensitivity of 3.03 nAmM−1cm−2. The main interferents
were shown to have no eect on the work of created lactate biosensor. The lactate content in several types of wine and
must was determined with created biosensor (lactate concentration in wine ranges from 0.5 to 5g/l), and the results
were compared with those obtained by the traditional spectrophotometric method; good correlation was shown (the
correlation coecient R2 = 0.98). The developed sensor can be used in winemaking for selective detection of lactate in
raw material during fermentation and control of the nal quality of wine.
Keywords Lactate oxidase· Amperometric biosensor· Pt&Pd nanoparticles· Electrochemical deposition· Lactate· Wine
1 Introduction
Grape wines are multicomponent systems, which include
organic acids, carbohydrates, alcohols, etc. The concentra
tion of ingredients in wine considerably diers depending
on the grapes variety, climatic, geological, agrotechnical
and other conditions. The data of qualitative and quantita
tive analysis of the components can be a ground to judge
about naturalness of beverages and correctness of their
production [1, 2].
The control of organic acids is relevant at all stages of
winemaking, because the acidity is one of the main marks
of the wine taste. The presence or absence of organic acids
in the sample, their amount and ratio can dene the qual
ity of beverages and avoid their falsication. Thus, the con
trol of fermentation processes allows a correlation with the
taste of the nal product [3, 4].
Information on the concentration of lactate is signi
cant in wine industry because this parameter determines
not only the taste and specic aroma of wine but also the
bacterial activity during fermentation [5]. Reliable informa
tion on the lactate content in the must at dierent stages
of wine production allows the control and regulation of
the fermentation process [6]. Additionally, stability of
Received: 14 December 2018 / Accepted: 27 February 2019 / Published online: 6 March 2019
* L. Shkotova, luda_shkotova@yahoo.com | 1Institute ofMolecular Biology andGenetics, NAS ofUkraine, 150, Akademika Zabolotnoho
Str., Kiev03680, Ukraine. 2Institute ofHigh Technologies, Taras Shevchenko National University ofKyiv, 2, korp.5, Pr. Akademika Hlushkova,
Kiev03022, Ukraine. 3Nencki Institute ofExperimental Biology, Polish Academy ofSciences, 3 Pasteur Str., 02‑093Warsaw, Poland. 4Kyiv
National University ofTechnologies andDesign, 2, Nemirovich‑Danchenko Str., Kiev01011, Ukraine. 5Institute ofCell Biology, NAS
ofUkraine, 14/16, Drahomanov Str. , Lviv79005, Ukraine.
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