Technical ReportPDF Available

Newsletter No. 22 of the Lolldaiga Hills Research Programme (Nov-Dec 2018)

Authors:
  • Lolldaiga Hills Research Programme, Sustainability Centre Eastern Africa
  • Eastern Africa Primate Diversity and Conservation Program, Kenya
LOLLDAIGA HILLS RESEARCH PROGRAMME
NEWSLETTER
Tom Butynski & Yvonne de Jong
November December 2019 (Issue 22)
1
Cover photograph: Aberrant-coloured (white) adult male Smith’s Dik-dik Madoqua (guentheri) smithii, Lolldaiga Hills Ranch,
central Kenya. This is likely the same dik-dik camera trapped at this site in 2016 when its coat was grizzled-grey. The
Zoological Society of London/Lolldaiga Hills Research Programme Camera Trap Project, initiated in 2013, has captured two
aberrant-coloured adult male Smith’s Dik-diks on the Ranch. More information about aberrant-coloured dik-diks can be
found in Issues 6 and 16 of this Newsletter (www.lolldaiga.com) and at: http://www.lolldaiga.com/gunthers-dik-dik/. A
review of the taxonomy, distribution, and identification of dik-diks in East African can be downloaded at:
http://www.lolldaiga.com/madoquagnusletter/. Photograph by ZSL/LHRP camera trap.
New to lolldaiga.com
Note: Distribution, abundance, and natural history of Lelwel Hartebeest on Lolldaiga Hills Ranch, central
Kenya
Blog: Methods used to shine light on the distribution and abundance of the Kenya Lesser Galago on
Lolldaiga Hills Ranch, Kenya
Blog: Improving coexistence between people and wildlife in Laikipia County
Publication: Primates of Africa’s coastal deltas and their conservation
Additions to Heather Wall’s and Johannes Refisch’s photographic portfolios
Adult male Lion
Panthera leo with
radio collar,
Lolldaiga Hills
Ranch, central
Kenya.
Photograph by
Heather Wall.
2
Note
Distribution, abundance, and natural history of Lelwel Hartebeest on Lolldaiga Hills Ranch, central
Kenya
Thomas M. Butynski & Yvonne A. de Jong, Lolldaiga Hills Research Programme
The Lelwel Hartebeest (or ‘Kenya Highland Hartebeest’) Alcelaphus buselaphus lelwel (Figures 1, 3, 4 & 5) is an
‘Endangered’ subspecies (IUCN 2016b). In Kenya, this subspecies is now primarily restricted to Laikipia County
were only about 1,000 individuals remain (T. Butynski & Y. de Jong, in prep.). Hartebeest are strictly grazers that
live in habitats dominated by grass, namely open and lightly wooded plains. They typically forage on short grass
during the wet season and on long grass during the dry season in areas where drinking water is available
(Gosling & Capellini 2013).
On Lolldaiga Hills Ranch (ca. 200 km²; ca. 1,7002,300 m asl; www.lolldaiga.com), eastern Laikipia County, the
altitudinal range known to be occupied by Hartebeest is ca. 1,750–2,100 m asl. The ‘Extent of Occurrence’ (IUCN
2016a) during August 2013January 2019 was ca. 73 km², or ca. 37% of Lolldaiga Hills Ranch (hereafter,
‘Lolldaiga’; Figure 2).
Figure 1. Adult female Lelwel Hartebeest Alcephalus buselaphus lelwel with new-born calf, Lolldaiga Hills Ranch, Laikipia
County, central Kenya. Photograph by Yvonne de Jong & Tom Butynski.
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Figure 2. Distribution of Lelwel Hartebeest Alcephalus buselaphus lelwel on Lolldaiga Hills Ranch, Laikipia
County, central Kenya, during 20132019. Map by the authors.
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Hartebeest were absent from Lolldaiga from at least 1960 until about 1982. Numbers peaked at about 100
individuals towards the end of the 1990s and remained at this level until around 2010 (Robert Wells, pers.
comm.). The number of Hartebeest on Lolldaiga varied greatly from August 2013 through January 2019; there
were as many as 35 individuals in 2014 but none during much of 2018 (Table 1). Thus, density within the ’Extent
of Occurrence’ varied from no Hartebeest to 0.5 Hartebeest/km². These changes in numbers on Lolldaiga appear
to be largely due to the fact that Hartebeest moved freely to the east onto and off of the contiguous Ole Naishu
Ranch (ca. 125 km²) and Enasoit Game Sanctuary in the west (ca. 17 km²; Figure 2) as grazing conditions and the
availability of water dictated. At least some of the change is, however, due to predation, as approximately 20
Lion Panthera leo, 30 Leopard Panthera pardus, 12 Cheetah Acinonyx jubatus, 200 Spotted Hyaena Crocuta
crocuta, and three packs of Wild Dog Lycaon pictus used Lolldaiga during this period. All five of these species kill
Hartebeest of all ages. Black-backed Jackal Canis mesomelas and Olive Baboon Papio anubis, both common on
Lolldaiga, kill new-born calves (Gosling 1969; Gosling & Capellini 2013).
Table 1. Approximate range in the number of
Lelwel Hartebeest Alcelaphus buselaphus lelwel
on Lolldaiga Hills Ranch, Laikipia County, central
Kenya, during each year from mid-2013 through
January 2019.
Number of Hartebeest
1619
2035
1722
912
2023
08
22
Size of Hartebeest herds on Lolldaiga during 200132019 ranged from
2 to 23 individuals. Mean herd size was ca. 8 individuals. The number
of herds on Lolldaiga at any one time varied from none to three, and
the number of lone adult males on territories ranged from none to
two.
Twenty-five calves are known to have been born during this period.
Calves that lack horns are <1 month of age (Gosling 1969). The
monthly distribution of births is as follows: 5 in March; 7 April; 2 May;
1 June; 7 October; 1 November; 1 December; 1 January.
Figure 3. Adult female Lelwel Hartebeest Alcephalus
buselaphus lelwel, Lolldaiga Hills Ranch, Laikipia County,
central Kenya. Photograph by Yvonne de Jong & Tom
Butynski.
Figure 4. Adult female Lelwel Hartebeest Alcephalus buselaphus lelwel,
Lolldaiga Hills Ranch, Laikipia County, central Kenya. Photograph by
Heather Wall.
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As such, there appears to be two birth seasons, both focused on the two wettest periods (MarchMay and
OctoberNovember). Only one birth (January) was recorded for the two driest periods (JanuaryFebruary and
July–September). This bimodal pattern of calving has also been documented for Coke’s Hartebeest Alcelaphus
buselaphus cokii in Nairobi National Park (Gosling 1969). Calving at the start of the rains helps to ensure that
there is abundant green grass and water during lactation and early weaning and, again, 78 months later when
calves are fully weaned (Gosling 1969; Kok 1975).
A gestation of about 8 months (Gosling 1969) means that Hartebeest on Lolldaiga mate mainly during August
October and MarchApril.
We thank the follow for providing data used in this note: Mike Roberts, Robert Wells, Julius Mathiu, Paul
Benson, Per Aronsson, Heather Wall, and Jim Wall.
References: Gosling, L. M. 1969. Parturition and related behaviour in Coke’s Hartebeest Alcelaphus buselaphus cokei Günther. Journal of Reproduction
and Fertility (Supplement) 6: 265286. Gosling, L. M. & Capellini, I. 2013. Alcelaphus buselaphus Hartebeest. In: Mammals of Africa, Volume VI. Pigs,
Hippopotamuses, Chevrotain, Giraffes, Deer and Bovids. Kingdon, J. & Hoffmann, M., eds., pp. 511526. Bloomsbury, London. IUCN. 2016a. IUCN Red
List of Threatened Species. IUCN Species Survival Commission, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. www.iucnredlist.org. IUCN 2016b. IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist
Group, 2016. Lelwel Hartebeest Alcelaphus buselaphus lelwel. https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/811/50181009. Kok, O. B. 1975. Behaviour and
ecology of the Red Hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus caama). Nature Conservation, Bloemfontein, Orange Free State Provincial Administration,
Miscellaneous Publication No. 5.
Figure 5. Adult male Lelwel Hartebeest Alcephalus buselaphus lelwel, Lolldaiga Hills Ranch, Laikipia County, central Kenya.
Photograph by Yvonne de Jong & Tom Butynski.
6
African Black-
shouldered Kite
Elanus caeruleus,
Lolldaiga Hills
Ranch, central
Kenya.
Photograph by
Heather Wall.
7
Blog
Methods used to shine light on the distribution and abundance of the Kenya Lesser Galago on
Lolldaiga Hills Ranch, Kenya
Grace Ellison, Simon Kenworthy & Amelia Ramage,
Division of Biology and Conservation Ecology,
Manchester Metropolitan University
Galagos, or ‘bushbabies’, are nocturnal primates
distributed across much of sub-Saharan Africa
(Butynski et al. 2013). They are the oldest extant
primates, occupying the basal position in the
phylogeny of the Order Primates (Perelman et al.
2011). Reviews of the taxonomy and diversity of
galagos highlight the lack of data available on
currently acknowledged and potentially new species
(Grubb et al. 2003; De Jong & Butynski 2012;
Butynski et al. 2013). Research on the behaviour
and ecology of free-ranging populations of galagos
is urgently needed in the face of increasing
anthropogenic pressure (Bearder et al. 2003). The
Northern Lesser Galago Galago senegalensis is the
most widely distributed of the galagos, yet the
literature on its behaviour and ecology is limited
(Nash et al. 2013).
The main aim of our study is to assess the distribution
and abundance of the Kenya Lesser Galago G. s.
braccatus (Figures 1 & 2) on Lolldaiga Hills Ranch, eastern Laikipia County, central Kenya. We collected habitat
data and used distance sampling, camera traps, and passive acoustic recorders to detect their presence. We
spent just under 5 weeks (28 June 201830 July 2018) on Lolldaiga Hills Ranch, based at Dik-Dik Research Camp.
Here we describe the methods used during this study and provide preliminary results on the effectiveness of
these methods.
Figure 1. Kenya Lesser Galago Galago senegalensis
braccatus, Tumbili Estate, central Kenya. Photograph by
Yvonne de Jong & Tom Butynski.
Figure 2. Kenya Lesser Galago Galago senegalensis
braccatus, Mukima Ridge, central Kenya.
Photograph by Paul Benson.
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We used a map of the tracks on
Lolldaiga Hills Ranch to predetermine
transects for distance sampling (Figure
3). Each night, between 19:00 h and
23:00 h, we slowly (<10 km/h) drove
one randomly chosen transect. We
drove 100 km of transects in total
(N=15). With the help of torches, at
least three researchers searched for
galagos from both sides of the vehicle.
We found galagos by their
yellow/orange eye shine and leaping
locomotion. We encountered galagos
178 times (total of 220 individuals).
When we spotted a galago, we marked
the location and altitude using a GPS
and noted: number of individuals;
estimated distance perpendicular to the
vehicle; height above ground of each
galago when first sighted (ground; <04
m; 48 m; 812 m; >12 m); and habitat
(e.g., grassland; woodland; bushland;
riverine). During the day we repeated
each transect to map habitat and note
the most common tree species.
We generated a 2 x 2 km grid across Lolldaiga Hills Ranch and referred to the corners as ‘points’. We divided the
entire area into four sections (NE/NW/SE/SW) and visited 810 points in one of the sections each week. At the
nearest and safest place to the point we placed: (1) a Bushnell (www.bushnell.com/) camera trap baited with
chunks of pineapple and banana; (2) a Reed temperature and humidity data logger (www.reedinstruments.com;
(3) a passive acoustic recorder (Audiomoth; Hill et al. 2018; [www.openacousticdevices.info]) at seven points;
and (4) a Song Meter (www.wildlifeacoustics.com) at one point (Figure 4).
Figure 4. Simon placing a camera trap, our supervisor
(Dr. Caroline Bettridge) attaching a temperature and
humidity data logger and Audiomoth, and Amelia
waiting to place fruit in view of the camera trap.
Photograph by Grace Ellison.
Figure 3. Lolldaiga Hills Ranch, central Kenya, with the transects and
grid points used to collect data during this study of Kenya Lesser Galago
Galago senegalensis braccatus. The red dots are where galagos were
detected by camera trap and/or passive acoustic recorder.
9
We had several equipment failures, including two broken camera traps, scheduling failures on the one Song
Meter and on one of the Audiomoths, and water damage to one of the Audiomoths. Fortunately, all but one
point always had either a working passive acoustic recorder or camera trap. We aimed to sample each point for
56 nights each but, due to equipment failures, the number of trap nights varied. We sampled 33 points for 16
nights each, totaling 142 trap nights. The bait was effective in attracting galagos to the camera traps (Figure 5).
Preliminary results show that
galagos are more abundant
in woodland areas
dominated by Whistling
Thorn Acacia Acacia
drepanolobium than in other
habitat types on Lolldaiga
Hills Ranch. We will use
these data to determine
habitat and temperature
preferences of G. s.
braccatus on Lolldaiga Hills
Ranch, estimate their
population density, and
predict where other
populations may be in Laikipia
and, potentially, other areas across the species’ range.
Figure 5. Kenya Lesser Galago Galago senegalensis braccatus with a piece of fruit on Lolldaiga Hills Ranch. Camera
trap photograph by the authors.
Figure 6. Kenya Lesser Galago Galago senegalensis braccatus investigating an
un-chewed sugar-baited string on Lolldaiga Hills Ranch. Camera trap photograph
by the authors.
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As part of Grace’s PhD research, we used a non-invasive method for collecting saliva for genetic analysis. This
method, successful in northern Tanzania, involves hanging sterile nylon strings baited with either sugar syrup or
honey (Smiley Evans et al. 2015). We hung baited strings at sites where we saw galagos during transects. These
sites were usually areas dominated by Whistling Thorn Acacia. We monitored the strings either by camera trap
or by examination the next day to see if the strings had been chewed. No galagos chewed the strings placed on
Lolldaiga Hills Ranch (Figure 6) but we obtained 15 chewed strings from Mukima Ridge, south of the Ranch
(Figure 7). We plan to export the samples to the UK for genetic analysis.
We are grateful for the opportunity to conduct research on Lolldaiga Hills Ranch. We thank Caroline Bettridge,
Tom Butynski, and Yvonne de Jong for their advice and guidance, Paul Benson and Eleanor Monbiot for use of
their compound at Mukima Ridge, and Charles Muhoro, Jackson Muraguri, John Theuri, Per Aronsson, and Paul
Benson for assistance in the field.
References: Bearder, S. K., Ambrose, L., Harcourt, C., Honess, P., Perkin, A., Pimley, E., Pullen, S. & Svoboda, N. 2003. Species-typical patterns of
infant contact, sleeping site use and social cohesion among nocturnal primates in Africa. Folia Primatologica 74: 337354. Butynski, T. M., Kingdon, J.
& Kalina, J. (eds). 2013. Mammals of Africa. Volume II: Primates. Bloomsbury, London. 556 pp. De Jong, Y. A. & Butynski, T. M. 2012. The primates of
East Africa: country lists and conservation priorities. African Primates 7: 135155. Grubb, P., Butynski, T. M., Oates, J. F., Bearder, S. K., Disotell, T. R.,
Groves, C. P. & Struhsaker, T. T. 2003. Assessment of the diversity of African primates. International Journal of Primatology 24: 13011357. Hill, A. P.,
Prince, P., Piña Covarrubias, E., Doncaster, C. P., Snaddon, J. L. & Rogers, A. 2018. AudioMoth: evaluation of a smart open acoustic device for
monitoring biodiversity and the environment. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 9: 11991211. Nash, L. T., Zimmermann, E. & Butynski, T. M. 2013.
Galago senegalensis Northern Lesser Galago (Senegal Lesser Galago, Senegal Lesser Bushbaby). In: Mammals of Africa. Volume II: Primates. T. M.
Butynski, J. Kingdon & J. Kalina, eds., pp. 425429. Bloomsbury, London. Perelman, P., Johnson, W., Roos, C., Seuánez, H. N., Horvath, J. E., Moreira, M.
A., Kessing, B., Pontius, J., Roelke, M., Rumpler, Y. & Schneider, M. P. C. 2011. A molecular phylogeny of living primates. PLoS Genetics, 7(3),
p.e1001342. Smiley Evans, T., Barry, P. A., Gilardi, K. V., Goldstein, T., Deere, J. D., Fike, J., Yee, J., Ssebide, B. J., Karmacharya, D., Cranfield, M. R. &
Wolking, D. 2015. Optimization of a novel non-invasive oral sampling technique for zoonotic pathogen surveillance in nonhuman primates. PLoS
Neglected Tropical Diseases 9(6), p.e0003813.
Figure 7. Sugar-baited nylon strings that were chewed by a Kenya Lesser Galago Galago
senegalensis braccatus, Mukima Ridge, central Kenya. Photograph by Grace Ellison.
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12
Blog
Improving coexistence between people and wildlife in Laikipia County, Kenya
Darcy Ogada, The Peregrine Fund
Some of us are fortunate to live life one step removed from the tumult and chaos that plays out daily in
surrounding communities. It’s often a harsh struggle for existence for humans and animals alike, which is why
notions of wildlife conservation and environmental protection do not top anyone’s agenda.
Wildlife conservation in Laikipia County, central Kenya, is often linked to reducing human-wildlife conflict. While
conflict with predators and elephants is well known amongst Laikipians, there is little awareness about lesser
known sources of conflict. Dogs represent the biggest source of daily conflict, while birds (guineafowl, cranes,
quelea, etc.) are a growing problem as human populations continue to expand. At the same time, most of us
know the current shameful state of environmental protection in Kenya, from decimated forests to stinking rivers
and the inherent loss of biodiversity.
One common thread linking conflict, communities, and environmental degradation is the widespread abuse of
pesticides, some of it unintentional, some not. What is nearly universal is the almost complete lack of
understanding about the dangers of using highly toxic and readily available pesticides to poison wildlife, as well
as to produce those perfect red tomatoes occupying your kitchen.
One of the ways in which
The Peregrine Fund is
tackling wildlife poisoning in
Laikipia is through creating
awareness about the
hazards posed to humans
and livestock by rampant
pesticide abuse. For
example, it does not benefit
your farm if you poison the
feral dogs that are eating
your maize and then your
chickens consume the
poisoned dog vomit and also
succumb. Spraying Round-up
around the perimeter of
your shamba (= garden) to
poison the livestock that
prefers eating tomatoes to
dried grass nubs doesn’t win
you a Good Neighbor Award.
Over the past 1.5 years, The Peregrine Fund has conducted community-level training in Laikipia aimed at
reducing wildlife poisoning and the conflict that triggers it. Our main interest is in reducing the unintentional
poisoning of vultures. Poison has decimated their continental populations and has resulted in the recent up-
listing of six species of vulture to ‘Endangered’ or ‘Critically Endangered’.
Cows after eating
contaminated grass at a
poisoning site on ADC
Mutara Ranch, Laikipia
County. Photograph by
Joseph Wahome.
Cows after eating contaminated grass at a poisoning site, ADC Mutara Ranch, Laikipia
County. Photograph by Joseph Wahome.
13
While our initial training focused on creating awareness about the toxicity of pesticides, their environmental
hazards, and how to safely respond to a poisoning incident, in June 2018 The Peregrine Fund began additional
training in partnership with Living with Lions. This is aimed at teaching people how to construct low-cost
predator-proof bomas (= corrals). Community response to both training exercises has been amazing and
overwhelming.
Collectively, our team has trained nearly 1,000 people representing 54 community and self-help groups,
Government Service Unit officers, Kenya Forest Service rangers, bird club members, community health workers,
and employees of the Laikipia County Government based in Rumuruti. We have focused initial efforts around
Above: Adult Rüppell’s Vulture Gyps
rueppellii. Photograph by Darcy Ogada.
Left: Poisoned White-backed Vultures Gyps
africanus and Rüppell’s Vultures Gyps
rueppellii, ADC Mutara Ranch, Laikipia
County. Photograph by Joseph Wahome.
14
Rumuruti due to high levels of conflict and poison use, and have started working with communities around Solio,
another hotspot of wildlife conflict and poisoning.
Laikipia County’s Community Development Assistant (CDA) recently confirmed that our trainees successfully
averted the poisoning of a lion pride at Lorien. This would not only have resulted in the deaths of the lions but
also, probably, of tens of vultures and other scavengers. She reported that the trainees took the lead to hold-off
the angry people to avert the poisoning of the lions (which were later translocated). She also mentioned that
she recently met with a trainee from Bobong’ Community who was walking hastily and carrying one of our
Poison Response Kits. Out of curiosity she stopped the man to find out where he was going. It turned out that he
was on a one-man crusade, given the urgency of the issue, to educate a fellow local who had vowed to lace a
lamb carcass with poison to kill a dog that was eating his chickens. His crusade was successful.
Our bird club trainees report a decrease in poisoning of ‘Endangered’ Grey Crowned Cranes. A number of
trainees have conducted poisoning awareness barazas (= meetings) within their communities. Predator-proof
boma construction is on the rise around Rumuruti. After the current dry season we will begin evaluating their
progress. In October 2018, The Peregrine Fund began collaborating with the NGO Lion Landscapes to train their
Lion Rangers and people in more communities throughout Laikipia.
Our team includes Martin Odino, Martin Kahindi, Steve Ekwanga, and Alfred Koech. The Peregrine Fund is
grateful for financial support from San Diego Zoo Global, Disney Conservation Fund, National Geographic,
Bowling for Rhinos, and Detroit Zoo. You can follow our progress on the Coexistence Co-op Facebook page, or
write: ogada.darcy@peregrinefund.org
Employees of the Laikipia
County Department of
Environment receiving
one of The Peregrine
Fund’s Poison Response
Kits from Martin Kahindi.
Photograph by Martin
Odino.
15
16
Publication
Primates of Africa’s coastal deltas and their conservation
Thomas M. Butynski & Yvonne A. de Jong,
In: Primates in Flooded Habitats: Ecology and Conservation.
Nowak, K., Barnett, A. A. & Matsuda, I., eds., pp. 244258. Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, UK.
There is little information on the non-human primates of Africa’s
deltas or on the importance of these deltas to the conservation of
primate diversity on the continent. This chapter is concerned with the
conservation of Africa’s ten largest coastal deltas and their importance
to the maintenance of primate diversity. This chapter also draws
attention to (1) the need for much more research on the distribution,
abundance and conservation status of the primates that inhabit
Africa’s large coastal deltas, and (2) the fact that the biological values
of most of these large coastal deltas are being rapidly degraded
and are in dire need of targeted conservation actions.
The information presented derives from a
detailed review of the literature, extensive
correspondence with colleagues, and our
own work in the Tana Delta, Kenya, and
along the Lower Rufiji River, near the inland
apex of the Rufiji Delta, Tanzania.
Find more information about the book at:
http://www.lolldaiga.com/an-annotated-
checklist-of-mammals-of-kenya/
Adult male Tana River Red Colobus
Piliocolobus rufomitratus (left) and adult
male Tana River Mangabey Cercocebus
galeritus (right) at Ndera Conservancy,
Kenya. Both taxa are globally
‘Endangered’, endemic, and restricted to
a small area along the lower Tana River
and Tana River Delta, east Kenya.
Photographs by Yvonne de Jong and Tom
Butynski.
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Publications and Reports
Publication
Butynski, T. M. & De Jong, Y. A. 2019. Primates of Africa’s
coastal deltas and their conservation. In: Primates in Flooded
Habitats: Ecology and Conservation. Nowak, K., Barnett, A. A.
& Matsuda, I., eds., pp. 244258. Cambridge University
Press, Cambridge, UK.
De Jong, Y. A., Butynski, T. M. & Dekker, N. F. H. 2018. Babies
from the bush….meet Kenya’s galagos (Part 3). Komba 3: 4
7. Website: www.wildsolutions.nl/kenyas-galagos-part-3/
In press
Cunneyworth, P., De Jong, Y. A., Butynski, T. M. & Perkin, A.
W. IUCN/SSC Red List assessment for Peter's Angolan
Colobus Colobus angolensis palliatus. IUCN Red List of
Threatened Species 2018. IUCN/SSC, Gland, Switzerland.
De Jong, Y. A. & Butynski, T. M. IUCN/SSC Red List
assessments for 55 taxa of African primates. IUCN Red List of
Threatened Species 2018. IUCN/SSC, Gland, Switzerland.
Kenworthy, S. P., Butynski, T. M., De Jong, Y. A., de Kort, S. & Bettridge, C. M. Intraspecific structural
differences in loud calls of the Small-eared Greater Galago (Otolemur garnettii). Folia Primatologica.
Kivai, S. M., Butynski, T. M., De Jong, Y. A., King, J., Loyola, L. C., Mbora, D. N. M. & Ting, N. Tana River Red
Colobus Piliocolobus rufomitratus / Critically Endangered. IUCN/SSC Red Colobus Action Plan. IUCN/SSC,
Gland, Switzerland.
Rovero, F., Davenport, T. R. B., De Jong, Y. A. & Butynski, T. M. IUCN/SSC Red List assessment for Sharpe's
Angolan Colobus Colobus angolensis palliatus. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018. IUCN/SSC, Gland,
Switzerland.
Svensson, M. S., Butynski T. M., De Jong, Y. A., Bearder, S. K., Schneiderová, I & Nijman, V. Geographic
variation in the loud call of the Northern Lesser Galago (Galago senegalensis). Folia Primatologica.
In preparation
Butynski, T. M. & De Jong, Y. A. Conservation of Africa’s colobine monkeys. In: The Colobines: Natural
History, Behaviour and Ecological Diversity. Matsuda, I., Grueter, C. C. & Teichroeb, J. A., eds. Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Butynski, T. M. & De Jong, Y. A. Preliminary report on the distribution and abundance of Lelwel Hartebeest
in the Ewaso Ecosystem, central Kenya.
Butynski, T. M. & De Jong, Y. A. Primates of Southern Africa: Pocket Identification Guide.
De Jong, Y. A. & Butynski, T. M. Biogeography, taxonomy and phenotypic clines of Olive Baboon Papio
anubis and Yellow Baboon Papio cynocephalus in Kenya and Tanzania. In: Baboons. Wallis, J., ed. Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, UK.
De Jong, Y. A. & Butynski, T. M. Primates of Northeast Africa: Pocket Identification Guide.
De Jong, Y. A. & Butynski, T. M. Vocal pattern of the loud call of Somali Lesser Galago Galago gallarum
Thomas, 1901.
De Jong, Y. A., d’Huart, J. P. & Butynski, T. M. Biogeography of the Desert Warthog Phacochoerus
aethiopicus (Pallas, 1766) and Common Warthog Phacochoerus africanus (Gmelin, 1788) in the Horn of
Africa.
18
Rainfall on Lolldaiga Hills Ranch
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
Monthly rainfall (mm) on Lolldaiga Hills Ranch
20132018 (mean of four sites)
2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Rainfall data kindly provided by Peter Karani.
66
52
79
48
32
66
35
80
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
South West Central North
Rainfall (mm) at four sites on Lolldaiga Hills
Ranch during November and December 2018
November December
0 0
84
262
160
99
14
50
19 44 61 53
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
Monthly rainfall (mm) on Lolldaiga Hills Ranch
2018 (mean of four sites)
Subadult male Impala Aepyceros melampus, Lolldaiga Hills Ranch. Photograph by Johannes Refisch.
19
Species totals as of end of December 2018
Mammals Lolldaiga Hills Conservation Landscape……..106 species
Mammals Lolldaiga Hills Ranch.………………………………….99 species
Birds Lolldaiga Hills Ranch………………………………………..407 species
Birds proposed IBA/KBA……………………………….………….633 species
Reptiles Lolldaiga Hills Ranch………………..…….……….….33 species
Amphibians Lolldaiga Hills Ranch..................................12 species
Butterflies Lolldaiga Hills Ranch………………….……………135 species
Moths Lolldaiga Hills Ranch.......................................>200 species
Except for moths, species list for the above taxonomic groups can be viewed at:
www.lolldaiga.com
Above: Adult male Lion Panthera leo and Spotted Hyaenas Crocuta crocuta
at a Reticulated Giraffe Giraffa reticulata carcass, Lolldaiga Hills Ranch.
Camera trap image by Johannes Refisch.
Right: Adult male African Grey Hornbill Tockus nasutus nasutus, Lolldaiga
Hills Ranch. Photograph by Heather Wall.
20
Spotted Hyaena Crocuta
crocuta, Lolldaiga Hills
Ranch. Photograph by Per
Aronsson.
21
Best Zoological Society of London/Lolldaiga Hills Research Programme Camera Trap Project
photographs on Lolldaiga Hills Ranch (NovemberDecember 2018).
Spotted Hyaena Crocuta crocuta and White-backed
Vultures Gyps africanus
Lion Panthera leo
Leopard Panthera pardus
Spotted Hyaena Crocuta crocuta
Savanna Elephants Loxodonta africana
Savanna Elephants Loxodonta africana
22
North African Crested Porcupines Hystrix cristata
Steenbuck Raphicerus campestris
Common Duiker Sylvicapra grimmia
Smith’s Dik-Diks Madoqua (guentheri) smithii
Zorilla Ictonyx striatus
Common Warthogs Phacochoerus africanus and Red-billed
Oxpeckers Buphagus erythrorhynchus
23
Common Warthogs Phacochoerus africanus
Common Warthogs Phacochoerus africanus
Bushbuck Tragelaphus scriptus
Aberrant-coloured (white face, white stockings) Smith’s
Dik-Dik Madoqua (guentheri) smithii
Aberrant-coloured (white) Smith’s Dik-Dik Madoqua
(guentheri) smithii
Aberrant-coloured (white) Smith’s Dik-Dik Madoqua
(guentheri) smithii
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Book
Full-text available
70 taxa • 32 distribution maps • 73 drawings
Red List assessment for Peter's Angolan Colobus Colobus angolensis palliatus
  • De Jong
  • Y A Butynski
  • T M Dekker
De Jong, Y. A., Butynski, T. M. & Dekker, N. F. H. 2018. Babies from the bush….meet Kenya's galagos (Part 3). Komba 3: 4-7. Website: www.wildsolutions.nl/kenyas-galagos-part-3/ In press • Cunneyworth, P., De Jong, Y. A., Butynski, T. M. & Perkin, A. W. IUCN/SSC Red List assessment for Peter's Angolan Colobus Colobus angolensis palliatus. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018. IUCN/SSC, Gland, Switzerland.
Red List assessments for 55 taxa of African primates. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
  • Y A Butynski
  • T M Iucn
  • Ssc
• De Jong, Y. A. & Butynski, T. M. IUCN/SSC Red List assessments for 55 taxa of African primates. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018. IUCN/SSC, Gland, Switzerland.
Intraspecific structural differences in loud calls of the Small-eared Greater Galago (Otolemur garnettii)
  • S P Kenworthy
  • T M Butynski
  • Y A De Jong
  • S De Kort
  • C M Bettridge
Kenworthy, S. P., Butynski, T. M., De Jong, Y. A., de Kort, S. & Bettridge, C. M. Intraspecific structural differences in loud calls of the Small-eared Greater Galago (Otolemur garnettii). Folia Primatologica.
River Red Colobus Piliocolobus rufomitratus / Critically Endangered. IUCN/SSC Red Colobus Action Plan
  • S M Kivai
  • T M Butynski
  • Y A De Jong
  • J King
  • L C Loyola
  • D N M Mbora
  • N Ting
  • Tana
• Kivai, S. M., Butynski, T. M., De Jong, Y. A., King, J., Loyola, L. C., Mbora, D. N. M. & Ting, N. Tana River Red Colobus Piliocolobus rufomitratus / Critically Endangered. IUCN/SSC Red Colobus Action Plan. IUCN/SSC, Gland, Switzerland.
IUCN/SSC Red List assessment for Sharpe's Angolan Colobus Colobus angolensis palliatus. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
  • F Rovero
  • T R B Davenport
  • Y A De Jong
  • T M Butynski
• Rovero, F., Davenport, T. R. B., De Jong, Y. A. & Butynski, T. M. IUCN/SSC Red List assessment for Sharpe's Angolan Colobus Colobus angolensis palliatus. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018. IUCN/SSC, Gland, Switzerland.
Geographic variation in the loud call of the Northern Lesser Galago (Galago senegalensis). Folia Primatologica
  • M S Svensson
  • T M Butynski
  • Y A De Jong
  • S K Bearder
  • Schneiderová
  • V Nijman
• Svensson, M. S., Butynski T. M., De Jong, Y. A., Bearder, S. K., Schneiderová, I & Nijman, V. Geographic variation in the loud call of the Northern Lesser Galago (Galago senegalensis). Folia Primatologica. In preparation • Butynski, T. M. & De Jong, Y. A. Conservation of Africa's colobine monkeys. In: The Colobines: Natural History, Behaviour and Ecological Diversity. Matsuda, I., Grueter, C. C. & Teichroeb, J. A., eds. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.