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The ‘boy scouts’ and ‘bad boys’ of skateboarding: a thematic analysis of the bones brigade

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Abstract

Skateboarding has emerged from an alternative subculture to an influential action sport, boosted by recent inclusion in the Olympic Games. Central to debates in both academic and practice communities are the tensions between skateboarding as a lifestyle and ethos, and skateboarding as an Olympic discipline. This article presents a thematic analysis of The Bones Brigade documentary which follows the rise of Tony Hawk, a high profile skateboarder, and the team he skated with during an important historical era in skating. All are men, presenting an opportunity to investigate masculinity in the sport. We reveal how these pivotal figures embody flexible and overlapping formations of hyper to alternative masculinity. Importantly, we also highlight forms of emotional connection and expressiveness that can unify all skaters. Such insights promote a deeper understanding into diverse formations of masculinity and various expressions of identities in skateboarding and with insights for other action sports.

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... Take for example skateboarders, whose losses and failures are central to their identification as bonafide skateboarders (see also Gieseler 2019 on extreme sports). (Willing et al, 2019) use The Bones Brigade documentary to explore some of the contradictory and complex relations between success and failure for men in skateboarding. Exploring contradictory forms of masculinity they note how the 'boy scouts' (including skaters such as Tony Hawk) were sometimes ridiculed by the 'bad boys' as not tough enough -in this narrative the winners became losers (Willing et al, 2019). ...
... (Willing et al, 2019) use The Bones Brigade documentary to explore some of the contradictory and complex relations between success and failure for men in skateboarding. Exploring contradictory forms of masculinity they note how the 'boy scouts' (including skaters such as Tony Hawk) were sometimes ridiculed by the 'bad boys' as not tough enough -in this narrative the winners became losers (Willing et al, 2019). Skateboarding has a culture of embracing 'failure' and celebrating 'misfits' and 'outsiders'. ...
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This article adds to a growing body of literature that engages with failure as a way of knowing and understanding the social. Through a focus on images of sportswomen’s loss or failure in three Australian newspapers during the 2018 Gold Coast Commonwealth Games we analyzed affective-discourses and patterns in images and accompanying headlines, captions and stories to explore the place of loss in the narrative of mainstream sport reporting. Through this focus on loss we hoped to find points of disruption that might generate new conceptions of women in sport. What we found was that stories of loss in mainstream newspaper coverage reproduced transphobic, racist, nationalistic, ageist and sexist discourses. We conclude by calling for research that explores how athletes self-present their losses in digital platforms subjectively rather than being reported ‘on’.
... Skateboarding's rebellious ontologies (ways of being) and epistemologies (ways of knowing) have grown alongside public demands for its regulation and its burgeoning commercial appeal (Chiu, 2009;Willing, Green, & Pavlidis, 2019). Chiu (2009) notes that while skateboarders redefine the purpose of public space, their transgressions have inflamed reactionary politics of exclusion. ...
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This paper draws from a new materialist interpretation of Maya Angelou’s Caged Bird to analyze how Queer and Indigenous skateboarders develop critical and community-responsive ways of knowing and being. This analysis is contrasted with the implications of skateboarding’s Olympic debut to theorize how non-dominant groups build self-supporting enclaves in spite of concerted efforts to regulate and exclude them from public life. Skateboarding is herein conceptualized as a critical pedagogy which enables participants to reclaim space, achieve self-defined learning goals, and challenge the authority of oppressive institutions built upon what Angelou calls “the grave of dreams.” Key words: skateboarding, decolonization, new materialism, queer theory
... Skateboarding's rebellious ontology has, however, emerged alongside its burgeoning appeal (Willing, Green, and Pavlidis, 2019) and public demands for its regulation (Chiu, 2009). Chiu (2009) notes that skateboarders redefine the purpose of public space, and this transgression has inflamed reactionary politics of exclusion. ...
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This paper draws from a new materialist interpretation of Maya Angelou’s Caged Bird to analyze how Queer and Indigenous skateboarders develop critical and community-responsive ways of knowing and being. This analysis is contrasted with the implications of skateboarding’s Olympic debut to theorize how nondominant groups build self-supporting enclaves in spite of concerted efforts to regulate and exclude them from public life. Skateboarding is herein conceptualized as a critical pedagogy which enables participants to reclaim space, achieve self-defined learning goals, and challenge the authority of oppressive institutions built upon what Angelou calls "the grave of dreams.”
... , for instance, analyses Dogtown and Z-Boys, an award-winning documentary on skateboarding's origins, and Hallowed Ground from the Hurley clothing company. Much of the extant sport research on skateboard videos is uneven, giving particular attention to the documentaries of Perlata and also reading the media through the guise of masculinity and race (Kusz, 2007(Kusz, , 2018Willing, Green, & Pavlidis, 2019;. More broadly, skateboard videos have been understood not only as a marketing tool for companies, but also as a means to communicate authenticity about skateboard culture, its values, and norms (Atencio, Beal, & Wilson, 2009, p. 7;Borden, 2019, p. 117;Wheaton & Beal, 2003). ...
Chapter
In this chapter O’Connor addresses how religion is performed in the video media products of the skateboard industry. Focusing on two skateboard videos produced 30 years apart, The Search for Animal Chin (1986) and We Are Blood (2016), he shows how a religious message is contained in both videos in the tropes of communitas, transcendence, and ritual quest. The three tropes underline the argument that as a lifestyle religion, skateboard media is a central locus of community and a repository of shared cultural knowledge and values. Videos are presented as a further iteration of how skateboarding and religion intersect, and while religious symbols may not be overtly on display or evoked, it is argued that skateboarding is performed as religion in this media.
... , for instance, analyses Dogtown and Z-Boys, an award-winning documentary on skateboarding's origins, and Hallowed Ground from the Hurley clothing company. Much of the extant sport research on skateboard videos is uneven, giving particular attention to the documentaries of Perlata and also reading the media through the guise of masculinity and race (Kusz, 2007(Kusz, , 2018Willing, Green, & Pavlidis, 2019;. More broadly, skateboard videos have been understood not only as a marketing tool for companies, but also as a means to communicate authenticity about skateboard culture, its values, and norms (Atencio, Beal, & Wilson, 2009, p. 7;Borden, 2019, p. 117;Wheaton & Beal, 2003). ...
Chapter
O’Connor explores how iconic professional skateboarders have been awarded quasi-religious status, described with honorifics and occasionally devout language. This chapter surveys the legacies of a variety of male professional skateboarders that include Rodney Mullen, Danny Way, Christian Hosoi, Jay Adams, and Paul Rodriguez. Each is described as having a different holy status in skateboard culture, and some are contested as fallen or flawed idols, others as holy men, or gods. O’Connor reflects on the status of these icons and also explores the celebration of local heroes and an oral culture of skateboarding folklore. His analysis extends to social media and transformations in contemporary skateboard culture, considering how female skateboarders are described as goddesses and incorporated in establishing a new era of skateboard celebrity, one that he argues may be less monolithic than in previous decades.
... , for instance, analyses Dogtown and Z-Boys, an award-winning documentary on skateboarding's origins, and Hallowed Ground from the Hurley clothing company. Much of the extant sport research on skateboard videos is uneven, giving particular attention to the documentaries of Perlata and also reading the media through the guise of masculinity and race (Kusz, 2007(Kusz, , 2018Willing, Green, & Pavlidis, 2019;. More broadly, skateboard videos have been understood not only as a marketing tool for companies, but also as a means to communicate authenticity about skateboard culture, its values, and norms (Atencio, Beal, & Wilson, 2009, p. 7;Borden, 2019, p. 117;Wheaton & Beal, 2003). ...
Chapter
In this final chapter O’Connor builds on his argument that to some individuals skateboarding operates as a lifestyle religion. He acknowledges that skateboarding can be observed as religious, is sometimes performed in religious ways, and occasionally becomes organised in religious forms. O’Connor argues that skateboarding is increasingly religious because of its rising status as a mainstream and institutionalised sport. Religion, it is argued, has become one avenue for skateboarders to continue to command control over their pastime, imbuing it with status and meaning at a tangent to the Olympic games, large multinational sports companies, and prosocial notions of sports for development and peace. He claims that this is prescient for other lifestyle sports which will similarly become vehicles for religious identification and expression.
... , for instance, analyses Dogtown and Z-Boys, an award-winning documentary on skateboarding's origins, and Hallowed Ground from the Hurley clothing company. Much of the extant sport research on skateboard videos is uneven, giving particular attention to the documentaries of Perlata and also reading the media through the guise of masculinity and race (Kusz, 2007(Kusz, , 2018Willing, Green, & Pavlidis, 2019;. More broadly, skateboard videos have been understood not only as a marketing tool for companies, but also as a means to communicate authenticity about skateboard culture, its values, and norms (Atencio, Beal, & Wilson, 2009, p. 7;Borden, 2019, p. 117;Wheaton & Beal, 2003). ...
Chapter
O’Connor argues that skateboarding is religious in the way it is ritualised by applying Catherine Bell’s (Ritual: Perspectives and Dimensions. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997) sixfold schema or ritual process. Rites of passage, annual events, gift exchange, rites of affliction, festivals, and political rituals are all explored through skateboarding practices. These themes are pursued with a further ritual element, that of play. Through play it is argued that skateboarding can create a ritualised space and time, a modern form of urban carnival and festivity. The power of such rituals provides insight into how skateboarders engage with their activity in spiritual and religious ways. Here O’Connor fashions an argument that if skateboarding is to be understood as a lifestyle religion, it is one characteristic of ritualised play.
... , for instance, analyses Dogtown and Z-Boys, an award-winning documentary on skateboarding's origins, and Hallowed Ground from the Hurley clothing company. Much of the extant sport research on skateboard videos is uneven, giving particular attention to the documentaries of Perlata and also reading the media through the guise of masculinity and race (Kusz, 2007(Kusz, , 2018Willing, Green, & Pavlidis, 2019;. More broadly, skateboard videos have been understood not only as a marketing tool for companies, but also as a means to communicate authenticity about skateboard culture, its values, and norms (Atencio, Beal, & Wilson, 2009, p. 7;Borden, 2019, p. 117;Wheaton & Beal, 2003). ...
Chapter
O’Connor provides a working definition of religion as a theoretical foundation for the rest of the text. Surveying theology, anthropology, sociology, and popular culture, he adopts a polythetic perspective built from Geertz’s (The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays. New York: Basic Books, 1973) definition of religion. This concept is divided into three focuses—observation, performance, and organisation—which work as a framework for the themes addressed in the remainder of the text. The topic is contrasted with existing work on religion and sport and also research in the domain of lifestyle sports. The chapter concludes with a discussion of skateboarding as a lifestyle religion, congruent with new forms of spiritual expression concerned with subjective experience, identity, and work on the self as a life project.
... , for instance, analyses Dogtown and Z-Boys, an award-winning documentary on skateboarding's origins, and Hallowed Ground from the Hurley clothing company. Much of the extant sport research on skateboard videos is uneven, giving particular attention to the documentaries of Perlata and also reading the media through the guise of masculinity and race (Kusz, 2007(Kusz, , 2018Willing, Green, & Pavlidis, 2019;. More broadly, skateboard videos have been understood not only as a marketing tool for companies, but also as a means to communicate authenticity about skateboard culture, its values, and norms (Atencio, Beal, & Wilson, 2009, p. 7;Borden, 2019, p. 117;Wheaton & Beal, 2003). ...
Chapter
O’Connor argues that the recasting of skateboarding as a prosocial activity has been a central feature in its rise to mainstream popularity and legitimation as a sport. Using the notion of self-help he argues that skateboard philanthropy has adopted some of the traditional roles of religion, guiding, educating, and building community for the needy. He argues that skateboard philanthropy engages in good works stripped of spirituality, in sum being an exquisite vehicle for neo-liberal ideology. Pursuing the quasi-religious aspects of self-help literature, the chapter surveys a variety of texts that present skateboarding as an adjunct to secular self-help philosophy. O’Connor argues that the capacity for skateboarding to remedy social maladies is threatened by the way that it is increasingly institutionalised as a panacea.
... , for instance, analyses Dogtown and Z-Boys, an award-winning documentary on skateboarding's origins, and Hallowed Ground from the Hurley clothing company. Much of the extant sport research on skateboard videos is uneven, giving particular attention to the documentaries of Perlata and also reading the media through the guise of masculinity and race (Kusz, 2007(Kusz, , 2018Willing, Green, & Pavlidis, 2019;. More broadly, skateboard videos have been understood not only as a marketing tool for companies, but also as a means to communicate authenticity about skateboard culture, its values, and norms (Atencio, Beal, & Wilson, 2009, p. 7;Borden, 2019, p. 117;Wheaton & Beal, 2003). ...
Chapter
In this chapter O’Connor argues that skateboarding has an origin myth from which skateboarders derive identity and community. Globally, skateboarders recognise California as the homeland of skateboarding and award it special status of a centre of gravity towards which stories and personalities converge. Here, the basics of skateboarding are unpacked and skateboarding terminology is explained alongside reflections on devout Islamic Malay skateboarders. O’Connor unpacks how the history of skateboarding has been documented and reproduced, arguing that as a body of work, skateboarding media has constructed an origin myth that represents certain places and individuals in an iconic and quasi-religious light. The chapter closes with reflections on how professional skateboarders have become celebrities and idols in their own right.
... , for instance, analyses Dogtown and Z-Boys, an award-winning documentary on skateboarding's origins, and Hallowed Ground from the Hurley clothing company. Much of the extant sport research on skateboard videos is uneven, giving particular attention to the documentaries of Perlata and also reading the media through the guise of masculinity and race (Kusz, 2007(Kusz, , 2018Willing, Green, & Pavlidis, 2019;. More broadly, skateboard videos have been understood not only as a marketing tool for companies, but also as a means to communicate authenticity about skateboard culture, its values, and norms (Atencio, Beal, & Wilson, 2009, p. 7;Borden, 2019, p. 117;Wheaton & Beal, 2003). ...
Chapter
O’Connor emphasises the importance of space in skateboarding culture and shows how skateboarders see certain banal urban locations as sacred. Building on the importance of skateboard media, he articulates that locations reproduced in magazines and videos have become sites of pilgrimage for skateboarders. Participant testimonies attest to the emotional significance certain sites hold, and their draw as sites of homage. O’Connor further highlights that skateboarding is set aside from other sports in that these iconic sites are functional street architecture and appropriated space, not legitimate sports grounds and stadia. The argument is framed by the now mainstream popularity of skateboarding which sees some banal urban architecture deemed as important to skateboarders, achieving recognition in popular culture and also heritage status.
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The concept of hegemonic masculinity has influenced gender studies across many academic fields but has also attracted serious criticism. The authors trace the origin of the concept in a convergence of ideas in the early 1980s and map the ways it was applied when research on men and masculinities expanded. Evaluating the principal criticisms, the authors defend the underlying concept of masculinity, which in most research use is neither reified nor essentialist. However, the criticism of trait models of gender and rigid typologies is sound. The treatment of the subject in research on hegemonic masculinity can be improved with the aid of recent psychological models, although limits to discursive flexibility must be recognized. The concept of hegemonic masculinity does not equate to a model of social reproduction; we need to recognize social struggles in which subordinated masculinities influence dominant forms. Finally, the authors review what has been confirmed from early formulations (the idea of multiple masculinities, the concept of hegemony, and the emphasis on change) and what needs to be discarded (onedimensional treatment of hierarchy and trait conceptions of gender). The authors suggest reformulation of the concept in four areas: a more complex model of gender hierarchy, emphasizing the agency of women; explicit recognition of the geography of masculinities, emphasizing the interplay among local, regional, and global levels; a more specific treatment of embodiment in contexts of privilege and power; and a stronger emphasis on the dynamics of hegemonic masculinity, recognizing internal contradictions and the possibilities of movement toward gender democracy.
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The Nordic countries score high in gender equality ratings and we have a long tradition of working with feminist agendas promising liberal futures to both young women and men. Still, contemporary young women struggle to make room for female participation in male-dominated spaces. Based on ethnographic research, this article explores gender manoeuvring, that is, manipulations of the relationship between masculinity and femininity in the patterned beliefs and activities of Swedish skateboarding. The three most apparent femininities in the empirical material, ‘the tomboy’, ‘the bitch’, and ‘the lesbian’, are discussed and how they sometimes give rise to gender manoeuvring and sometimes not. I argue that the formation of a national network harnessing feminist strategies has been successful in making space for female skateboarding in local skateparks and the mainstream media. The negotiations these actions result in have the potential to transform the hierarchical gender order between and among masculinities and femininities. However, simultaneous tendencies to preserve the unequal gender structure through valuing both hegemonic masculinity and femininity become visible.
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An important and mounting issue for the contemporary Olympic Movement is how to remain relevant to younger generations. Cognizant of the diminishing numbers of youth viewers, and the growing success of the X Games – the ‘Olympics’ of action sport – the International Olympic Committee (IOC) set about adding a selection of youth-oriented action sports into the Olympic programme. In this article we offer the first in-depth discussion of the cultural politics of action sports Olympic incorporation via case studies of windsurfing, snowboarding, and bicycle motocross (BMX). Adopting a post-subcultural theoretical approach, our analysis reveals that the incorporation process, and forms of (sub)cultural contestation, is in each case unique, based on a complex and shifting set of intra- and inter-politics between key agents, namely the IOC and associated sporting bodies, media conglomerates, and the action sport cultures and industries. In so doing, our article illustrates some of the complex power struggles involved in modernizing the Olympic Games in the 21st century.
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This article analyses the female snowboarder phenomenon. It examines the snowboarding culture and considers the possible reconstruction of gender relations within. The research adopt a classical historical sociological approach drawing on theories of social and cultural change, sport and leisure, and youth cultures, documentary and visual analysis and participant observation. The article comprises three distinct components. Based on raw empirical data, the first two sections paint contrasting pictures of the female snowboarder, one of social progress, the other of social constraint. The focus then shifts to placing the empirical evidence in theoretical context. The final section is a theoretical debate between liberal feminism and radical feminism. The objective is to place the experiences of the female snowboarder into a broad social picture. The article concludes that liberal feminism in snowboarding has the potential to radically alter gender relations.
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In this article, I develop a critical dialogue with historians and sociologists who suggest that subcultural or ‘alternative’ sports such as skateboarding are best understood as fluid and fragmented sites of ‘postmodern’ identity formation. Depending largely on an archive of video footage from the 1960s to the present, I argue that while these scholars accurately depict the quotidian operation of skateboarders’ identity formation, they have lost sight of the historical relationship between the development of skateboarding subcultures and the emergence of neoliberal regimes of accumulation. Drawing from the theoretical insights of scholars such as David Harvey, I call for a radical critique of ‘alternative’ sports that acknowledges, but does not necessarily celebrate, the ephemeral subjectivities of the athletes in question.
During the 1970s and 1980s skateboarding was variously construed as a children's activity, a fad, or underground activity. More recently there has been a trend to consider skateboarding as respectable as it is increasingly incorporated into commercial and governmental processes. Yet despite the fact that it has been so incorporated into the mainstream, the theme of resistance continues to strongly resonate with skateboarding. This article develops an account of the incorporation of skateboarding which demonstrates that purely oppositional or resistive readings of skateboarding are problematic. Such an account demonstrates that commercial incorporation is not simply a case of gentrification, corruption or exploitation as some instances of incorporation are supported and resistance has a constitutive role in shaping incorporation. Similarly, governmental programs, strategies and technologies arise out of a complex field of contestation in which resistance does not operate outside of rule but is involved in actively shaping and altering the governmental incorporation of skateboarding.
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In this paper we examine how practices and logics associated with the cultural ‘outsider’ underpin one particular fusion of contemporary art, alternative sports, and marketing interests which are endemic to post-Fordist economies. We describe a skateboarding-infused art exhibit, Beautiful Losers, to investigate how power dynamics operate relative to post-industrial creative classes. In particular, we illustrate how Beautiful Losers is one example of an emerging social field that privileges ‘outsider’ dispositions and discourses. Bourdieu's concept of symbolic capital is used to describe the interested parties and the struggles for legitimacy existing within the social field. We contextualize the social significance of ‘outsider’ discourses in consumer culture and how that has gained currency within post-industrial society. We then link the idealization of the cultural ‘outsider’ with contemporary discourses associated with alternative sport and artistic disinterest. Beautiful Losers distinctly merges these logics in ways that legitimate an ascendant version of ‘outsider’ masculinity. We provide insights into how the legitimation and reproduction of this ‘outsider’ masculinity represents a symbolic struggle for capital amongst participants and audiences. Arguably, symbolic capital was primarily afforded to the white male artists and founding members who came from middle-class backgrounds.
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This paper explores gendered relations and identities which evolved amongst street skateboarders. Drawing from Bourdieu, we suggest that various social fields such as ‘skateboarding media’, ‘D.I.Y. (Do It Yourself) culture’, and ‘lifestyle/action sports’ overlapped and worked to maintain gendered divisions within street skateboarding based upon the logics of individualism and embodiment. Masculine habituses were most closely associated with risk‐taking behaviours and technical prowess; they became significantly rewarded with social and cultural capital. Conversely, women’s habituses were considered as lacking in skill and aversive to risk‐taking. Women thus came to be positioned as inauthentic participants in the street skateboarding social field and were largely excluded from accessing symbolic capital. Corporate‐sponsored and supervised skate events which were explicitly set up to be gender inclusive provided a strong counter to ‘street’ practices. These ‘All Girl’ events were considered ‘positive’ and ‘empowering’ spaces by the women in our study. We explore how these spaces might work alongside women‐focused niche media forms in order to support resistant femininities and practices which might underpin more egalitarian gender relations in street skateboarding.
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Men in the US suffer more severe conditions, have consistently higher death rates, and die nearly 7 years younger than women. Health-related beliefs and behaviors contribute significantly to these gender differences. To explain why women and men adopt the health beliefs and behaviors that they do, this article reviews research examining gender differences in social experiences, cultural representations of gender, and additional social and institutional structures, such as the media and the health care system. This review reveals that North Americans collectively work diligently to reinforce stereotypically feminine or masculine behavior in themselves and others and that the beliefs and behaviors fostered in men and boys, the resources available to demonstrate masculinity, and the resources boys and men use to enact gender are largely unhealthy. It illuminates how cultural dictates, everyday interactions, and social and institutional structures help to sustain and reproduce men's risks, and how the health beliefs and behaviors that people adopt are means for demonstrating femininities and masculinities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In this article we provide a critical analysis of the concept of hegemonic masculinity. We argue that although this concept embodies important theoretical insights, it is insufficiently developed as it stands to enable us to understand how men position themselves as gendered beings. In particular it offers a vague and imprecise account of the social psychological reproduction of male identities. We outline an alternative critical discursive psychology of masculinity. Drawing on data from interviews with a sample of men from a range of ages and from diverse occupational backgrounds, we delineate three distinctive, yet related, procedures or psyche-discursive practices, through which men construct themselves as masculine. The political implications of these discursive practices, as well as the broader implications of treating the psychological process of identification as a form of discursive accomplishment, are also discussed.
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This article explores the continuing involvement in youth music and style cultures of older participants through examination of the case study of the goth scene. It does so in the context of a widespread neglect, until recently, of what happens to participants of 'youth cultures' as they move beyond adolescence and also of a growing consensus about the broadening of youth itself as a life course period. Drawing on recent work on older participants in other music and style related groupings, the article uses original qualitative research to examine the developing lives and identities of goths as they become older. Rather than regarding continuing participation as a simple extension of youth, the focus is on the ways participation accompanied and was reconciled with material, domestic and physical elements of developing adult lives. Through reference to the case study, I emphasize the ways the experience of ageing for long-term music and style culture participants can constitute a collective experience.
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This article contributes to recent debates between supporters of the concept of hegemonic masculinity, as exemplified by R. W. Connell, and a new generation of gender scholars, as to how best explain the dynamic and fluid relationships between men, and men and women, in the early 21st century. Here, the author concurs with many of Connell’s critics and proceeds by arguing that recent feminist extensions of Bourdieu’s original conceptual schema—field, capital, habitus, and practice—may help reveal more nuanced conceptualizations of masculinities, and male gender reflexivity, in contemporary sport and physical culture. This author examines the potential of such an approach via an analysis of masculinities in the snowboarding field. In so doing, this article not only offers fresh insights into the masculine identities and interactions in the snowboarding field but also contributes to recent debates about how best to explain different generations and cultural experiences of masculinities.
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This article examines how older fans of punk rock articulate their continuing attachment to the music and its associated visual style.While sociological research on popular music audiences is well established, little attention has been paid to the articulation and management of fan practices of individuals beyond the age of 30. Based on ethnographic interviews conducted with older punk fans in East Kent, England, the article begins to redress this oversight in studies of popular music audiences.This involves an assessment of both the way in which articulations of punk style transgress with age from the visual to the biographical and how older punks develop particular discursive practices as a means of legitimating their place within a scene dominated by younger punk fans. Yes Yes
  • Thorpe H.