Conference Paper

Audit Process Framework for Data Protection and Privacy Compliance Using Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Services in Smart Cities

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Make intelligent decisions based on city data such as transportation, parks, factories, and residents' lives, etc. The problem that needs to be solved is how to ensure the trust of multiple parties and the privacy protection in the process of data sharing [1, 2,3]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Data is the most important factor in building a smart city. City data is composed of many data islands, such as transportation, industry, and residents. In order to build a smart city, breaking data islands, achieving trusted and collaborative sharing of data, while protecting data privacy are essential. As a distributed ledger, the blockchain can solve the problem of data trust. Federated learning achieves data privacy protection by sharing model parameters instead of original data. However, it still has some problems such as malicious nodes and differential attacks. This paper proposes a data sharing mechanism that combines blockchain and federated learning over smart city. Firstly, the blockchain is combined to ensure the credibility of the performance information of the work nodes, then the work node selection algorithm is designed, and a consensus incentive mechanism IPoQ is proposed for efficient federated learning tasks. Finally, differential privacy technology is introduced to resist differential attack. Experimental results show that the methods proposed in this paper achieves an effective federated learning data sharing mechanism.
... Baniyounes et al. (2019) note the necessity for and describe the process of institutionalization of intellectual energy audit of "smart" buildings. Huerta & Salazar (2019) describe the structure of the process of audit for protection of data and observation of confidentiality with the usage of AI and cognitive services in Smart Cities. Kallunki et al. (2019) see the connection between IQ and effectiveness of audit of product quality. ...
Article
The development of smart cities through digital communications has improved citizens' quality of life and well-being. In these cities, IoT technology generates vast amounts of data at any given time, which is analyzed to provide services to citizens. In the proper implementation of these cities, a critical challenge is the violation of citizens' privacy and security, which leads to a lack of trust and pessimism toward the services of the smart city. To ensure citizens' participation, smart city developers should adequately protect their security and privacy from gaining their trust. If citizens don't want to participate, the main benefits of a smart city will be lost. This article presents a comprehensive review of smart city security issues and privacy. It provides a basis for categorizing current and future developments in this area and developing a thematic classification to highlight the requirements and security strategies for designing a smart and safe city. The paper identifies current security and privacy solutions and describes open research challenges and issues. An output of this study is a systematic map of literature on the subject that identifies critical concepts, evidence, challenges, solutions, and gaps. It summarizes the findings into a body of evidence that has previously been heterogeneous and complex. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Article
Full-text available
Internet of Things (IoT) is one of the emerging technologies, which is widely used across the globe. As the idea of a smart city was founded, IoT has been acknowledged as the key foundation in smart city paradigms. Technology makes a person smart, and to make the world smart, we have to make the country smart. To make the country smart, we have to make cities smart and to make smart cities, we have to be smart. In short, to create a smart environment, one must be equipped and familiar with the current trends. The integration of various smart devices and systems facilitates IoT for a smart city. The interdependent and interwoven nature of smart cities puts notable legislative, socioeconomic, and technical challenges for integrators, organizations, and designers committed to administrating these novel entities. The goal of this paper is to illustrate a contemporary survey of IoT-based smart cities with their potential, current trends and developments, amenity architecture, application area, real-world involvement, and open challenges. In addition, key elements with potential implementation constraints and integration of various IoT-based application areas that play a key role in building a smarter city have also been discussed. This extensive study contributes a useful panorama on various key points and gives a critical direction for forthcoming investigations. This study will also provide a reference point for practitioners and academics in the near future.
Chapter
Full-text available
In the past several years, Smart City has generated considerable attention as a relatively new computing model. Its accordance with social web and internet of things (IOT) standards also offers unique resources by using the intellect of human beings and the capacity to solve problems to improve relevant services and mechanisms. This paper explores the benefits and challenges of integrating persons into research engine operations—as smart agents—as part of the core position of internet and information search engines. The key objectives of the smart cities are to make policies more effective, to minimize waste and discomfort, to enhance social and economic quality and to increase social inclusion. In order to highlight the human role in machine systems, some of the fields are unique and related works are studied. Then the insights and problems are addressed through a review of emerging developments in the field of powerful search engines and an overview of current needs and requirements. As research on this subject is still at the beginning, this study is thought to be used as a guideline for potential studies on the subject. Present status and growth patterns are outlined in this regard by offering a common overview of the literature. Furthermore, numerous guidelines are provided to improve the applicability and reliability of the next generation of intelligent urban search engine. In fact, it is able to recognize the ways in which work processes are structured for important purposes, understanding the various aspects and challenges involved in the design progress of search engines. The focus of this analysis was the broader picture and possible issues of multi-powered search engines. It may be considered as a point of reference one of the first works on different aspects of the matter which provided a complete study.
Article
Full-text available
The complex and interdependent nature of smart cities raises significant political, technical, and socioeconomic challenges for designers, integrators and organisations involved in administrating these new entities. An increasing number of studies focus on the security, privacy and risks within smart cities, highlighting the threats relating to information security and challenges for smart city infrastructure in the management and processing of personal data. This study analyses many of these challenges, offers a valuable synthesis of the relevant key literature, and develops a smart city interaction framework. The study is organised around a number of key themes within smart cities research: privacy and security of mobile devices and services; smart city infrastructure, power systems, healthcare, frameworks, algorithms and protocols to improve security and privacy, operational threats for smart cities, use and adoption of smart services by citizens, use of blockchain and use of social media. This comprehensive review provides a useful perspective on many of the key issues and offers key direction for future studies. The findings of this study can provide an informative research framework and reference point for academics and practitioners.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Nowadays, cities across the world are one after another trying to become so called Smart Cities. In this paper we propose several ideas on how to define the concept of Smart City, including our own. However, our main focus will be on the question of the safety and security in such cities in the future. Our study of the Smart City program shows the lack of importance which is being given to this topic. Because of that, we are inspired to introduce our definition of a Safe City. Along with the topics of safety and security, we also provide the reader with an insight into the importance and use of the modelling and simulations in a Safe City.
Article
Full-text available
When discussing the issue of development of urban areas, it is not uncommon to highlight a new stage of urbanisation – stage of smart city creation. Increasingly more cities are nowadays labelled as “intelligent” or “smart”, even though there is no clear-cut definition which would specify the criteria that cities ought to meet to be considered as such. The existing sets of criteria are relatively ambiguous, they have different priorities depending on the region etc. It is thus extremely important and useful to determine whether or not cities may be considered as smart cities, to what degree and on what grounds. The article’s objectives are: firstly, to identify the degree to which the smart city concept is used for managing cities in general and, secondly, to initially assess whether application of the smart city concept makes it possible to reduce the costs of city functioning.
Book
Full-text available
Communications and personal information that are posted online are usually accessible to a vast number of people. Yet when personal data exist online , they may be searched, reproduced and mined by advertisers, merchants, service providers or even stalkers. Many users know what may happen to their information, while at the same time they act as though their data are private or intimate. They expect their privacy will not be infringed while they willingly share personal information with the world via social network sites, blogs, and in online communities. The chapters collected by Trepte and Reinecke address questions arising from this disparity that has often been referred to as the privacy paradox. Works by renowned researchers from various disciplines including psychology, communication, sociology, and information science, offer new theoretical models on the functioning of online intimacy and public accessibility, and propose novel ideas on the how and why of online privacy. The contributing authors offer intriguing solutions for some of the most pressing issues and problems in the field of online privacy. They investigate how users abandon privacy to enhance social capital and to generate different kinds of benefits. They argue that trust and authenticity characterize the uses of social network sites. They explore how privacy needs affect users’ virtual identities. Ethical issues of privacy online are discussed as well as its gratifications and users’ concerns. The contributors of this volume focus on the privacy needs and behaviors of a variety of different groups of social media users such as young adults, older users, and genders. They also examine privacy in the context of particular online services such as social network sites, mobile internet access, online journalism, blogs, and micro-blogs. In sum, this book offers researchers and students working on issues related to internet communication not only a thorough and up-to-date treatment of online privacy and the social web. It also presents a glimpse of the future by exploring emergent issues concerning new technological applications and by suggesting theory-based research agendas that can guide inquiry beyond the current forms of social technologies.
Book
Cognitive computing is a nascent interdisciplinary domain. It is a confluence of cognitive science, neuroscience, data science, and cloud computing. Cognitive science is the study of mind and offers theories, mathematical and computational models of human cognition. Cognitive science itself is an interdisciplinary domain and draws upon philosophy, linguistics, psychology, and anthropology, among others. Neuroscience is the study of the nervous system including its development, structure and function. More specifically, neuroscientists study the structure of the brain, and how behavior and cognitive functions are regulated by the brain. Brain imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and arterial spin labeling (ASL) enable probing brain functions both qualitatively and quantitatively. Data Science is also an interdisciplinary domain. It deals with processes and systems to extract information and knowledge from structured and unstructured data using machine learning algorithms and statistical methods. The end goal is to discover patterns, generate actionable insights, and answer predictive questions. Cloud computing provides turnkey solutions such as platform-as-a-service, infrastructure-as-a-service, and software-as-a-service. It uses high performance CPUs, GPUs, neuromorphic processors, virtually unlimited memory and storage, and high speed networks to provide computing resources on demand. A fixed pool of these resources are dynamically provisioned among various applications and continually adjusted so that the applications can guarantee performance amidst fluctuating workloads. Cloud computing achieves economies of scale and helps cognitive computing applications to perform at scale without upfront computing investments. Applications are billed for only the resources they actually use. Broadly, there are two lines of research in the cognitive computing discipline. The first one is centered on cognitive science as the foundation and encompasses neuroscience, philosophy, psychology, anthropology, and linguistics research. The second one is more recent and is based on computer science as the foundation. It encompasses data science, statistics, and sub-disciplines of computer science such as high performance computing, cloud computing, natural language processing, computer vision, machine learning, information retrieval, and data management. These two lines of research are not only complementary, but mutually helping to accelerate discoveries and innovation. It is this synergistic confluence that makes cognitive computing powerful and has potential for groundbreaking discoveries and advances. Especially the advances in the computing discipline are poised to bring about transformational changes to the way research is conducted in the discipline. For example, IBM's TrueNorth cognitive computing system is a case in point. Its design is inspired by the function and efficiency of the human brain. The TureNorth architecture provides spiking neuron model as a building block. Its programming paradigm is based on an abstraction called corelet, which represents a network of neurosynaptic cores. The corelet encapsulates all details except the external inputs and outputs. An object-oriented language is available for programming corelets. A library of reusable corelets as well as an integrated development environment help accelerate the development of cognitive computing applications. Using this environment, IBM has already implemented several algorithms including hidden Markov models, convolution networks, and restricted Boltzmann machines. These algorithms have been incorporated into applications such as speaker recognition, sequence prediction, and collision avoidance. As of this writing, Nvidia released Tesla P100 GPU, which specifically targets machine learning algorithms that employ deep learning. P100 features 150 billion transistors on a single chip. These computing advances will propel research in cognitive and neurosciences. The goal of this handbook is to bring together a coherent body of knowledge and recent research in cognitive computing. It promotes a unified view of the domain and lays the foundation for cognitive computing as an academic discipline and a research enterprise. To the best of the editors' knowledge, this handbook is the first in formally defining cognitive computing and providing an academic exposition of the field. The handbook aims to serve as a catalyst in advancing research in cognitive computing. Audience The handbook aims to meet the needs of both students and industry practitioners. Especially it is suited for students in advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate courses on cognitive computing, neuroscience, and cognitive science. It is also a good source for graduate students who plan to pursue research in cognitive computing. The handbook is also a good reference for industry practitioners who desire to learn about cognitive computing. Organization The handbook is comprised of 11 chapters, which are organized into three sections. Section A, consists of two chapters, provides an introduction to cognitive computing and sets the backdrop for reading rest of the handbook. Section B is comprised of five chapters. Complex analytics and machine learning areas are discussed in this section. Lastly, Section C discusses applications of cognitive computing and four chapters are devoted for these topics. Chapter 1: Cognitive Computing: Concepts, Architectures, Systems and Applications. Provides an interdisciplinary introduction to cognitive computing. The aim of the chapter is to provide a unified view of the discipline. It begins with an overview of cognitive science, data science, and cognitive computing. Principal technology enablers of cognitive computing, an overview of three major categories of cognitive architectures, cognitive computing systems and their applications are discussed. Current trends and future research directions in cognitive computing are indicated. The chapter concludes by listing various cognitive computing resources. Chapter 2: Cognitive Computing and Neural Networks: Reverse Engineering the Brain. IBM, Nvidia, Qualcomm have developed microprocessors which mimic neurons and synapses of the human brain. These microprocessors are called neuromorphic chips and IBM's TrueNorth and the HumanBrain Project's SpiNNaker are examples. This chapter presents principles and theory needed as a backdrop to understand these advances from a cognitive science perspective. Neural networks found within the mammalian neocortex, and associated formal and computational models, that appear to form the basis of human cognition are described. Chapter 3: Visual Analytic Decision-Making Environments for Large-Scale Time Evolving Graphs. Data scientists are faced with the challenge of analyzing large-scale graphs that change dynamically. Existing tools and metaphors for data collection, processing, storage and analysis are not suitable for handling large-scale evolutionary graphs. This chapter describes visual analytics as a cognitive computing approach to improve decision making with large-scale dynamic graphs. It provides a conceptual introduction to time varying graphs, describes functional components of systems for visual analytics including performance considerations, and presents a visual graph analytics sandbox architecture and sample applications implemented within it. Chapter 4: CyGraph: Graph-Based Analytics and Visualization for Cybersecurity. The adversarial nature and complex interdependencies of networked machines demands a cognitive systems approach to cybersecurity. This chapter describes CyGraph, a graph-based cognitive system for protecting mission-critical computing assets and applications. CyGraph brings together isolated data and events into a comprehensive property-graph model, providing an overall picture for decision support and situational awareness. CyGraph features CyQL (CyGraph Query Language), a domain-specific query language for expressing graph patterns of interest, with interactive visualization of query results. CyGraph integrates with third-party tools for visualizing graph state changes. CyGraph can also synthesize graph models with particular statistical properties. Chapter 5: Cognitive Analytics: Going Beyond Big Data Analytics and Machine Learning. Traditional data analytics evolved from the database domain and exclusively focused on structured data stored in relational databases. It was propelled to the next stage in its evolution with the advent of data warehouses and data mining. Cognitive analytics is the third stage in this evolutionary path and goes beyond structured data. It integrates semi-structured and unstructured data into the analytic process. This chapter provides an introduction to cognitive analytics. It describes types of learning and classes of machine learning algorithms in the context of cognitive analytics. It proposes a reference architecture for cognitive analytics and indicates ways to implementing it. It also describes a few cognitive analytics applications. Chapter 6: A cognitive random forest: an intra- and inter-cognitive computing for big data classification under cune-condition. This chapter address the classification problem in big data context. The data is often noisy, inconsistent, and incomplete. To solve the classification problem, a cognitive model (called STE - M) is proposed in this chapter. Also, a cognitive computing architecture called Cognitive Random Forest, is proposed to implement STE - M. The architecture amalgamates the STE-M model and a set of random forest classifiers to enhance continuous learning. The architecture is implemented and validated. Chapter 7: Bayesian Additive Regression Tree for Seemingly Unrelated Regression with Automatic Tree Selection. This chapter introduces a flexible Bayesian additive regression tree (seemingly unrelated regression) model, called BART - SUR, which is suitable for situations where the response variable is a vector and the components of the vector are highly correlated. BART - SUR can jointly model the correlation structure among the related response variables and provide a highly flexible and nonlinear regression structure for each of the individual regression functions. The number of trees in BART - SUR is selected adaptively by treating it as a model parameter and assigning a prior distribution on it. The adaptive tree selection makes BART - SUR extremely fast. The author demonstrates the superiority of BART-SUR over several out of the shelve popular methods like random forest, neural network, wavelet regression, and support vector machine through two simulation studies and three real data applications. Chapter 8: Cognitive Systems for the Food-Water-Energy Nexus. Meeting the food, water, and energy needs of a growing world population is a grand challenge. These resources are often not produced in places where they are consumed, which entails transportation and storage costs. One can avoid storing a resource, if good forecast models for supply and demand exist. Developing such models requires handling large scale datasets efficiently, building forecasting models using machine learning methods, and leveraging optimization techniques to help incorporate forecasting results into a decision making process. Towards these goals, this chapter discusses methods to make the most of sensor data. Next, forecasting methods ranging from a-few-minutes-ahead to days or even years-ahead are described. Finally, how to use the outputs of these analytics tools to help decision making processes in the context of energy are discussed. Chapter 9: Cognitive Computing Applications in Education and Learning. Education and learning applications stand out among many uses of cognitive computing due to their practical appeal as well as research challenge. This chapter discusses the role of cognitive computing in teaching and learning environments. More specifically, the chapter examines the important roles played by the Educational Data Mining (EDM) and Learning Analytics (LA) researchers in improving student learning. It describes an architecture for personalized eLearning and summarizes relevant research. Chapter 10: Large Scale Data Enabled Evolution of Spoken Language Research and Applications. Human languages are used in two forms: written and spoken. Text and speech are the mediums for written and spoken languages, respectively. Human languages are the most natural means for communication between cognitive computing systems and their users. The emergence of big data and data science are accelerating research and applications in the analysis and understanding of human/natural languages. This chapter provides an introductory tutorial on the core tasks in speech processing, reviews recent large scale data-driven approaches to solving problems in spoken languages, describes current trends in speech research, and indicates future research directions. Chapter 11: IoT and Cognitive Computing. Internet of Things (IoT) technologies are now more widely deployed. The confluence of IoT and cognitive computing provides unprecedented opportunities to develop deeper insights from the data generated by IoT devices. These actionable insights have the potential for transformational changes that affect people, cities, and industry. This chapter explores the state of the art and future opportunities to bring IoT and cognitive computing together to solve a range of problems including smart cities and connected health care.
A Theoretical Examination of the Role of Auditing and the Relevance of Audit Reports
  • K Ittonen
Data Protection Act 2018
  • J James