ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

Language as the basic right of children is the most important thing to build their characters that required from their closest environment, family. Mother is the first person who will put and create the children's characters. The use of positive language by a mother will build on children's positive characters. Therefore, this research aims at determining the use of positive language by mothers in Majelis Taklim Baitul Hasan Jagakarsa, on children's education to build their positive behavior. This research employing a cross-sectional survey method with an attitudinal questionnaire of ten questions with the total respondents of 118 people. By implementing the formula of positive language, mothers will hopefully understand more the use of positive language on children's education.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Scope: Journal of English Language Teaching p-ISSN: 2541-0326
Volume 01, Number 01, September 2016 e-ISSN: 2541-0334
Copyright©2016 1
THE USE OF POSITIVE LANGUAGE ON
CHILDREN EDUCATION TO BUILD
CHILDREN’S POSITIVE BEHAVIOUR
Amrina Rosyada; Ayu Bandu Retnomurti
Department of English Education, Faculty of Language and Art, University of Indraprasta PGRI
Jalan Nangka No. 58C Tanjung Barat, Jagakarsa, Jakarta Selatan 12530
4mrin4@gmail,com, ayubandu@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
Language as the basic right of children is the most important thing to build their characters that
required from their closest environment, family. Mother is the first person who will put and create
the children's characters. The use of positive language by a mother will build on children's positive
characters. Therefore, this research aims at determining the use of positive language by mothers
in Majelis Taklim Baitul Hasan Jagakarsa, on children education to build their positive behavior.
This research employing a cross-sectional survey method with attitudinal questionnaire of ten
questions with the total respondents of 118 people. By implementing the formula of positive
language, mothers will hopefully understand more the use of positive language on children
education.
Key words: positive language, positive behavior, the formula of positive language
ABSTRAK
Bahasa yang diperoleh seorang anak sebagai hak dasarnya adalah hal terpenting dalam
membentuk kepribadiannya yang diperolehnya dari lingkungan yang terdekat yaitu keluarga. Ibu
adalah orang pertama yang akan meletakkan dan membentuk kepribadian seorang anak.
Penggunaan bahasa positif oleh seorang Ibu akan membangun kepribadian yang juga positif
pada seorang anak. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui penggunaan
bahasa positif oleh para Ibu di lingkungan Majelis Taklim Baitul Hasan Jagakarsa, dalam
mendidik anak untuk membangun kebiasaan positif mereka. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode
cross-sectional survey berupa kuesioner kebiasaan yang terdiri dari 10 (sepuluh) daftar
pertanyaan dengan total responden sebanyak 118 orang. Dengan memberikan formula panduan
bahasa positif, diharapkan para Ibu dapat lebih memahami penggunaan bahasa positif dalam
mendidik anak.
Kata kunci: bahasa positif, kepribadian positif, formula panduan bahasa positif
2 Scope: Journal of English Language Teaching, Vol.01, No.01, Sept 2016, 1-8
INTRODUCTION
Majelis taklim Baitul Hasan
Jagakarsa is one of the learning centers
for Moslem’s community around
Jagakarsa district where the religion
activities are usually held by the
community. This learning center was
built independently by the community
concerning to the community’s needs of
learning process from early childhood
education through over-age people’s
education. All the learning activities are
based on the Moslem’s principles of Al
Quran and Al Hadith in purity and
sincerity, related to science development
in human life. Like many other majelis
taklim in all over Indonesia, this majelis
taklim is authorized under the Dewan
Kemakmuran Masjid (DKM).
As the learning center, majelis
taklim Baitul Hasan has many daily
programs. Besides the five times
praying, this learning center also has
supreme programs which are Halaqah
Tahfidz Quran Ma’had Baitul Hasan for
kids from elementary school to junior
high school every twice a week; Cabe
Rawit community for children from early
years to elementary school every twice a
week; Teens community for teenagers
from junior high school to senior high
school every twice a week; Women’s
community every once a week and
women’s day seminar once a month;
martial art training for children of
elementary school to senior high school
every twice a week; and many other
programs.
This research began with the
observation on women’s program in
every once a week. Writers found that
some of mothers in majelis taklim Baitul
Hasan Jagakarsa didn’t respond their
children with proper responses. Most of
them chose to respond their children by
buying some snacks or candies when the
children cried or got very noisy in the
majelis taklim. They even violated their
children’s pride by getting mad at the
children or even yelling at them. For
mothers, to make the children stop their
crying or their noisy was the most
important thing, no matter how. Mothers
seemed to give a short feedback and have
a quick conversation to their children
that the children felt being ignored.
Unfortunately, with no realize mothers
create a big picture on children’s
memory of their attitude and also their
characters. Those conditions due to less
knowledge of mothers about how
important the use of language in building
children’s character. Mothers also have
less motivation to read or to broaden
their horizon on how to use positive
language to their children. What is more,
television and gadget at home are
already replaced the mothers’ role in
building children’s characters.
Based on the conditions, with the
coordination to the DKM of majelis
taklim Baitul Hasan, the writers provide
a one-day seminar for mothers about the
important role of mothers’ language that
affects their children’s character
building. This seminar is very important
for mothers to open their new
perspective on how language can create
children’s characters. Hopefully,
mothers will be inspired and willingly
apply the positive language to their
children on their daily life.
According to Ball-Jessica
(2011:13), “Language is not only a tool
for communication and knowledge, but
also a fundamental attribute of cultural
identity and empowerment, both for the
individual and the group.” It shows the
most important function of language for
human life, how the language can reflect
someone’s character. Therefore,
language education that required by the
children as the basic right is the most
important thing to build their characters.
Children's character becomes the
responsibility for their parent and family,
The Use Of Positive Language... (Amrina Rosyada dan Ayu Bandu Retnomurti) 3
a place where the education began.
Mother is the first person who touches
the children directly, and because of her
can develop the children's character. The
use of positive language by a mother will
develop on children's positive character,
as what Ball-Jessica (2011:13) stated as
follows:
“Mother tongue instruction
generally refers to the use of the
learners’ mother tongue as the
medium of instruction.
Additionally, it can refer to L1 as a
subject of instruction. It is
considered to be an important
component of quality education,
particularly in the early years. The
expert view is that mother tongue
instruction should cover both the
teaching of and the teaching
through this language.”
There are also other aspects that
effect a child’s character in the future
besides the use of the language. One of
the most important aspect is parent’s
approach to their children. Lexmond-
John & Reeves-Richard (2009: 31)
stated, “Parents’ approach to their
children-their level of warmth,
responsiveness, control and discipline-
are strongly influential on children’s
character capability development.”
Parents have to be aware on those
aspects so that they can develop a quality
approach on children’s growth. Building
a strong positive character of children is
not a single education aspect, but it is
about comprehensive and continuous
education aspects that should be
implemented on children’s daily
activities.
The use of positive language as
one of the most important aspect has
shown the effective results of positive
behavior on children’s character in many
countries in Europe and America. One of
the researcher, Sue R. J. Law et al.
(2010), have proved the success of using
positive language on building children’s
character, especially for the early five
years children in Bristol, British. She
concluded that the use of positive
language and the performance of
positive environment have given a
remarkable output on building the
children’s positive character. Based on
that research, the writers have a strong
belief to inspire mothers in majelis
taklim Baitul Hasan about positive
language and to encourage them in
implementing the positive language in
their daily life, aims at building their
children characters.
METHOD
In this research, writers conducted
the cross-sectional survey method in
collecting the data. The data was
collected at the time of event, which was
on the day of the seminar. This method
was conducted to find out and to measure
mothers’ attitude in using positive
language on their children’s education. A
set of questionnaire was used as the
research instrument, consist of ten
questions with proportional answers and
different scores. Writers also conducted
groups’ discussion method to encourage
the participants’ responses. The data
calculated by scoring and summarizing
all the responses in the questionnaires’
form and in the discussion session. All
data then being analyzed and performed
in diagrams and table, and described in
statistical description.
This research engaged 118 women
participants who are housewives and live
around the majelis taklim Baitul Hasan,
Jagakarsa, South Jakarta. All participants
joined the one day women’s seminar and
fulfilled all questions in the
questionnaire. The participants also
actively interacted through the seminar
performance in the form of responses,
questions, or advice. The participants
4 Scope: Journal of English Language Teaching, Vol.01, No.01, Sept 2016, 1-8
even concluded their own summary of
the seminar’s presentation.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Based on the scoring and
summarizing the data of 118
participants, the result shows that 28.81
% participants or about 34 participants
are at the high level in implementing
positive language to their children; 69.49
% or about 82 participants are at the
medium level in implementing positive
language to their children; and the rest of
1.70 % or about 2 participants are at the
low level in implementing positive
language to their children. See the
following diagram for clear statistical
description.
Diagram 1
The Use of Positive Language Result
The above diagram shows that 34
participants are at the high level in
implementing positive language to their
children with A categorized and scored
20-30; 82 participants are at the medium
level in implementing positive language
to their children with B categorized and
scored 10-20; and the rest are 2
participants at the low level in
implementing positive language to their
children with C categorized and scored
under 10. In the seminar, most of the
participants performed enthusiastic and
interactive responses that showed their
willingness to have a new perspective of
the use of positive language and avoid
negative language on their children
education.
Based on the questionnaire data,
basically most mothers in majelis taklim
Baitul Hasan have already known about
the use of positive language in building
their children’s character. But in reality,
mothers have many difficulties to
implement the positive language because
of some factors. A mother as a multi-
tasking person, has so many
responsibilities for her family, which are
started from an early morning till late at
night. Mostly, a mother feels exhausted
because of her children matters, her
household matters, her financial matters
and many others. In this situation,
mother usually ignores the use of
positive language and use her casual
language that actually impacts negative
meaning on her children’s mind. The
worst is a mother gets confused and
cannot differ the difference between the
positive language and the negative one.
On the seminar, the writers
encourage the audience about many
issues of children education, especially
on children’s character building. There
are some important issues that have been
delivered to the audience, which are: (1)
knowing children’s behavior; (2)
different age different behavior; (3)
belief, behavior and character; (4)
positive language versus negative
0
50
100
20 to 30 10 to 20 under 10
A B C
34
82
2
Total Respondent
Scoring Criteria
The Use of Positive Language
The Use Of Positive Language... (Amrina Rosyada dan Ayu Bandu Retnomurti) 5
language; (5) positive language
guidance; and (6) positive language
behavior into positive character. All
issues have been discussed and
summarized by the audience
interactively.
For the first issue, there are two
important things that the children have to
face: (1) learn about accepted behavior;
and (2) manage their behavior. One thing
to be noticed that positive behavior is
very different to discipline. Discipline is
about order and punishments are
attached on it. For instance, when parent
decided to schedule the dinner time at 7
p.m. but the children didn’t come on time
and then mother would clean up the table
so that the children would not get the
meal. That situation would be noticed by
the children as the punishment for not
coming on time at dinner time rather than
a positive behavior. It would be very
different if the parent wait for the
children to come on the table and make a
relax conversation while waiting for
another family members. Children
would notice that situation in positive
mind to be an honor for them, as a
member of the family and as a whole
family.
The second issue is talking about
identifying children’s behavior based on
their age. Indeed, it is different age
different behavior and cause different
language in use. It will be very different
the reaction of two different age children
of 2 years old boy and 7 years old boy
when you give them a soccer ball. For
the 7 years old boy, the ball will be
kicked off and played in the backyard.
What will happen with the ball on the 2
years old boy? For the 2 years old boy,
the ball probably will be hugged, starred,
or talked to.
Another issue is about belief,
behavior, and character. As the Moslem’s
community, the audience have a strong
belief that Islam with Al Qur’an and Al
Hadith are the main source of all science
in this entire life, including the human
life. They refer to Al Qur’an for Ali
Imran: 159 and Al Hadith for Muslim
about Islam’s rules on children
education. In Islam, parents are mostly
responsible for their children. Every
children was born in genuine character
of honest and sincere. It is the parents
who create the children’s character to
become a good person or a bad one in the
future. Islam told the parents to treat and
raise their children in positive language,
positive mind, and positive attitude. The
parents started it by giving the great
names of their children.
Basically, the use of language can
be categorized into two different
meaning, which are positive language
and negative language. Positive
language is a language that effects a
good image, warm and comfort feeling
to the hearers. Meanwhile, the negative
language is a language that effects a bad
image and terrible feeling to the hearers,
or even cause a conflict. Language as the
communication tool is the effective
system to express speaker’s idea to the
hearer. As Newson M. et.al. (2006:1)
said as follows:
“Whatever else language might be
(e.g. a method of communicating,
something to aid thought, a form of
entertainment or of aesthetic
appreciation) it is first and
foremost a system that enables
people who speak it to produce and
understand linguistic expressions.”
According to Pranowo (2009),
there are several characteristics of
positive language, which are: (1) telling
what to do; (2) giving solution; (3)
impressing to help; and (4) focusing on
positive action. On the other side, the
negative language has several
characteristics which are: (1) telling
what’s forbidden; (2) impressing to
6 Scope: Journal of English Language Teaching, Vol.01, No.01, Sept 2016, 1-8
accuse; (3) using negative words such as:
don’t, never success, too late, what a
lazy…, etc.; (4) focusing on negative
action. Those characteristics are not
easily applied by a mother, especially
when a mother got very exhausted.
In the seminar, writers try to
deliver the form of positive language
guidance to the audiences so that a
mother can easily apply the positive
language to their children at home.
Based on Brogle-Brooke et.al. (2013) the
guidance is as follows:
Table 1
Positive Language Guidance
No
Positive
Language
Guidance
Descriptions
1.
Replace
“Don’t”
with “Do”
Tell the children what they can do rather than tell the
children what they cannot do. For instance, when a kid
jumping on a sofa, rather than tell the kid not to jump
it’d better to tell the children, “Honey, it is a sofa. It is
very warm to sit over it. Come and sit with me honey.”
2.
Offer a
Choice
Give the children some choices to do that the children
feel there are so many things can be done. Parents will
control the choices but the children will feel that they
have so many opportunities to do what they want
without being controlled.
3.
Tell Your
Child
“When”
When the children ask the parents to do or to buy
something and parents disagree, it is better for parents
telling them to do it or to buy it in another time, rather
than telling them “No”. Make sure that parents are able
to do it or to buy it in their settled time, so that the
children learn to keep a promise.
4.
Use “First-
then”
Language
Another language that parents can ask to their children
is by telling them first-then language, not give an order.
For instance, when children come home from school,
put their shoes anywhere, and take some fruit without
washing their hands first, parents can tell them, “Sweet
heart, I think it’s better for you to put your shoes at the
shoes’ rack, wash your hands first, then take some fruit
for you.”
5.
Give Your
Child Time
to Think
When parents ask the children to do something and the
children seem to be not responding, parents have to
wait and give the children time to think. Actually,
children need time to think to understand parents’
request before doing it. Different child will need
different time consuming.
6.
Help Your
Child to
Asking the children to do something, sometimes time
consuming or even being forgotten by the children.
The Use Of Positive Language... (Amrina Rosyada dan Ayu Bandu Retnomurti) 7
Remember
Parents have to wait and remind the children what they
have to do. Parents can say, “Honey, I remember that
you have something to do”. In this way, children learn
to remember things that they have to do without feeling
guilty or uncomfortable.
Those six positive languages,
hopefully can be a guidance for the
parents especially mother. With the
guidance, mother can easily apply the
positive language to their children from
day to day at home. With daily
application, the positive language can
create positive environment so then
create positive behavior for the children.
This positive behavior will develop the
children’s positive character.
Based on many researches on early
childhood education in many countries,
such as in United States (Harvard Family
Research Project: 2006), Nigeria
(Fagbeminiyi, F.: 2011), and Czech
Republic (Taguma, M. et. al.: 2012),
have concluded that it is very essential
for children education by the role of
family involvement. Besides the positive
language, there are also some other
aspects that have to be concerned in
building the children’s positive
characters as Lexmond-John & Reeves-
Richard (2009:31) stated, “Parents’
approach to their children-their level of
warmth, responsiveness, control and
discipline- are strongly influential on
children’s character capability
development.”
Building the children’s positive
character is not a single aspect
consideration, but it is about
comprehensive and continuous aspects
to be implemented on children’s
education. The word discipline on the
above statement, means honorable to the
children not a punishment. All the
aspects would be affected when the
parents and the children build their
emotional bonding that grow up from
day to day relation.
CONCLUSION
Based on the data of 118
participants, the result shows that 28.81
% participants or about 34 participants
are at the high level in implementing
positive language to their children; 69.49
% or about 82 participants are at the
medium level in implementing positive
language to their children; and the rest of
1.70 % or about 2 participants are at the
low level in implementing positive
language to their children. It means that
most of the mothers have implemented
the positive language on their children
education. Unfortunately, the
implementation was not clearly defined
as the positive language since mothers
do not understand the difference between
the positive and the negative language.
Mothers also missed the process of the
use of the positive language as the
behavior language.
Therefore, the womens seminar
has broaden mothers’ perspective to be
more aware and consciously apply the
positive language to create positive
environment for their children. This is in
parallel to Al Qur’an and Al Hadith,
specifically in Ali Imran: 159 that stated
to soften parents’ voice to the children.
This verse means that parents are
supposed to deliver their messages to
their children in a soft and lovely words.
Choosing the proper words with the soft
and lovely words would be easily
understood and even stored in children’s
mind and heart in long lasting period.
Children will notice the parents’
expression too as the figure of their life.
As the communication function,
language in oral or in written, with the
expression of the speakers will affect the
8 Scope: Journal of English Language Teaching, Vol.01, No.01, Sept 2016, 1-8
hearers’ acceptance whether positively
or negatively. Even when the hearers
receive a bad news, the news will be
considered positive in a way of positive
deliverance. The use of positive
language will be easily understood than
the use of negative language or
confrontation.
The positive language guidance to
mothers in majelis taklim Baitul Hasan
surroundings are distributed in the form
of flyers. This guidance are combined
with mothers’ belief of Islam, aims at
changing the perspective of mothers and
their behavior on children’s language
education. It is very important to mothers
to implement the guidance in accordance
of children’s building character, and it
has to be started now. Positive
perspective will create positive
language, and when continuously
applied as the positive behavior will
create positive environment. This
positive environment in each family will
create an ideal positive environment in
one area, to another area, or even to a
district and another district. This ideal
environment will build a better
environment of the children, a better
future of the next generation of a nation.
REFERENCES
Ball, J. (2011). Enhancing Learning of
Children from Diverse
Language Backgrounds:
Mother Tongue-Based
Bilingual or Multilingual
Education in the Early Years.
Paris, France: UNESCO.
Brogle, B. et.al. (2013). How to use
positive language to improve
your child’s behavior.
Technical assistance center on
social emotional intervention
from http://www.challenging
behavior.org/ downloaded on
October 12th, 2015.
Claire, K. (2009). Language and
Culture. Oxford, New York:
Oxford University Press.
Crain, W. (2007). Teori Perkembangan
Konsep dan
Aplikasi.Yogyakarta: Pustaka
Pelajar.
Creswell, J.W. (2012). Educational
Research; Planning,
Conducting and Evaluating
Quantitative and Qualitative
Research. Boston: Pearson
Education, Inc.
Fagbeminiyi, F. (2011). The role of
parents in early childhood
education: a case study of ikeja,
lagos state, nigeria. Global
Journal of Human Resources,
1(2), 78-96.
Law, J. et al. (2010). Investigating the
role of language in children’s
early educational outcomes.
Research Report on
Department for Education, UK.
Lexmond, J. & Reeves, R. (2009).
Building Character: Parents
are the Principal Architects of a
Fairer Society. First Published.
London, UK: DEMOS.
Newson, M., et.al. (2006). Basic English
Syntax with Exercises. Bölcsész
Konzorcium HEFOP Iroda.
Pranowo. (2009). Berbahasa Secara
Santun. Yogyakarta: Pustaka
Pelajar.
Taguma, M. et al. (2012). Quality
Matters in Early Childhood
Education and Care. OECD.
Czech Republic.
Weiss, H. et al. (2008). Family
Involvement in Early
Childhood Education. Harvard
Family Research Project No. 1
in A Series. USA.
... In this way, the children's characters show that they are adopted as the culture of the family environment. Here, mothers are proved to be the center of family education, the first person who puts and creates the children's positive characters [9]. In general, when every single family adopts the values, it would positively affect the surrounded environment where three themes of pedagogies principles are constructed. ...
... Mothers appeared to perform all the child-related responsibilities on their own without any effective support from other family members, particularly from their husbands. Therefore, further research is needed to engage fathers in encouraging the use of positive language in family environment (Rosyada & Retnomurti, 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Positive language is a crucial communication tool, both within the family environment and in external circumstances. Previous research endeavors have evidenced that the inculcation of positive language by parents is effective in building positive character in their children. Thus, language is not merely a communication tool; it is also a means of personality development. However, this application cannot be realized if parents are unaware. Therefore, the community service activity proposed in this paper aims to broaden and strengthen mindful parenting, and to enhance the discernment of positive language in parents to help them build positive character in their children. To this end, a community-based research process was applied through activities held in a community center to mentor and assist 30 young Muslim couples whom were married for a period of 5 to 20 years. An expert psychologist was engaged to help the participating couples comprehend two perspectives of mindful parenting: language education and psychology. A mini handbook for the application of positive language was distributed to each participating couple as guidance to enable them to continuously employ mindful parenting with their children. This community service activity expanded and reinforced the commitment of all participants to work together to inculcate their children with positive personalities. Parents must be mindful of every single word they say and everything they do if they desire to build a better future generation. The more parents apply positive language in mindful parenting, the more children will be assimilated with constructive personalities.
Article
Full-text available
Pursuing progress in an increasingly modern era is not to change human lifestyles that losing the direction and purpose of their life, including how to choose the parenting of parent care and education for family upbringing children as a young generation of the al-quran. This study aimed to understand what the parenting care and educational models of parents towards their children in the perspective of Islamic education sourced from the Qur'an. This study actually based on various Islamic literatures focusing on the reading of derivatives from the Holy Qur'an about parenting patterns and styles of education of parents to children has become an approach to this qualitative study method. the results can be concluded into two parts; First, the pattern of care and educational models of the parents of students is not in accordance with the demands of the Koran, in accordance with the age of the students. However, the pattern of care is only in accordance with the age of the parents. Second, the patterns of care and educational models provided by parents to their children are in accordance with the guidance of the Qur'an where their care pattern starts from breastfeeding to the next stages according to the child's development. So it is not surprising that the current generation of young people do not fully have the style and purpose of life in accordance with Islamic expectations that come from the holy Quran Kareem.
Article
Full-text available
This community service is the continuum of the previous activity on developing children’s positive characters with the use of positive language. It is administered comprehensively by adding the current issue which is merely faced by the mothers of the millennial generation, the screen time management. Engaged by 47 participants of mothers in Yayasan Baitul Hasan Jagakarsa, this community service is determined to 1) evaluate the implementation of positive language; 2) evaluate screen time management; 3) formulate positive language guidelines and screen time management. By applying questionnaires and discussion methods, findings show that most mothers in Yayasan Baitul Hasan Jagakarsa have implemented positive language and screen time management. Though, there are still some mothers who don’t understand the positive language and screen time management. Therefore, with this activity, mothers would be able to implement the positive language and screen time management properly. In this way, mothers who are the real educators in putting the fundamental characters for children, would be more qualified and irreplaceable.
Article
Full-text available
The child is a master imitator. He will imitate whatever he sees and hears. The attitude of a child's language is strongly influenced by the people around him, if a child is accustomed to listen to language and good attitude, then the children will also follow the language and be nice too, otherwise if the language and attitude of the adult bad or not good, then the child will also follow it. The teacher's job is to provide counseling and guidance services, aiming to help the child know his or her shortcomings and strengths, helping the child to think positively in all situations, and helping the child feel comfortable in the school and environment. Language as a communication tool. Has an important role for everyone, especially in interacting? Language has an important role in the counseling process. Language mistakes in counseling should be avoided as much as possible. Selection of appropriate language as a successful effort of guidance and counseling service since early. Keywords: Positive Language, Teacher, Guidance and Counseling, Positive Character, Early Childhood
Article
Full-text available
Abstract This research aims at providing solutions to role of parents in early childhood education in Nigeria. It will serve as an eye opener to parents and the society in helping to modify or re-adjust their mode of parental involvement towards achieving a better future for themselves and their children notwithstanding their busy schedules and in some cases, inadequacy of resources. A survey approach was used through self- administered questionnaires, and analysis was done using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to test the hypotheses. Based on the findings of this work, parental involvement, that is emotional care and support has a very big influence on early childhood education, particularly the academic performance of the child. More so, it was observed that the extent of parental educational attainment has a significant influence on the age which the child is being sent to school. This implies that the extent or level of the parental educational attainment and exposure determines the age at which the child is being enrolled to school. It was also discovered that, the residential setting of the parents (respondents) has nothing to do with the educational performance of the child. On the whole, parental involvement is very essential in early childhood education and this helps to broaden the child’s horizon, enhance social relationships, and promote a sense of self-esteem and self-efficacy.
Chapter
Language in its relationship to the culture that it represents and the context in which it is used has been researched in fields as varied as functional linguistics, linguistic anthropology, cognitive linguistics, sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics, and the sociology of language.Keywords:culture;discourse analysis;ethnicity and culture;identity;ideology;sociocultural language studies
Article
and Kelly MakowieckiThis work is published on the responsibility of the Secretary-General of the OECD. The opinions expressed and arguments employed herein do not necessarily reflect the official views of the Organisation or of the governments of its member countries. This document and any map included herein are without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area.
How to use positive language to improve your child's behavior
  • B Brogle
Brogle, B. et.al. (2013). How to use positive language to improve your child's behavior. Technical assistance center on social emotional intervention from http://www.challenging behavior.org/ downloaded on October 12 th, 2015.
Teori Perkembangan Konsep dan Aplikasi
  • W Crain
Crain, W. (2007). Teori Perkembangan Konsep dan Aplikasi.Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.
  • J W Creswell
Creswell, J.W. (2012). Educational Research;
Building Character: Parents are the Principal Architects of a Fairer Society
  • J Law
Law, J. et al. (2010). Investigating the role of language in children's early educational outcomes. Research Report on Department for Education, UK. Lexmond, J. & Reeves, R. (2009). Building Character: Parents are the Principal Architects of a Fairer Society. First Published. London, UK: DEMOS.
Berbahasa Secara Santun. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar
  • Pranowo
Pranowo. (2009). Berbahasa Secara Santun. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.