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Hubungan Kepercayaan dan Tradisi Keluarga pada Ibu Menyusui dengan Pemberian ASI Eksklusif di Kelurahan Sidotopo, Semampir, Jawa Timur

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Abstract

Exclusive breastfeeding is one effort made to suppress infant mortality rate. The failure of exclusive breastfeeding practices is closely related to the behavior of breastfeeding. Social culture brings about traditions and beliefs that are often used as guidelines for behavior in the community. Belief has formed into a thing that is beliefed and will be the basis for a person to behave. Tradition is obtained through generations and become individual habits. The purpose of this study is to assess the relationship between exclusive breastfeeding and belief and tradition.This is an analytic research with cross sectional approach. Random sampling technique was used. The population was all breastfeeding mothers who had babies aged 6-12months. The sample obtained were 57respondents. The variables studied were breast feeding mothers’ beliefs and traditions on exclusive breastfeeding. Beliefs about giving complimentary foods to infants and the breastfeeding-related traditions in the community were associated with the implementation of exclusive breastfeeding. Data analysis showed that there was a significant relationship between belief (p value = 0,045) and tradition (p value = 0,019) with exclusive breastfeeding in RW XI of Kelurahan Sidotopo. In conclusion, there is a relationship between belief and tradition in society with practice of exclusive breastfeeding. It is recommended that all sectors address belief and traditions in the effort to support exclusive breastfeeding programs.
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Latar Belakang Menyusui merupakan suatu cara pemberian makanan yang ideal untuk pertumbuhan dan perkembangan bayi. Berdasarkan data dari Riset Kesehatan Dasar tahun 2010 dijelaskan bahwa 67,5% ibu yang gagal memberikan ASI eksklusif kepada bayinya karena kurangnya pemahaman ibu tentang teknik menyusui yang benar. Perilaku menyusui yang salah dapat mengakibatkan putting susu menjadi lecet. Penggunaan media dalam pendidikan kesehatan dapat berpengaruh besar dalam penyerapan informasi yang disampaikan sehingga dapat menigkatkan pengetahuan dan kemampuan ibu menyusui. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui penerapan metode peragaan dan video untuk meningkatkan pengetahuan dan kemampuan pada ibu postpartum. Metode Penelitian ini menggunakan metode studi kasus yang dilakukan pada 5 ibu bersalin primipara di Praktek Bidan Mandiri (PMB) Aning. Proses pemberian pendidikan kesehatan tentang teknik menyusui dengan menggunakan metode peragaan dan video dilakukan 2 kali pertemuan pada hari ke-1 dan ke-3 postpartum. Hasil penelitian menunjukan pendidikan kesehatan tentang teknik menyusui dengan metode peragaan dan video dapat meningkatkan pengetahuan ibu menyusui sehingga meningkatkan kemampuan ibu menyusui. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah metode peragaan dan video dapat meningkatkan pengetahuan ibu menyusui sehingga meningkatkan kemampuan ibu menyusui.
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Background: Breast milk is the best nutrition for children's health and intelligence. Exclusive breastfeeding can prevent death and infectious diseases in infants. The socio-cultural factor is one of the strong driving factors towards mother's behavior in giving exclusive breastfeeding, especially to people who have strong adherence to the traditions of their ancestors such as the Maduranese.Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of socio-cultural nutrition on exclusive breastfeeding in the Bangkalan Health Center, Madura Methods: This study was using a cross sectional research design with a sample of mothers who have babies aged 6-12 months. The sample size of this study was 87 respondents. Sampling is done by stratified random sampling. Data collection through interviews using questionnaires and research results were analyzed using logistic regression tests.Results: There was an influence between socio- culture of nutrition in infants (P=0,000) on exclusive breastfeedingi the Bangkalan public health center. Mothers who have socio-culture of nutrition in infants more do not provide exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months.Conclusions: In conclusion, socio-culture of nutrition in infants in the form of prelacteal feeding and early MP-ASI can influence exclusive breastfeeding for infants for 6 months. It is hoped that health workers will educate mothers and husbands about the dangers of giving honey and MP-ASI early to babies and motivate husbands to provide support to mothers for exclusive breastfeeding. Increasing the role of cadres in moving the community to want to come in counseling about exclusive breastfeeding with her husband.ABSTRAKLatar Belakang: ASI merupakan nutrisi terbaik bagi kesehatan dan kecerdasan anak. Pemberian ASI eksklusif dapat mencegah kematian dan penyakit infeksi pada bayi. Faktor sosio budaya merupakan salah satu faktor pendorong yang cukup kuat terhadap perilaku ibu dalam memberikan ASI eksklusif, terutama pada masyarakat yang memiliki kepatuhan yang kuat pada tradisi nenek moyang seperti pada etnik Madura.Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengaruh sosio budaya gizi terhadap pemberian ASI eksklusif di wilayah kerja Puskesmas Bangkalan, Madura.Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan cross sectional dengan sampel ibu yang memiliki bayi usia 6-12 bulan. Besar sampel dari penelitian ini yaitu 87 responden. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan dengan stratified random sampling. Pengumpulan data melalui wawancara menggunakan kuesioner dan hasil penelitian dianalisis menggunakan uji regresi logistik.Hasil: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat pengaruh antara sosio budaya gizi pada bayi (P=0,000) terhadap pemberian ASI eksklusif di wilayah kerja Puskesmas Bangkalan. Ibu yang terdapat sosio budaya gizi pada bayi lebih banyak tidak memberikan ASI eksklusif selama 6 bulanKesimpulan: Dari hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa sosio budaya gizi pada bayi berupa pemberian makanan prelakteal dan MP-ASI dini dapat mempengaruhi pemberian ASI eksklusif pada bayi selama 6 bulan. Diharapkan agar tenaga kesehatan mengedukasi ibu dan suami tentang bahaya memberian madu dan MP-ASI dini kepada bayi serta memotivasi suami agar memberikan dukungan kepada ibu untuk menyusui eksklusif. Meningkatkan peran kader dalam menggerakkan masyarakat agar mau datang dalam penyuluhan tentang ASI eksklusif bersama suami.
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Producing breastmilk is a mother’s ability for the next six weeks after giving birth. Based on data from the Health Office of Pontianak City, exclusive breastfeeding coverage is 25% in East Pontianak District. A preliminary study conducted in East Pontianak Sub district, seven out of ten respondents who underwent breastfeeding, their breastmilk was not running well. There are 70% of babies experienced weight increment below 500 grams/month. In addition, 70% mothers drinking less than twelve glasses/day, 70% mothers do not receive support from their husbands in breastfeeding process, 60% mothers have never been exposed to breastfeeding information, and 50% mothers experienced moderate anxiety levels after giving birth. The research aimed to determine the determinants of postpartum mother's milk production in East Pontianak District. This research is observational research with a cross-sectional approach, and the research subject is 48 postpartum mothers. The results showed that the determinant factor could be seen from the relationship of fluid intake (p-value = 0.000), husband's support (p-value=0.000), information exposure (p-value=0.010), supplement (p-value=0.000), and energy intake (p-value=0.000), to breast milk production. Recommendations addressed to the community health center such as work more active in providing counselling, activating cadres by providing practices. Therefore, they can assist in providing knowledge about breastfeeding and making creative promotional media. Keywords : breast milk production, postpartum, nutrition intake
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Exclusive breastfeeding is the initial stage in nutritional intake for children. Problems that occur because the pattern of breastfeeding is not in accordance with the concept of exclusive breastfeeding, such as providing complementary foods with breast milk (MP-ASI) earlier. This paper is a policy article, based on the results of qualitative research with a health ethnographic approach, to determine the factors that influence the low coverage of exclusive breastfeeding. The research was conducted in Mauya Village (ethnic Banjar) and Marajai Village (ethnic Dayak Meratus), Balangan District, South Kalimantan. The main informants are mothers who have babies 0-6 months (16 people), while the informants who support village midwives (2 people), traditional / community leaders (2 people) and health workers (2 people). Data collection by participant observation, in-depth interviews and unstructured interviews, audio-visual documentation and secondary data search in facilities and health workers. The results show that the practice of exclusive breastfeeding in Mauya Village and Marajai Village, Balangan Regency is still low influenced by several factors, namely aspects of maternal and infant health, availability of health care workers and facilities, social, economic, cultural, geographic conditions, access to information media. It can be concluded that there are 3 main factors, namely predisposing, enabling, and driving factors that are interrelated in the practice of exclusive breastfeeding. This article recommends that program intervention efforts to overcome the problem of exclusive breastfeeding,it is necessary to carry out comprehensive and integrated intervension both in improving the quality of health service programs, community empowerment and cross-sector cooperation and utilization of local cultural potentials. Abstrak Pemberian air susu ibu (ASI) eksklusif merupakan tahap awal dalam asupan gizi bagi anak. Permasalahan yang terjadi karena pola pemberian ASI yang tidak sesuai dengan konsep ASI eksklusif, seperti memberikan Makanan Pendamping Air Susu ibu (MP-ASI) lebih dini. Tulisan ini merupakan artikel kebijakan berdasarkan hasil penelitian kualitatif dengan pendekatan etnografi kesehatan, untuk mengetahui faktor-faktor yang memengaruhi rendahnya cakupan ASI eksklusif. Penelitian dilakukan di Desa Mauya (etnik Banjar) dan Desa Marajai (dominasi etnik Dayak Meratus), Kabupaten Balangan Kalimantan Selatan. Informan utama adalah ibu yang memiliki bayi 0-6 bulan (16 orang),sedangkan informan pendukung bidan kampung (2 orang), tokoh adat/tokoh masyarakat (2 orang) dan petugas kesehatan (2 orang). Pengumpulan data dengan participant observation, wawancara mendalam dan wawancara tidak terstrukur, dokumentasi audio visual, dan penelusuran data sekunder di fasilitas dan petugas kesehatan. Hasil menunjukkan praktik ASI eksklusif di Desa Mauya dan Desa Marajai Kabupaten Balangan masih rendah dipengaruhi beberapa faktor yaitu aspek kesehatan ibu dan bayi, ketersediaan petugas dan fasilitas pelayanan kesehatan, faktor sosial, ekonomi, budaya, kondisi geografis, akses media informasi. Dapat disimpulkan ada tiga faktor utama yakni faktor predisposisi, pemungkin, dan pendorong yang saling terkait dalam praktik ASI eksklusif. Artikel ini merekomendasikan upaya intervensi program untuk mengatasi permasalahan ASI eksklusif dilakukan secara menyeluruh, komprehensif dan terintegrasi baik pada peningkatan kualitas program pelayanan kesehatan, pemberdayaan masyarakat dan kerjasama lintas sektor serta pemanfaatan potensi budaya lokal.
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Breastmilk is a the milk produced by the breast of mother which created specially by God. It was produced according to the needs of infants who were born by a mother. Exclusive breastfeeding is the process of feeding a baby only from breastmilk without other supplementary food until baby is 6 month. One of the factors that aff ect the behavior of breastfeeding is the intention of a mother to breastfeed. The objective of this study is to analyze the factors which aff ect the mother’s intention to exclusively breastfeed in Kelurahan Magersari, Sidoarjo. This study is an observational analytic study with a quantitative approach. This study used cross-sectional study design. The sample of this study were 60 pregnant women who were society’s member of Kelurahan Magersari, Sidoarjo. Independent variables of this study are attitude (behavioral beliefs and evaluation of behavioral outcomes) and subjective norm (normative beliefs and motivation to comply). Study results were obtained from questionnaire. Analysis technique applied is logistic regression test in order to know which factors aff ect the mother’s intention. The dependent variable of this study is the mother’s intention to exclusively breastfeed. The research result are from questionnaire. The results obtained that the factors that infl uence on intention to provide breastmilk exclusively are behavioral beliefs (sig = 0.008, with the Exp (B) = 173,443) and motivation to comply (sig = 0.006, with the Exp (B) = 32,114), owned by the mother associated with exclusive breast. The conclusions there are two factors that aff ect the mother’s intention to provide breastmilk exclusively in Kelurahan Magersari, Sidoarjo there are behavioral beliefs and motivation to comply. Keywords: aff ect, intention, exclusively breastfeeding
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Background: The feeding method of neonates and babies and, especially, the issue of breastfeeding is one of the most important for public health. Despite the sensitization, the intention and recommendations of the world scientific community, only 39% of babies, on an international level, are fed during the first six months of their lives exclusively with mother's milk. Aim: The present study attempted a bibliographic review of the studies about cultural practices and beliefs for breastfeeding. The research question focused on whether cultural and social standards lead up to what degree a process as breastfeeding is accepted by the mothers in a society. Method: We studied all articles at the period 1988-2008 in the Pubmed which associated the initiation and duration of breastfeeding with the cultural status of a certain society. The key-words were society, breastfeeding, initiation, duration, cultural status. Results: The process of breastfeeding is often not determined by biological factors, but it is mainly based on the habits, standards and behaviors existing in each society. Views on the function of female breasts, the quality of mother's milk as well as traditional practices related to breastfeeding are often the reasons that lead to how much this process is accepted by the mothers. Conclusion: Public health policies worldwide must take into account and study the cultural status of a society in order to create favorable conditions for the initiation and duration of breastfeeding.
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09E00781 Pemberian ASI eksklusif merupakan salah satu bentuk perilaku kesehatan yang ada di masyarakat. ASI eksklusif adalah pemberian ASI pada bayi sejak lahir sampai usia 6 bulan tanpa tambahan makanan lainnya. Cakupan ASI eksklusif di Indonesia masih rendah, termasuk di Provinsi Riau yaitu 31,96%, demikian juga di wilayah kerja Puskesmas Rumbai Pesisir yaitu sebesar 21,2%. Faktor sosial budaya masyarakat merupakan salah satu penghambat dalam pemberian ASI eksklusif. Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis pengaruh faktor sosial budaya terhadap tindakan pemberian ASI eksklusif, dilakukan penelitian survei dengan pendekatan explanatory research, sampel sebanyak 78 orang ibu menyusui, sampel diambil secara proportional random sampling. Pengumpulan data dengan wawancara. Analisis data menggunakan uji regresi berganda pada ?=0,05. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan variabel pengetahuan dominan pada kategori sedang (67.9%), dan secara statistik berpengaruh terhadap tindakan pemberian ASI Eksklusif (p=0,000). Variabel nilai/norma tentang tindakan pemberian ASI Eksklusif dominan pada kategori sedang (66,7%), dan secara statistik berpengaruh terhadap tindakan pemberian ASI Eksklusif (p=0,000). Variabel keyakinan/kepercayaan tentang tindakan pemberian ASI Eksklusif dominan pada kategori sedang (74.4%), dan secara statistik berpengaruh terhadap pemberian ASI Eksklusif (p=0,028). Faktor atau variabel yang paling berpengaruh (dominan) terhadap tindakan pemberian ASI Eksklusif adalah variabel pengetahuan (?=0,241). Dengan demikian aspek yang paling besar berperan adalah variabel pengetahuan di samping variabel nilai/norma dan keyakinan/kepercayaan dalam tindakan pemberian ASI eksklusif. Diharapkan peningkatan pemberian ASI Eksklusif dengan melakukan sosialisasi informasi ilmu pengetahuan dan manfaat ASI eksklusif bagi para ibu yang memiliki bayi. Perlu pendidikan kesehatan pada keluarga (masyarakat) melalui penggunaan media dan melalui selebaran atau poster. Praktek-praktek promosi pemberian susu botol kepada bayi usia <6 bulan dikontrol seketat mungkin agar tidak menyesatkan masyarakat. Serta kinerja tenaga kesehatan hendaknya ditingkatkan dalam rangka meningkatkan pengetahuan masyarakat mengenai pemberian ASI Eksklusif. Exlusive breastfeeding is one of healthy activity which exist in society. Exlusive brestfeeding is feeding breast milk to baby since the birth until 6 months without any other food. The coverage of Exlusive breastfeeding in Indonesia is still in low level, including in Riau Province is 31,96%, and also in working area of Rumbai pesisir’s Community Health Centre is 21,2%. Sociocultural of society is one of obstacle factor in Exlusive breastfeeding. This research is for analyze influence factor of sociocultural on the action of Exlusive breastfeeding. Survey research has done by using Explanatory research, for 78 breastfeeding mothers, sample has taken as Proportional random sampling. Data analysis uses Multy regression test on ?=0,05. The result of study shows the variable of knowledge is dominant at the middle category (67,9%) and influence statistically on breastfeeding action (p=0,000). Value/norm variable on breastfeeding action is dominant at the middle category (66,7%), and influence statistically on Exlusive breastfeeding action (p=0,000). Belief variable on breastfeeding action is dominant at the middle category (74,4%), and influence statistically on Exlusive breastfeeding (p=0,028). The most influence dominantly factor or variable on breastfeeding action is knowledge variable (?=0,241). Thus, the most influential aspect is knowledge variable beside value/norm and belief variables in breastfeeding action. Improvement is expected by doing socialization of knowledge information and benefit of Exlusive breastfeeding for mothers who have babies. It is necessary to teach health education for society by using media and brochures or posters. The promotion practices of formulated milk is controlled strictly to mislead not in society. The performance of health employees must be improved to increase knowledge on Exlusive breastfeeding for society. Prof. Drs. Subhilhar,MA,PhD; Drs. Zulkifli Lubis, MA
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