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Determination of Hydraulic Ram Pump Performance: Experimental Results

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The possibility of using a hydraulic ram pump (HRP) as a means of utilizing its energy to produce high head for pump has been investigated. To make such a system economically competitive, it is necessary to improve the performance of HRPs. To achieve this improvement, it is also necessary to understand the parameters that marked out the design of conventional HRPs. The performance is presented in dimensionless terms as the head ratio H∗ or discharge head to drive head and flow-rate ratio Q∗ or discharge flow rate to drive flow rate. The experiments on HRPs were conducted by which each of the following factors could be varied independently: (a) supply head, (b) air chamber pressure, and (c) waste valve beats per minute. An increase in the supply head tends to increase the supply flow rate, delivery flow rate, delivery head, and the overall efficiency of the pump. An increase in air chamber pressure tends to decrease the overall efficiency of the pump. However, there was no significant difference on the HRP performance over a wide range of flow conditions when air chamber pressure was varied. An increase in waste valve beats per minute tends to decrease the supply flow rate, delivery flow rate, and delivery head. But it tends to increase the head ratio, the flow-rate ratio, and the overall efficiency of the pump. The experimental data reveal that the HRP characteristics are functions of the waste valve beats per minute and the supply head.
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Research Article
Determination of Hydraulic Ram Pump Performance:
Experimental Results
Wanchai Asvapoositkul , Jedsada Juruta , Nattapong Tabtimhin , and
Yosawat Limpongsa
Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology onburi, 126 Pracha Uthit Rd., Bang Mod,
ung Kru, Bangkok 10140, ailand
Correspondence should be addressed to Wanchai Asvapoositkul; wanchai.asv@kmutt.ac.th
Received 19 September 2018; Accepted 15 November 2018; Published 4 March 2019
Academic Editor: Arnaud Perrot
Copyright ©2019 Wanchai Asvapoositkul et al. is is anopen access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution
License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is
properly cited.
e possibility of using a hydraulic ram pump (HRP) as a means of utilizing its energy to produce high head for pump has been
investigated. To make such a system economically competitive, it is necessary to improve the performance of HRPs. To achieve this
improvement, it is also necessary to understand the parameters that marked out the design of conventional HRPs. e per-
formance is presented in dimensionless terms as the head ratio Hor discharge head to drive head and flow-rate ratio Qor
discharge flow rate to drive flow rate. e experiments on HRPs were conducted by which each of the following factors could be
varied independently: (a) supply head, (b) air chamber pressure, and (c) waste valve beats per minute. An increase in the supply
head tends to increase the supply flow rate, delivery flow rate, delivery head, and the overall efficiency of the pump. An increase in
air chamber pressure tends to decrease the overall efficiency of the pump. However, there was no significant difference on the HRP
performance over a wide range of flow conditions when air chamber pressure was varied. An increase in waste valve beats per
minute tends to decrease the supply flow rate, delivery flow rate, and delivery head. But it tends to increase the head ratio, the flow-
rate ratio, and the overall efficiency of the pump. e experimental data reveal that the HRP characteristics are functions of the
waste valve beats per minute and the supply head.
1. Introduction
e concept of hydraulic ram pump (HRP) was developed
200 years ago. In a HRP, no external powers are required to
drive water. Water is pumped from a particular head at a
high flow rate and comes out with a higher head but at a
lesser flow rate because of the water hammer effect. e
system consists of a drive pipe, waste valve, discharge valve,
air (pressure) chamber, and delivery pipe (Figure 1). e
only moving parts of the system are the waste valve and the
discharge valve which operate from the fluid dynamic ac-
tions of the pumping cycle [1].HRPis one of the simplest and
the most environmentally friendly devices for domestic or
agricultural use [2, 3]. ere are a lot of people in a lot of
countries that build and use this kind of pump. Details of
these are given by Watt [4, 5], Schiller [6], Browne [7], and
Inthachot et al. [8].
ere are a number of studies which have been done to
improve the design of HRPs by experimental, theoretical,
and numerical approaches. A short description of the
function and history of HRPs can be found in Basfeld and
Miiller [9]. Experimental and theoretical investigations on
HRPs were done by Lansford and Dugan [10] to determine
the rate of pumping and wasting for any conditions of
operation. e dominant factor controlling the functioning
of the HRP is the velocity in the drive pipe necessary to cause
the waste valve to start closing, and its value is fixed by the
waste valve setting. ey also reported that the maximum
efficiency varied little with various adjustments of the waste
valve, except perhaps for extremely high values of velocity in
the drive pipe, at which the efficiency was somewhat lower.
Details of the HRP working cycle are also described.
Iversen [1] carried out a comprehensive investigation to
identify the features of the HRP; the drive head and flow, the
Hindawi
Advances in Civil Engineering
Volume 2019, Article ID 9702183, 11 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/9702183
discharge head and flow, the cycle frequency of the HRP, and
the system efficiency. e expected performance is presented
in a generalized form of the head ratio or discharge head to
drive head and the flow rate ratio or discharge flow rate to
drive flow rate. He reported that performance features of the
head ratio and the flow rate ratio relate directly to cyclic
frequency.
e method of characteristics (MOC) for the analysis of
unsteady flow in a HRP system can be seen in Najm et al. [11]
and Filipan et al. [12]. Filipan et al. [12] applied the MOC for
the calculation of the mathematical model of a HRP system
in order to obtain the simplified working cycle of the HRP.
e sensitivity analysis presents the influence of the force
acting on the waste valve.
CFD analysis of opening and closing condition of a
hydraulic pump can be found in [13, 14] . e height of the
waste valve and the height of the pressure chamber have
significant effect on the outlet flow of the pump [15].
Numerous attempts to analyze the complex behavior of a
HRP system have been made in the past. Many variables are
involved in the operation. Investigations on the performance
and its factors have been widely carried out. e available
literatures aim to present a generalized design methodology
for HRPs covering design parameters and the design pro-
cedure along with the mathematical relationship used for the
design work. It has been found that design parameters and
their effect on the performance of the HRP were not fully
studied. e influence on the rate of pumping and wasting
for any conditions of operation and performance in HRPs
are therefore investigated in this study.
2. Pump Performance
A HRP is shown in Figure 1. e pump utilizes the energy
from a supply head, H
s
with a large quantity of water, Q
s
to a
delivery head, H
d
which is higher than the supply head with a
small quantity of water, Q
d
by rapid closure of the waste
valve. e operation is continuous with no other external
input and the flow is intermittent. e power used to drive
the pump is
PowsρgQsHs.(1)
e power added to the fluid is
PowdρgQdHd.(2)
e efficiency of the pump is defined as
ηPowd
Pows
ρgQdHd
ρgQsHs
Qd
Qs
·Hd
Hs
QH,(3)
where Hhead ratio Hd/Hsand
Qflow rate ratio Qd
Qs1Qw
Qs
.(4)
We can expect that the flow-rate ratio is high by reducing
water loss at the waste valve (Q
w
), and the head ratio is high
by increasing the momentum of the water flow in the supply
pipe. For this purpose, the effect of waste valve opening and
closing on pump performance is investigated in order to
reduce water loss at the waste valve and increase the
pumping pressure. A HRP working cycle has been relegated
to Appendix.
3. Experimental Study
3.1. Apparatus. e experiment was performed in the HRP
test rig (Figure 2). e pump was made of PVC pipe and
fittings. e HRP has a drive pipe of a nominal pipe size of
25 mm (1 inch). e drive pipe is connected to a supply tank
with a slope of 45°, as shown in Figure 2.
During the initial test, a brass check valve is used as the
waste valve by mounting it in the reverse direction where the
opening and closing of the valve are due to the weight of the
valve disc. A brass spring check valve of size 25 mm (1 inch)
is used as the discharge valve. e surge tank (or air
chamber) was made of a PVC tube of size 75 mm (3 inches)
with an end cap. Its total volume is 2.2 L and air volume is
1.8 L. e discharge line was made of PVC pipe of 12 mm
(0.5 inch). e water flow rate was varied manually by means
of a flow control valve which was installed on both the drive
line and delivery line. e flow at the drive pipe Q
s
was
measured by an ultrasonic flow meter. e flow at the de-
livery pipe and that at the waste valve were collected in
storage tanks during the test. e rate of delivering Q
d
and
wasting Q
w
were determined by measuring the time required
for a given quantity of water. Also, water pressure at the
drive pipe and that at the delivery pipe were measured by
pressure transducers. e total head at the drive or supply
pipe H
s
and that at the delivery pipe H
d
were calculated from
the measured flow rate and pressure of each pipe. e
pressure at the air chamber is measured by a Bourdon-tube
gauge. e motion of the waste valve was determined by
filming with a video recorder. e number of valve beats
each minute was counted, and then the average was com-
puted. e specifications of the measuring devices are shown
in Table 1. e uncertainty in Q
s
is estimated as δQs/Qs
0.02 due to the accuracy of the measuring device. e un-
certainties in Q
d
and Q
w
are the same and estimated as 0.05
due to the parameters used. e uncertainties in H
d
and H
s
are estimated as 0.025. e uncertainty of ηcan be calculated
as δη/η0.06.
Supply tank
Drive pipe
Delivery pipe
Air chamber
Waste valve
Flow control
valve
Flow control valve
Pressure transducer
Ultrasonic flow meter
Discharge
valve
Qd
QsQw
Hs
Hd
Figure 1: Schematic diagram of the HRP test facility.
2Advances in Civil Engineering
3.2. Procedure. Before starting the pump, trapped air in the
inlet to the drive pipe must be flushed out with water by
opening the waste valve. e HRP will pump water to the
delivery tank at most settings of the waste valve. e water
flow rate can be varied quite easily by adjusting the turning
of the control valve at the delivery line. However, if the
control valve at the drive line is used instead, the waste valve
must be adjusted, especially of valve beats for each flow rate.
In this experiment, the water level at the supply tank was
kept constant while the water flow was varied. e HRP can
be made to operate under different conditions by which each
of the following factors could be varied independently: (a)
supply head, (b) air chamber pressure, and (c) waste valve
beats per minute. No test of less than five minutes was made.
3.3. Evaluation of Pump Performance
3.3.1. Supply Head. e effect of supply head on the HRP
performance was studied in this case. For each supply head
condition, the HRP was tuned to pump the greatest amount
of water to the delivery tank at approximately the same
number of waste valve beats per minute. It was found that
the valve beat of 285 times/min is for H
s
2.5 m and that of
282 times/min is for H
s
2.0 m. e variations of the supply
flow rate, Q
s
, and delivery head H
d
with delivery flow rate,
Q
d
, are shown in Figures 3 and 4, respectively. It reveals that
an increase in supply head H
s
, tends to increase the delivery
head H
d
, delivery flow rate Q
d
, and supply flow rate Q
s
.
erefore, we can expect higher power added to the water at
a higher supply head.
Using the head ratio, H, and the flow rate ratio, Q, as
parameters, the relationship of the two parameters reduces
the amount of data scatter. Its head ratio, H, decreases with
the flow rate ratio, Q(Figure 5). At high Q, the value of H
decreases rapidly. A high H(in this study H>1) means
that H
d
is increased, and a high Q(in this study Q<1)
means that water loss Q
w
is decreased. is curve shows that
a HRP can pump high flow for low lift, but as the lift in-
creases, the flow decreases.
Figure 6 illustrates the HRP efficiency for the two dif-
ferent supply heads. e result shows that its efficiency
reaches a peak near the maximum Qfor each supply head.
It should be noted that, when the supply head increases, the
velocity and momentum of water in the drive pipe also
increases. e result shows that the increase in the supply
head increase the pump flow rate, Q
d
, waste valve beats per
minute, delivery power, and pump efficiency. erefore, we
must then try to make the supply head as large as possible.
However, if the supply head is high and the drive pipe is
long, the momentum of water in the drive pipe will be very
high and the pump will be damaged. In this case, a large air
chamber and air volume may be necessary to absorb the
increased water hammer pressure that will occur in the HRP.
3.3.2. Air Chamber Pressure. e effect of air chamber
pressure on the HRP performance was studied by replacing
the PVC pipe with a pressure diaphragm tank as shown in
Figure 7. In this study, the pressure values inside the air
chamber were as follows: 1, 2, and 3 bar for collecting data.
During the three experiments, except the pressure inside the
Table 1: Measuring devices specifications.
Measurement Instrument/manufacturer Range Accuracy (%) Resolution
Pressure
At the drive pipe and Pressure transducer 0–2.5 bar ±0.25 0.0001 bar
At the delivery pipe Seimens SITRANS P200 0–4 bar ±0.25 0.0001 bar
At the air chamber Burdon-tube gage 0–12 bar 0.5 bar
Water flow rate Ultrasonic flow meter
At the drive pipe of flow Seimens SITRANS FUP1010 ±12 m/s ±0.5% to 2 0.1 L/min
Figure 2: HRP test rig configuration.
Advances in Civil Engineering 3
diaphragm tank, all other design/operational parameters are
kept at their designed level. e experiment was performed
at H
s
2.5 m and the waste valve beat of 260 times/min.
Figures 8 and 9 illustrate the variations of the head ratio
and efficiency as a function of the flow-rate ratio at different
pressures inside the air chamber, P
c
1, 2, and 3 bar. As seen
from the figures, an increase in air chamber pressure tends to
decrease the overall efficiency of the pump. However, there
was no significant difference on the HRP performance over a
wide range of flow conditions. e main function of the air
chamber is to absorb the water hammer pressure that will
occur in the HRP. Water continues to flow into the air
chamber until the unbalanced force caused by the difference
between supply and delivery pressures reduces the velocity
to zero. e kinetic energy after the water hammer is
gradually transferred to potential energy by compression of
the air in the chamber and then transferred to water in the
ascending pipe by expanding the volume of air. Water can
thus be pumped to a considerable height by periodically
opening and closing the waste valve. e pressure in the air
chamber is the delivery pressure. Due to the low com-
pressibility of water, if little or no air is present in the
chamber, the energy is immediately transferred to the entire
ascending pipe system, and the air chamber may burst.
erefore, in practice, adjust air pressure in the chamber so
that pulse in the pipe is at a minimum. e pressure is then
used to lift water to a point higher than where the water
originally started with the least energy expenditure.
3.3.3. Waste Valve Beats per Minute. e effect of waste
valve beats on the HRP performance was studied by replaced
the check valve with a simple weighted impulse valve as
shown in Figure 10. e waste valve beat was determined by
0.00
2.00
4.00
6.00
8.00
10.00
12.00
14.00
16.00
18.00
0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 4.50
Delivery head Hd (m)
Delivery flow rate Qd ( L/min )
Supply head = 2.5 m
Supply head = 2.0 m
Figure 4: Delivery head vs. delivery flow rate at difference head, h
s
2.0 and 2.5 m.
0.00
2.00
4.00
Supply flow rate Qs (L/min)
6.00
8.00
10.00
12.00
14.00
0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 4.50
Delivery flow rate Qd ( L/min )
Supply head = 2.0 m
Supply head = 2.5 m
Figure 3: Supply flow rate vs. delivery flow rate at difference head, h
s
2.0 and 2.5 m.
4Advances in Civil Engineering
adjusting the dead weight on the valve stem. With the waste
valve opening area kept constant, adding weights to the valve
will allow a high flow rate through the waste valve and will
reduce its number of valve beats each minute. is means
that the waste valve’s motion in opening and closing will
reduce. Taking into account the principle of the water
hammer effect, a phenomenon occurs when the flowing
water is suddenly brought to rest by closing the waste valve
which results in a sudden increase in pressure in the pipe.
e variations of the supply flow rate, Q
s
, with delivery
flow rate, Q
d
, are shown in Figure 11. It may be seen that an
increase of waste valve beating decreases both flow rates.
Figure 12 illustrates the variations of the delivery head H
d
with a delivery flow rate for different valve beatings. e
delivery head seems to decrease when valve beats per minute
was increased. However, there was not much difference over
a wide range of flow conditions when waste valve beats per
minute was varied. It should be noted that with an increase
in waste valve beats per minute, the time required to close
the waste valve decreases. us, an increase of waste valve
beats per minute decreases the quantity wasted per cycle.
Figures 13 and 14 illustrate the variations of the head ratio
and efficiency as a function of the flow rate ratio at different
valve beats per minute, f
b
208, 244, and 285 times/min. e
results from this study show that an increase of waste valve
beats per minute will increase H,Q, and pump efficiency.
0.00
10.00
20.00
30.00
40.00
50.00
60.00
70.00
80.00
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35
Eciency η (%)
Flow rate ratio (Q=Qd/Qs)
Supply head = 2.5 m
Supply head = 2.0 m
Figure 6: Efficiency vs. flow-rate ratio at difference head, h
s
2.0 and 2.5 m.
Figure 5: Head ratio vs. flow-rate ratio at difference head, h
s
2.0 and 2.5 m.
Figure 7: HRP body with diaphragm tank.
Advances in Civil Engineering 5
erefore, we must then try to make the waste valve beating
as fast as possible. However, if the waste valve beating is too
high, there will be no build up of the powerful hammer
pulse, and the flow through the waste valve is stopped.
4. Summary and Conclusions
e influence of any conditions of operation and perfor-
mance on the rate of pumping and wasting in a HRP has
been investigated in this study. e experiments on a HRP
were conducted by which each of the following factors could
be varied independently: (a) supply head, (b) air chamber
pressure, and (c) waste valve beats per minute. Performance
curves for variation of the head ratio, flow rate ratio, and
pump efficiency at each condition have been determined.
It may be seen that the supply flow rate Q
s
, the delivery
flow rate Q
d
, the delivery head H
d
, and the pump efficiency η
increase with increasing the supply head H
s
. Using Hand
Qas parameters, the performance curves facilitated an
understanding of its operation. ough the points are
2.00
2.50
3.00
3.50
4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.50
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25
Pc=1 bar
Pc=2 bar
Pc=3 bar
Head ratio (H=Hd/Hs)
Flow rate ratio (Q=Qd/Qs)
Figure 8: Head ratio vs. flow-rate ratio at the pressure difference pressure inside the air chamber, P
c
1, 2, and 3 bar.
0.00
10.00
20.00
30.00
40.00
50.00
60.00
70.00
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25
Efficiency η (%)
Flow rate ratio ( Q=Qd/Qs )
Pc=1 bar
Pc=2 bar
Pc=3 bar
Figure 9: Efficiency vs. flow-rate ratio at difference pressure inside the air chamber, P
c
1, 2, and 3 bar.
6Advances in Civil Engineering
somewhat scattered, it can be seen that the flow-rate ratio at
which the maximum efficiency occurs becomes higher as the
supply head increases. It is also apparent that an increase in
the supply head, decreases water loss at the waste valve (Q
w
).
Under the action of the supply head, H
s
, the water in the
drive line is accelerated. As the flow velocity increases, the
disc of the waste valve rises due to the drag of the plate. e
closure will be very rapid.
Valve stem
Dead weight
Valve disc
Valve outlet
Open position Closed position
Figure 10: Drawings of a modified waste valve.
10.00
10.50
11.00
11.50
12.00
12.50
13.00
13.50
14.00
14.50
15.00
15.50
16.00
16.50
17.00
17.50
18.00
18.50
19.00
19.50
0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 4.50
Delivery flow rate Qd (L/min)
Supplied flow rate Qs (L/min)
Waste valve beat of 208 times (min)
Waste valve beat of 244 times (min)
Waste valve beat of 285 times (min)
Figure 11: Supply flow rate vs. delivery flow rate at different waste valve beat rates, f
b
208, 244, and 285 times/min.
Advances in Civil Engineering 7
However, there was no significant difference on the HRP
performance over a wide range of flow conditions when air
chamber pressure was varied.
An increase in waste valve beats per minute tends to
decrease the supply flow rate, delivery flow rate, and delivery
head. But it tends to increase the head ratio, the flow-rate
ratio, and the overall efficiency of the pump. It must be
pointed out that there is only a limited range of waste valve
beating values for each particular HRP system.
e dominant factors controlling the functioning of the
HRP are the waste valve beats per minute and the supply
head. A good waste valve design and proper adjustment are
0.00
2.00
4.00
6.00
8.00
10.00
12.00
14.00
16.00
18.00
0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 4.50
Delivery flow rate Qd (L/min)
Delivery head Hd (m)
Waste valve beat of 208 times (min)
Waste valve beat of 244 times (min)
Waste valve beat of 285 times (min)
Figure 12: Delivery head vs. delivery flow rate at different waste valve beat rates, f
b
208, 244 and 285 times/min.
0.00
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35
Head ratio (H=Hd/Hs)
Flow rate ratio (Q=Qd/Qs)
Waste valve beat of 208 times (min)
Waste valve beat of 244 times (min)
Waste valve beat of 285 times (min)
1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
5.00
6.00
7.00
Figure 13: Head ratio vs. flow-rate ratio at different waste valve beat rates, f
b
208, 244 and 285 times/min.
8Advances in Civil Engineering
very essential for smooth and efficient HRP operation. For a
given supply head, the HRP is tuned to pump the greatest
amount of water possible, and this normally occurs when the
waste valve beats per minute value is maximum. A more
detailed analysis of the specific applications and the cor-
responding economic factors would be necessary to identify
completely the relative merits of a HRP. Furthermore, work
is in progress to study the technical feasibility for increasing
lift of a conventional pump using a HRP.
Appendix
e HRP working cycle is as follows.
e process begins when water enters the drive pipe from
a specific elevation height at a high flow rate. e discharge
valve is a simple nonreturn valve. e discharge valve is
closed, and the waste valve or impulse valve is fully opened.
Water flows out around the waste valve disc. is is a wasting
period since water is wasted (Figure 15). Under the action of
the supply head, H
s
, the water in the drive line is accelerated.
As the flow velocity increases, the disc of the waste valve rises
since the drag of the plate overcomes the weight of the valve.
e waste valve will close at some flow velocity. e
closure will be very rapid. us, the flow through the waste
valve is stopped, but since the water in the drive pipe has a
considerable velocity, a very high pressure wave will be
created. is pressure is larger than the static supply pres-
sure. is pressure opens the discharge valve, which permits
the flow of the water to continue by passing into the surge
tank or air chamber. is tank is filled partly with water and
partly with air. Water continues to flow into the surge tank
against the pressure which exists there with decreasing
velocity. ere is also some energy stored in the surge tank
due to air compression. e inertia of the flowing mass of
fluid in the drive line maintains the flow. During this interval,
the flow in the drive line is decelerated. e waste valve is
closed and the discharge valve is opened. is is a pumping
period (Figure 16).
When the velocity reduces to zero, the discharge pres-
sure reverses the flow through the discharge valve and also in
the drive line. e discharge valve then closes and the waste
valve opens. e pressure inside the waste valve, the at-
mospheric pressure, and the weight of the waste valve
produce a net force to open the waste valve automatically.
is is a recoil period [12] (Figure 17).
When the waste valve opens, the pressure in the valve is
atmospheric. Under the action of the supply head, H
s
, the
back flow, toward the supply reservoir, is decelerated to zero
velocity and then accelerated toward the waste valve for the
start of another cycle (Figure 18).
0.00
10.00
20.00
30.00
40.00
50.00
60.00
70.00
80.00
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35
Efficiency η ( % )
Flow rate ratio (Q= Qd/Qs)
Waste valve beat of 208 times (min)
Waste valve beat of 244 times (min)
Waste valve beat of 285 times (min)
Figure 14: Efficiency vs. flow-rate ratio at different waste valve beat rates, f
b
208, 244, and 285 times/min.
Figure 15: HRP working cycle: a wasting period.
Advances in Civil Engineering 9
Nomenclature
f
b
: Waste valve beats per minute (times/min)
g: Gravitational acceleration (m/s
2
)
H: Total head, m of water
HRP: Hydraulic ram pump
H: Head ratio
P
c
: Pressure inside the air chamber (bar)
Pow: Power (W)
Q: Volume flow rate (m
3
/s)
Q: Flow-rate ratio
Greek Symbols
η: Efficiency
ρ: Density (kg/m
3
)
Subscripts
d: Delivery pipe
s: Supply or drive pipe
w: Waste valve or impulse valve.
Data Availability
e Microsoft Excel Worksheet data used to support the
findings of this study are available from the corresponding
author upon request.
Additional Points
(i) e experiments on HRP were conducted to determine its
operation and performance. (ii) Supply head, air chamber
pressure, and waste valve beat rate were considered. (iii)
Increase in the supply head will increase the flow rate,
delivery head, and efficiency. (iv) Air chamber pressure was
not a significant effect on the HRP performance. (v) Increase
in the waste valve beat rate will increase the head ratio, flow-
rate ratio, and efficiency. (vi) e HRP characteristics are
functions of the waste valve beat rate and the supply head.
Conflicts of Interest
e authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest
regarding the publication of this paper.
Acknowledgments
is research has been supported by the King Mongkut’s
University of Technology onburi.
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Figure 16: HRP working cycle: a pumping period.
Figure 17: HRP working cycle: a recoil period.
Figure 18: e automatic HRP working cycle.
10 Advances in Civil Engineering
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Advances in Civil Engineering 11
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