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The Antarctic Frontier in International Relations

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Abstract

This essay provides the reader and practitioner key political and International Law information about the continent of Antarctica (South Pole) and the surrounding Southern Ocean, focusing on the interplay between competing Antarctic nations with expired legal sovereignty claims and treaties. Factual evidence and findings are discussed along eight sections on: Antarctic Exploration, Territorial Claims, Regional Agreements, International Law, Unsettled Disputes and Pending Claims, Science and Business, Climate Change and Antarctic role in International Relations. This information serves also as basis for college courses on Antarctic Affairs and continues the author’s earlier essay: “The Artic Frontier in International Relations”, published in the Florida Political Chronicle, vol.25, n.1 (2016-2017): p.85-107.






 


            
 
 
             
           
              
    
 

  
               
       
             
        
              
 
                 

                
 






 
              
    
  
   
  
  
  


              
                
                     
     
         
               
   
   
   

              
 

               
              
 
 
         
 
 

 
 
              
   
    
  
     
                 

               
      
              
 
           
  







 
          
 
 
                   
                
       

    
   
               
 


                
  


               
     
    
                


     
            

  

            
    
 
   
 

               


    
   
   
 
              

  
 
              

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


 


             
                
                   

               
               
                 
               
    
 
 
  
  
  
  
               
     
  
                     
   
 
              
 
               
       

               
                  
 
                
 
  
 
 

                 
 
 

                  

                 
            







 
 
 
 



                   
                

     
   

     
            
 
             
             
     
  
              
  

          
        
  

   
                  



                



 

             
              
  
  

                   
                  
 






 
  
 
            
                
  


 

               



               
                  
                  
    
    
              
             


             
                   
  
         
 


             
     
    


   
  
  

  
              

  
  
             

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

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 


 

              


  

            

   

 
   
      
 
 
 
              

            
  
     



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



 
 
              
 


 
              
 

                  

               
          

               

   
   
      
 

             
 

               
 


   


 
 
   
  
  
              
  
 
     
                  
               
        
         


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


 

                
                  
           

                

        
  
            
            

 

 
                
             
 
   
 
 
         
              
           

            

                
            
              
 



            
               



  

               
          


                







 
              
                 
              
           

               
           
          

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 
             
 
           
             
                


         


 

             
    


          



               
 
        


 
                  
              
          
   
           
   

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



 
             
 

              
          
               
              
                

                


 

                
             
             



       
               
     
 
            
                 


 
                 
     
              

    
               
                  
              
               
          
              


 







 
 
 
 

 
        


             
                
              
 
 
                
            
    
    
             
  
              



 
 
                
             
              
             
  
 
        
 
               
    
               
              
   

             
 
                

 
                


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



 



           
            
   
 
            
 


         
              
                 
         
           
  

  

     
              
         
             
   



       
 

 
                

             



                

              






 

 



             

               
               
                


      
               
               

            
  


            
            


       
  


 

         


            
          
               
  

  

              

 






 

          


 

 
 
 
              


              
                 
                
      
                  
              
 


              
   
 
             




                
 
   
               
                 


            
                  
               
              
    

  
           
            
   
       







 
              

 

  
               
 
             


    
 
 

                 

             
   
                
 
      
                
              
       
 
    
             
               
  

                  
             


 

 

              
     


 
  

  






 
                
      

                
 

            
  
  
   
            
 
            

   
     


             
             

 
               

             
                
              
                
     
            
 

            
                
               


 

    
                 

                 
 






 
               
                
      
   
        
 
               
      
 
 
  

                 
                
             
                 
               
                

  

               



             
               

                
   

             
               
      
   
             
   
   
  

             
     
             
    








 

       
                

    

               

                
    
  
                  
     
   
 

             
   
             
                 
              



 

                



 
 
                

     
              

 
    
        
              
           
                
 






 

                


                
                 

   
 
                     




                  

 

           
       
                
                
  






             
          

 

                  
                       
     

  







 


 
 

 

 
               
 
 

                
 
 


 


               

  

                

      
     

 

 
                
 
              











 




             
              

       
                 



    

 


                
             

             
                 
 


  
                  

               

               

 
              



               
               

  
   
 

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



 
           
   
                
 

 
           
  

 

           
 
               


   
     

  


 
             
              

              
   
                  
             
 

               
              
  
                  
 

              

              
  
 
   








 
     
                 
                  
             
              
 

 
            

     
               
                

              

 
             
 
            
               
            
              

          
             

    


          
 
     

            
   
   




 
  

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



 
              
             
 
 

              
               

 


             
    
          
                        


             
  
  
 
  
    
               
  
               
           
 
    
 


             
                 
   
 

                


  
     

              
   
               


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



 
 



               
 
              
  




           
                 

  
                

             
    
                 




               

               
                
 
   

 
   
               
                

              


 

              

  
            






 
                  

               
 

 
               

              

      


                 
  
 

      
      


   
 
        
           
                

 
                



   

               

              
 
  
             
            

             
              








 
           
               
   
                   
 
          

          
   

               

 




              
             

  
  
   
   
      
  
   
 
               



 

                
    
            
    
         
                   
 

            
 
             
 
 






 
                
 

 

              

      
 
  

             

   
               
 



          

             

      

        

 
 
        

  
                   

       


       

      

         

   
  


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

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 
 
 
  
 
  
    
 
  
        
 
 
 
    

 
    
  
   
 
                 
 
 
      

            
               
 
             
 
          

    
      
 
           

          

       

            
 
 
 
     
 
             
 
 
         

   
        
  
   
    
 

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



 


  
  
      


 
              
 
                
               
 
  
  
    

  
 
                   
  
                  
 
  
 
             

                  

 
   
                 
 
  
 
              

               
               
  
                 
 
                   



                   
  
                    
 

  
 

 
 






 
        
   
  

                   
 
              
  
 
 
  


    
 
   
 
    
        

       




  
                 

      
                 
 
                   

               
    
  

  
 
  
   
  
                
 
               

         
 
                 
  
             

   
 
               


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



 
  
  
  
   
 
     

 
              

 
  
               



       

        





  
          

                  

                

                



     
 
              
  
 

                
  
                  
 
       
 
   
 
  
                    
 
                   
 
     
  
 






 
 
  
             

 
 
       
 
 
  
     

             

 
       

          

         
   
  
                

  
   
 
  
   
                  
 
  
  
 
              
 
     