ArticlePDF Available

EFFECTS OF PROGRESSIVE MUSCLE RELAXATION INTERVENTION WITH MUSIC AND AROMATHERAPY ON DECREASING STRESS LEVEL AMONG TEACHERS

Authors:

Abstract

Background: Stress among teachers has a significant relationship with the psychosomatic and depressive symptoms. Progressive muscle relaxation with music and aromatherapy is an intervention which can be implemented to reduce the level of stress among teachers. Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effects of progressive muscle relaxation with music and aromatherapy on decreasing the level of stress among teachers. Methods: This study employed a pre-posttest quasi-experimental design with a control group. The samples were 46 teachers recruited by purposive sampling and were evenly assigned to the intervention group and the control group. Progressive muscle relaxation with music and aromatherapy was given to the intervention group for four sessions in four days; each lasted for 20 minutes. The data were collected using the Teacher Stress Inventory and analyzed using the t-test to know the effects of the intervention. Results: The results showed that the mean of stress level among the teachers in the intervention group decreased from 50.65±3.761 to 32.78±8.426 after the intervention. Meanwhile, in the control group, the mean of stress level slightly decreased from 49.87±3.348 to 49.17±4.868. The t-test obtained a p-value of 0.000, indicating that there were significant differences in the stress levels between the intervention and the control group. Conclusion: Progressive muscle relaxation with music and aromatherapy reduced the level of stress among teachers. Based on the findings, it is recommended that community nurses promote this relaxation therapy to decrease the stress level among school teachers.
Copyright © 2018, NMJN, p-ISSN 2087-7811, e-ISSN 2406-8799
Nurse Media Journal of Nursing, 8(2), 2018, 71-78
Available Online at http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/medianers
Effects of Progressive Muscle Relaxation with Music and
Aromatherapy on Decreasing Stress Levels among Teachers
Claudia Fariday Dewi1, Ani Margawati2, Muhammad Mu’in3
1Postgraduate Program in Nursing, Department of Nursing, Diponegoro University, Indonesia
2Department of Nutrition, Diponegoro University, Indonesia
3Department of Nursing, Diponegoro University, Indonesia
Corresponding Author: Claudia Fariday Dewi (claudiasiwe@gmail.com)
ABSTRACT
Background: Stress among teachers has a significant relationship with the
psychosomatic and depressive symptoms. Progressive muscle relaxation with music and
aromatherapy is an intervention which can be implemented to reduce the level of stress
among teachers.
Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effects of progressive muscle relaxation
with music and aromatherapy on decreasing the level of stress among teachers.
Methods: This study employed a pre-posttest quasi-experimental design with a control
group. The samples were 46 teachers recruited by purposive sampling and were evenly
assigned to the intervention group and the control group. Progressive muscle relaxation
with music and aromatherapy was given to the intervention group for four sessions in
four days; each lasted for 20 minutes. The data were collected using the Teacher Stress
Inventory and analyzed using the t-test to know the effects of the intervention.
Results: The results showed that the mean of stress level among the teachers in the
intervention group decreased from 50.65±3.761 to 32.78±8.426 after the intervention.
Meanwhile, in the control group, the mean of stress level slightly decreased from
49.87±3.348 to 49.17±4.868. The t-test obtained a p-value of 0.000, indicating that there
were significant differences in the stress levels between the intervention and the control
group.
Conclusion: Progressive muscle relaxation with music and aromatherapy reduced the
level of stress among teachers. Based on the findings, it is recommended that community
nurses promote this relaxation therapy to decrease the stress level among school teachers.
Keywords: Aromatherapy; music; progressive muscle relaxation; teacher stress
BACKGROUND
Work stress is one of the health problems that often occurs in teachers. International
Labour Organization in 2016 mentioned that one of the highest prevalence of work stress
occurs in the education sector (International Labour Organization, 2016). Furthermore,
the Health and Safety Executive (2016) reported that in the teaching profession, there are
about 2,530 cases of stress per 100,000 teachers. It means that among 465,112 teachers
of high school and vocational school in Indonesia, there are approximately 11,767 cases
of stress (The Central Statistic Agency, 2015). The high number of cases of teacher stress
indicates that there is a problem in the society’s mental health that should be solved.
72
Copyright © 2018, NMJN, p-ISSN 2087-7811, e-ISSN 2406-8799
Nurse Media Journal of Nursing, 8(2), 2018,
Teachers indeed have a very important role in improving the quality of education of a
nation (Seth, 2016). However, when teachers experience stress, there will be some
unfavorable effects on the learning process and the quality of the educational institution.
Results of a study conducted in Turkey showed a significant negative relationship
between stress levels of teachers and the health of educational organizations (Sabanci,
2015). Moreover, another study by Mclean and Connor (2016) reported that teachers who
had depressive symptoms caused poor quality of learning in the classroom. Teachers
emotional fatigue affects the teachers perceived support and the teachers
depersonalization with the development of student motivation (Shen, Mccaughtry,
Martin, Garn, Kulik, & Fahlman, 2015). Teacher work stress can also affect the physical
and mental health of teachers. Results of previous studies indicated that increased work
stress raised psychosomatic problems and depressive symptoms (Chang & Min, 2009;
Madhura, Subramanya, & Balaram, 2014). Teachers who experience work stress will try
to protect themselves by self-withdrawal, absent, decreased performance, loss of
commitment, dissatisfaction at work, and interpersonal conflict (Seferoğlu, Yıldız, &
Yücel, 2014).
Community nurses can help teachers address the problem of stress at work. In this
context, the nurses may provide psychosocial support to the teachers to deal with the issue
of occupational stress in the form of prevention which focuses on individual workers.
One of the efforts which can be made is through nursing complementary interventions
(Snyder & Lindquist, 2006). A common complementary intervention which has been
widely used to deal with the problem of work stress is progressive muscle relaxation
(PMR). A study by Sundram, Dahlui, and Chinna (2016) reported a significant reduction
in the level of stress among male workers after given the PMR. Similarly, progressive
muscle relaxation with music was reported to increase the focus of attention and reduce
mental tension (Robb, 2000). The reduction in stress levels showed the potential of PMR
therapy as a coping strategy at the workplace.
In addition to PMR, other complementary therapies which can reduce stress include
music therapy and aromatherapy. Listening to music prior to a standardized stressor
predominantly affects the autonomic nervous system (in terms of a faster recovery) and
a lesser degree the endocrine and psychological stress response (Thoma, la Marca,
Brönnimann, Finkel, Ehlert, & Nater, 2013). Music affects the body relaxation by
reducing the activity of alpha-amylase and systolic blood pressure (Linnemann, Ditzen,
Strahler, Doerr, & Nater, 2015). Aromatherapy describes the use of essential oils from
various plants which are beneficial to improve the physical and psychological state of an
individual (Mccabe & Jacka, 2001). Previous studies reported that aromatherapy
improved mood (Linnemann et al., 2015) and decreased stress (Toda & Morimoto, 2011).
Unfortunately, there have been limited studies which investigate the effects of
progressive muscle relaxation with music and aromatherapy to cope with work stress.
Thus, it is necessary to conduct a study which explores the effects of such combination
of interventions on teachers’ stress.
PURPOSE
This study aimed to examine the effects of progressive muscle relaxation intervention
with music and aromatherapy on decreasing the level of stress among teachers.
73
Copyright © 2018, NMJN, p-ISSN 2087-7811, e-ISSN 2406-8799
Nurse Media Journal of Nursing, 8(2), 2018,
METHODS
This study used a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design with a control group. The
samples were 46 teachers from two vocational high schools in Manggarai regency in East
Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. The samples were assigned into two groups: the intervention
group that received progressive muscle relaxation with music and aromatherapy (n=23),
and the control group which did not receive such intervention (n=23). The samples were
recruited using purposive sampling. The inclusion criteria included teachers who were
favorable to lavender aromatherapy and relaxation music and experienced a moderate
level of stress. The exclusion criteria were teachers having other stress management
therapy, and experiencing severe and acute heart disease, pain, infection or inflammation
of the musculoskeletal, and hearing loss.
Prior to the study, the researchers conducted an initial screening using the Teacher Stress
Inventory (TSI) to determine the level of stress in teachers subjectively. The TSI
questionnaire was administered to 75 teachers in two vocational high schools. Results
indicated that the respondents who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were 46.
Objective measurement of stress was also conducted using a cocoro meter to check the
alpha amylase concentration in the saliva as an indicator of stress. If the result is 0-30
KU/L (kilo unit per liter), it means that the respondent is happy and does not have stress.
A result of 30-45 KU/L means the respondent is slightly stressed; 45-60 KU/L means the
respondent experience stress, and 60 KU/L means the respondent has severe stress
(Ariyanto, Wahyuning, & Desrianty, 2015).
The intervention in this study was progressive muscle relaxation intervention with music
and aromatherapy which was administered for four sessions in four consecutive days. The
duration of each session was 20 minutes. Aromatherapy through inhalation works best
using a vaporizer or diffuser. The use of diffuser was preferable in this study as it can
spray different molecules at the same time. A 3% concentration of lavender oil was used.
In total, 20 drops of lavender oil were mixed with 50 ml of water. The diffuser containing
aromatherapy was turned on half an hour before the intervention. In this research, the
researcher also played the music of Pachelbel Canon in D Major. This music had a regular
rhythm, less than 80 beats per minute, lacked extreme tones, smooth and flowing melodic
sounds. During the intervention, the music was also played for 20 minutes. Objective and
subjective measurement were performed before and after the intervention. The collected
data were analyzed using the t-tests.
The study was approved by the research ethics committee of the Faculty of Medicine,
Diponegoro University, and the schools where the study took place. All respondents were
informed of the purpose of the study and consented for their participation in the study.
RESULTS
The characteristics of respondents included age and years of teaching, sex, education, and
marital status. Based on Table 1, the majority of teachers were males, bachelor degree
holders and married. Most of them were employed by the school foundation. The mean
of age in the intervention and control group was 32.43 and 32.83, respectively. The mean
of years of teaching in the intervention and control group was 6.43 and 6.78, respectively.
74
Copyright © 2018, NMJN, p-ISSN 2087-7811, e-ISSN 2406-8799
Nurse Media Journal of Nursing, 8(2), 2018,
Table 1. Characteristics of respondents (n=46)
Variable
Intervention
Group
Control Group
Total
%
n
%
n
%
Sex
Male
60.9
13
56.5
27
58.7
Female
31.9
10
43.5
19
41.3
Education
Associate degree
4.3
1
4.3
2
4.3
Bachelor degree
95.7
22
95.7
44
95.7
Status of Marriage
Single
30.4
6
26.1
13
28.3
Married
69.6
17
73.9
33
71.7
Status of Employment
Honorary
8.7
2
8.7
4
8.7
Government employees
4.3
2
8.7
3
6.5
Employees of foundation
87
19
82.6
39
84.8
Age (M±SD)
Years of teaching (M±SD)
32.43±6.88 32.83±7.63
6.43±5.84 6.78±6.22
Table 2. The mean of stress among teachers in the intervention group and control group
using cocoro meter
Group
Time of
measurement
n
Mean
SD
Min-Max
CI
Intervention
Pre test
23
50.65
3.761
45-59
49.03-52.28
Post test
23
32.78
8.426
21-54
29.14-36.43
Control
Pre test
23
49.87
3.348
45-57
48.42-51.32
Post test
23
49.17
4.868
36-58
47.07-51.28
Table 2 shows that the stress value among teachers before the intervention in the
intervention was 50.65 kU/L, while in the control group was 49.87 kU/L. After the
intervention, the stress value among teachers in the intervention group decreased to 32.78
kU/L, meaning that teachers did not experience stress. Meanwhile, in the control group,
the stress value slightly decreased (49.17 kU/L).
Table 3. Mean difference of teacher stress after the intervention in the intervention group
and control group
Group
n
Mean
SD
Variants
p-value
Intervention
23
32.78
8.426
0.013
0.000
Control
23
49.17
4.868
Based on Table 3, there was a significant difference in the level of stress among teachers
after the progressive muscle relaxation with music and aromatherapy on in the
intervention group and control group (p=0.000). It indicates that the intervention was
effective to decrease teacher stress.
75
Copyright © 2018, NMJN, p-ISSN 2087-7811, e-ISSN 2406-8799
Nurse Media Journal of Nursing, 8(2), 2018,
DISCUSSION
The results of this study proved that there was a significant effect of progressive muscle
relaxation with music and aromatherapy on decreasing the level of stress among teachers.
This is in line with a previous study which reported that progressive muscle relaxation
could reduce cortisol levels by an average decrease of 0.013 units per 15 days (p=0.039)
(Linnemann, Ditzen, Strahler, Doerr, & Nater, 2015). Music therapy and lavender
aromatherapy give effects on the stress management by decreasing the alpha-amylase
activity (Hur, Song, Lee, & Soo, 2014). Muscle relaxation combined with music can
increase the focus of participant attention and reduce mental tension; music encourages
the body becomes more relaxed and able to motivate participants to follow a relaxation
program (Robb, 2000). Meamwhile, aromatherapy has been proven to be a supportive
therapy which improves mood and sense of comfort (Linnemann et al., 2015).
Another study by Robb (2000) also showed a decrease of the mean of State Anxiety
Inventory (STAI) in the group receiving progressive muscle relaxation intervention with
music by 15.54, whereas in only music and muscle relaxation intervention, the decrease
of STAI is only 9.20 and 11.06. This proves that progressive relaxation techniques with
music are more effective than using progressive relaxation or music techniques only
(Robb, 2000).
Another study examining the combination of relaxation therapy showed that mindfulness
intervention combined with room aromatherapy can decrease the stress by 32.9%. This
study proves that aromatherapy increases awareness during meditation (Redstone, 2015).
Similarly, Davis and Nurse (2005) reported that a combination of aromatherapy
interventions in reducing muscle tension through massage therapy with music suggests a
significant decrease in anxiety.
Progressive muscle relaxation is a relaxation technique aimed at reducing muscle energy
use. Stress was related to the reporting of musculoskeletal pain which involved head pain
(35.2%) and back pain (31.9%) (Østerås, Sigmundsson, & Haga, 2015). Through
progressive muscle relaxation interventions, there is a relaxation of the skeletal muscle
which impacts on the relaxation of visceral muscles so that the bodys consumption of
oxygen, the speed of metabolism, respiratory rate, muscle tension, systolic and diastolic
blood pressure decreased (Bernstein, Borkovec, Hazlett-stevens, & Douglas, 2000).
The process of relaxation in skeletal muscles that impacts on visceral muscle relaxation
becomes more leverage with the help of relaxation music. Music provides a stimulus to
decrease muscle energy. The results of other studies showed that music could reduce the
activity of alpha-amylase and systolic blood pressure (Linnemann, Ditzen, Strahler,
Doerr, & Nater, 2015). Decreased alpha-amylase activity through music is influenced by
the elements contained in the music. The type of music used by researchers in this study
is the type of music Pachelbel’s Canon and stress relief that has a slow frequency,
regular rhythm with a tempo less than 80 beats. Elements contained in the music used to
affect the response of relaxation respondents. This is in line with studies that show an
increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) that functions in controlling
76
Copyright © 2018, NMJN, p-ISSN 2087-7811, e-ISSN 2406-8799
Nurse Media Journal of Nursing, 8(2), 2018,
anxiety and emotions after being given intervention with a low rhythm and mild tempo
of 50-60 dB (Angelucci, Ricci, Padua, Sabino, & Attilio, 2007).
The additional intervention other than PMR and music used in this study is lavender
aromatherapy. Other studies showed that aromatherapy relaxed breathing muscles and
made breathing rhythms more regular. Moreover, the use of lavender aromatherapy is
effective in improving mood and provide a sense of comfort (Linnemann et al., 2015).
Aromatherapy lavender can lower the level of salivary cortisol that indicates decreased
stress (Toda & Morimoto, 2011).
The PMR intervention with music and aromatherapy performed in this study was
conducted in 4 sessions for four days. The results showed that the effect of the
intervention was seen to be significant between before and after the intervention within
that period. The results of this study were supported by studies that showed a decrease in
blood pressure, electromyography, anxiety, and fatigue after the provision of progressive
muscle relaxation with music for four sessions of exercise (Jose & Almeida, 2013;
Kyung, 2010).
CONCLUSION
The stress of teacher respondents decreased after given PMR with music and
aromatherapy in the intervention group. Whereas in the control group, the level of stress
remained almost similar before and after the intervention. Nurses can implement PMR
with music and aromatherapy in the workplace as one of the occupational health services
and work together with the educational authorities to open opportunities for nurses to
implement relaxation interventions as an effort to prevent occupational stress.
REFERENCES
Angelucci, F., Ricci, E., Padua, L., Sabino, A., & Attilio, P. (2007). Music exposure
differentially alters the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth
factor in the mouse hypothalamus. Neuroscience Letters, 429, 152-155.
http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2007.10.005
Ariyanto, A., Wahyuning, C. S. R. I., & Desrianty, A. (2015). Analisis Tingkat Stres dan
Performansi Masinis Daerah Operasi II Bandung [Stress Level Analysis and
Engineer Performance in Regional Operation II Bandung]. Jurnal Online Institut
Teknologi Nasional, 03(1), 307317.
Bernstein, D. A., Borkovec, T. D., Hazlett-stevens, H., & Douglas, A. (2000). New
Directions in Progressive Relaxation Training A Guidebook for Helping
Professionals. London: Praeger Publishers.
Chang, S. P. K. M. S., & Min, H. K. J. (2009). Job stress and depressive symptoms among
Korean employees : The effects of culture on work. Int Arch Occup Environ Health,
82, 397-405. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00420-008-0347-8
Davis, C., & Nurse, C. (2005). The Effect of aromatherapy massage with music on the
stress and anxiety levels of emergency nurses. Australasian Emergency
Nursing Journal, 8, 43-50
Health and Safety Executive (Great Britian) (2016). Work related stress, anxiety and
depression statistics in Great Britain 2016. Retrived from:
http://www.hse.gov.uk/statistics/causdis/stress.pdf
77
Copyright © 2018, NMJN, p-ISSN 2087-7811, e-ISSN 2406-8799
Nurse Media Journal of Nursing, 8(2), 2018,
Hur, M., Song, J., Lee, J., & Soo, M. (2014). Maturitas aromatherapy for stress reduction
in healthy adults : A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical
trials. Maturitas, 79(4), 362-369. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2014.08.006
International Labour Organization (2016). Workplace stress: A colective challenge.
Italia. Retived from https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_protect/---
protrav/---safework/documents/publication/wcms_466547.pdf
Jose, R., & Almeida, V. D. (2013). Effectiveness of Jacobson’s Progressive Muscle
Relaxation ( JPMR ) on blood pressure and health-related stress level among
patients with hypertension in a selected hospital of Mangalore. International
Journal of Nursing Education, 5(2), 171-176.
Kyung, Y. (2010). The effect of music and progressive muscle relaxation on anxiety,
fatigue, and quality of life in family caregivers of hospice patients. Journal of
Music, 47, 53-69.
Linnemann, A., Ditzen, B., Strahler, J., Doerr, J. M., & Nater, U. M. (2015a). Music
listening as a means of stress reduction in daily life. Psychoneuroendocrinology,
60, 82-90. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.06.008
Madhura, S., Subramanya, P., & Balaram, P. (2014). Job satisfaction, job stress and
psychosomatic health problems in software professionals in India. Indian Journal
of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 18(3), 153-162.
http://doi.org/10.4103/0019-5278.146917
Mccabe, P., & Jacka, J. (2001). Complementary Therapies in Nursing and Midwifery.
Melbourne: Ausmed Publications.
Mclean, L., & Connor, C. M. (2016). Depressive symptoms in third-grade teachers :
relations to classroom quality and student achievement. Child Development, 86(3),
945-954. http://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12344
Østerås, B., Sigmundsson, H., & Haga, M. (2015). Perceived stress and musculoskeletal
pain are prevalent and significantly associated in adolescents : An epidemiological
cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health, 15(1081).
http://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-2414-x
Redstone, L. (2015). Archives of psychiatric nursing mindfulness meditation and
aromatherapy to reduce stress and anxiety. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 29(3),
192-193. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.apnu.2015.03.001
Robb, S. L. (2000). Music assisted progressive muscle relaxation, progressive muscle
relaxation, music listening, and silence: A comparison of relaxation techniques.
Journal of Music Therapy, XXXVII(1), 2-21.
Sabanci, A. (2015). The effect of teachers ’ stress on educational organizations ’ health.
International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(11), 91-100
Seferoğlu, S., Yıldız, H., & Yücel, Ü. (2014). Teachers’ burnout: indicators of burnout
and investigation of the indicators in terms of different variables. Education and
Science, 39(174), 348-364. http://doi.org/10.15390/EB.2014.2515
Seth A.(2016). Study of mental health and burnout in relation to teacher effectiveness
among secondary school teachers. Indian J Heal Wellbeing. 7(7):76973.
Shen, B., Mccaughtry, N., Martin, J., Garn, A., Kulik, N., & Fahlman, M. (2015). The
relationship between teacher burnout and student motivation. British Journal of
Educational Psychology, 85, 519-532. http://doi.org/10.1111/bjep.12089
Siahaan, R. (2013). Efektifitas campuran minyak esensial Indonesia: sereh wangi,
kenanga dan nilam terhadap relaksasi secara inhalasi [Effectiveness of Indonesian
78
Copyright © 2018, NMJN, p-ISSN 2087-7811, e-ISSN 2406-8799
Nurse Media Journal of Nursing, 8(2), 2018,
essential oil mixes: lemongrass fragrant, cananga and patchouli on inhalation
relaxation]. Master’s Thesis, Universitas Indonesia. Retrieved from
https://lontar.ui.ac.id/file?file...Richard%20Sabar%20Nelson%20Siahaan
Snyder, M., & Lindquist, R. (2006). Complementary / alternative therapies in nursing
(5th ed.). New York: Springer Publishing Company.
Sundram, B.M., Dahlui, M., & Chinna, K. (2016). Effectiveness of progressive muscle
relaxation therapy as a worksite health promotion program in the automobile
assembly line. Industrial Health, 54, 204-214
The Central Statistic Agency. (2015). Indonesia. Retrieved from https://www.bps.go.id
Thoma, M.V, la Marca, R., Brönnimann, R., Finkel, L., Ehlert, U., & Nater, U.M. (2013)
The effect of music on the human stress response. PLoS ONE 8(8): e70156.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070156
Toda, M., & Morimoto, K. (2011). Evaluation of effects of lavender and peppermint
aromatherapy using sensitive salivary endocrinological stress markers. Stress and
Health, 27, 430-435.
... One of the fragrances that are highly used as a sedative is Lavandula angustifolia from the family Labiatae. The word lavender is derived from the Latin word "lavare", which means to wash (112) . ...
... The primary components of lavender oil are linalool (51%) and linalyl acetate (35%). Linalool acts as a sedative by influencing gamma-Aminobutyric acid receptors in the central nervous system, while linalyl acetate has a narcotic function (112) . ...
... With good management, it will be able to reduce the signs and symptoms of PTSD such as by restoring perceptions about disaster events, support from people around and also good coping mechanisms. The research of Dewi et al., (2019) showed that disasters often leave significant psychological and spiritual "imprints" on the affected communities. To relax tense muscles due to the stress experienced can be done by progressive muscle relaxation therapy. ...
Article
This study aimed at analyzing the influence of receptive organizational therapy on the levels of stress of nursing professionals in a public hospital. Concerning the methodology, the study has a quantitative approach and an explanatory nature and adopts quasi-experimental procedures. The research universe encompassed 74 nursing professionals. As a research tool, the study used the Lipp’s Stress Symptoms Inventory for Adults. Primary results showed that, out of the 74 professionals, 20.3% ( n = 15) were classified as having no levels of stress. However, 79.7% ( n = 59) of the participants had some levels of stress. Out of these professionals, 71.6% ( n = 53) were in the second stage, known as resistance. Thirty days after the application of receptive musical therapy, the 74 professionals who took part in this experience had their levels of stress reevaluated and compared to the levels of stress from before the musical intervention with the use of the Wilcoxon test. The test results highlighted that the levels of stress during the resistance, near-exhaustion, and exhaustion stages were minimized. As a conclusion, therefore, receptive organizational musical therapy has meaningful effects on reducing stress and improving the work life quality of professionals.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR) as part of a Worksite Health Promotion Program on self-perceived stress, anxiety and depression among male automotive assembly-line workers through a quasi-experimental trial. Two assembly plants were chosen with one receiving PMR therapy and the other Pamphlets. Intention-to-treat analysis was conducted to test the effectiveness of the relaxation therapy. Stress, Depression and Anxiety levels were measured using the shortened DASS-21 questionnaire. Data were analyzed using χ<sup>2</sup>, Independent sample t-test and Repeated-measures analysis of variance to test the significance of the effects of intervention (time * group) for the measures of Stress, Depression and Anxiety. Significant favourable intervention effects on stress were found in the PMR group (Effect size=0.6) as compared to the Pamphlet group (Effect size=0.2). There was a significant group *time interaction effect (p<0.001) on Stress levels. Depression and Anxiety levels were minimal at baseline in both the groups with mild or no reduction in levels. The improvement in stress levels showed the potential of PMR therapy as a coping strategy at the workplace. Further research in this field is necessary to examine the beneficial effects of coping strategies in the workplace.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Long-term musculoskeletal pain and negative stress are health risks with adverse long-term health effects, and these health risks seem to increase among young people. The mechanisms behind this are unclear. There is a need for a better understanding of perceived stress and musculoskeletal pain among adolescents, in order to improve health promotion and treatment approaches in this group. Methods: Objectives were to evaluate the current prevalence of perceived stress and musculoskeletal pain in 15 and 16 year olds, to explore stress-pain associations and the probability that perceived stress (PSQ) was related to the reporting of pain and variations in pain, and to investigate possible differences in stress between different types of musculoskeletal pain in the adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Elementary schools participated. The outcomes were stress (Perceived stress questionnaire; PSQ) and musculoskeletal pain (pain/no pain, pain sites, pain duration and pain intensity (Visual analogue scale; VAS). Results: Fifty-one point two percent (N = 422) reported pain, of which 70.8 % reported long-term pain. Some more girls (57.9 %) reported pain. 22.0 % of the study population reported moderate to severe stress (PSQ ≥ 0.45), of which 79.6 % were bothered by pain (Pearson Chi-square 38.47, p ≤ .001). All stress and pain variables were significantly associated (p < .01). The strongest association appeared between pain intensity (VAS) and stress (PSQ) (r = 0.40). Perceived stress (PSQ) was associated with the reporting of pain among the adolescents (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.68) and could explain some of the variation in pain intensity (VAS; β = 0.15, p < .001) and number of pain sites (β = 0.14, p < .01), according to the regression analyses. There were no mean differences in stress (PSQ) between different types of musculoskeletal pain. Conclusions: There was high prevalence of musculoskeletal pain, long-term pain and moderate to severe stress (PSQ ≥ 0.45) in this study sample. Perceived stress (PSQ) was related to the reporting of musculoskeletal pain among the adolescents and could explain some of the variation in pain intensity (VAS) and number of pain sites. There were no differences in stress levels (PSQ) between different types of musculoskeletal pain in the adolescents.
Article
Full-text available
Teacher burnout is regarded as a serious problem in school settings. To date, studies on teachers' stress and burnout have largely centred on teachers' own characteristics, socialization, and behaviours, but few have explored the connection between teachers' burnout and students' motivation via their own perceptions of teachers' behaviour and emotional well-being. This study adopted Maslach et al.'s (2001, Annu. Rev. Psychol., 52, 397) job burnout construct and self-determination theory to investigate the relationships between teachers' burnout and students' autonomous motivation over one-semester physical education classes. A total of 1,302 high school students and their 33 physical education teachers in 20 high schools from two school districts in a major Midwest metropolitan area in the United States. The two school districts were demographically similar. Students and physical education teachers completed questionnaires assessing relevant psychological constructs. There were two time points for collecting students' data. One was at the beginning of a fall semester, and the other was at the end of that semester. Hierarchical linear modelling analyses were conducted. It was revealed that teachers' emotional exhaustion was negatively related to students' perceived teacher autonomy support (TAS); in turn, there was a negative relationship between teachers' feeling of depersonalization and students' autonomous motivation development even when controlling for inadequate TAS. The dimensions of teachers' burnout might play different roles in the transmission from teachers to students. Teachers' status of burnout is an important environmental factor associated with students' quality of motivation. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Article
Full-text available
Burnout is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Since teaching profession is excessively demanding, requires effective communication, and leads one to suffer from emotional burnout, it is acknowledged as one of the professions with a great likelihood of burnout. The purpose of the present study was to analyze teacher burnout in reference to certain variables. Relational model was used in this study. A total of 163 teachers from various cities participated. Two different data collection tools were used in this study, namely "Personal Information Form" and "Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI)". The first one was used to identify the demographics of the participants. The second data collection instrument, MBI, was used to reveal the degree of burnout experienced by participants. The inventory divided into three sub-dimensions: namely emotional exhaustion, personal accomplishment, and depersonalization. Results indicated that different variables contributed to teachers' burnout scores in terms of being on high and low groups. For example, while "education level" variable contributed to emotional exhaustion subscale, the variable of socio-economic status of the region where the school is located contributed to depersonalization subscale. Furthermore, there were higher mean ranks for those teachers who worked as an Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) teacher. While expressing their views, the ICT teachers focused on their unhappiness resulting from what they had been experiencing in their discipline.
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated associations among third-grade teachers' (N = 27) symptoms of depression, quality of the classroom-learning environment (CLE), and students' (N = 523, Mage = 8.6 years) math and literacy performance. teachers' depressive symptoms in the winter negatively predicted students' spring mathematics achievement. This depended on students' fall mathematics scores; students who began the year with weaker math skills and were in classrooms where teachers reported more depressive symptoms achieved smaller gains than did peers whose teachers reported fewer symptoms. teachers' depressive symptoms were negatively associated with quality of CLE, and quality of CLE mediated the association between depressive symptoms and student achievement. The findings point to the importance of teachers' mental health, with implications for policy and practice. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of of this study was first to examine the relationship between teacher stress and a healthy school organization. The measurement model was tested using a confirmatory procedure employing the structural equation modelling software. In the analysis, Percentage, frequencies, means, significance test, t test and One-Way ANOVA. Post-Hoc tests, Pearson correlations coefficient, Multiple Linear Regression were used. This article reports a significant negative relationship between teachers' stress levels and organizational health.
Article
The relation between music listening and stress is inconsistently reported across studies, with the major part of studies being set in experimental settings. Furthermore, the psychobiological mechanisms for a potential stress-reducing effect remain unclear. We examined the potential stress-reducing effect of music listening in everyday life using both subjective and objective indicators of stress. Fifty-five healthy university students were examined in an ambulatory assessment study, both during a regular term week (five days) and during an examination week (five days). Participants rated their current music-listening behavior and perceived stress levels four times per day, and a sub-sample (n=25) additionally provided saliva samples for the later analysis of cortisol and alpha-amylase on two consecutive days during both weeks. Results revealed that mere music listening was effective in reducing subjective stress levels (p=0.010). The most profound effects were found when 'relaxation' was stated as the reason for music listening, with subsequent decreases in subjective stress levels (p≤0.001) and lower cortisol concentrations (p≤0.001). Alpha-amylase varied as a function of the arousal of the selected music, with energizing music increasing and relaxing music decreasing alpha-amylase activity (p=0.025). These findings suggest that music listening can be considered a means of stress reduction in daily life, especially if it is listened to for the reason of relaxation. Furthermore, these results shed light on the physiological mechanisms underlying the stress-reducing effect of music, with music listening differentially affecting the physiological stress systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article
This questionnaire based study investigates correlation between job satisfaction, job stress and psychosomatic health in Indian software professionals. Also, examines how yoga practicing Indian software professionals cope up with stress and psychosomatic health problems. The sample consisted of yoga practicing and non-yoga practicing Indian software professionals working in India. The findings of this study have shown that there is significant correlation among job satisfaction, job stress and health. In Yoga practitioners job satisfaction is not significantly related to Psychosomatic health whereas in non-yoga group Psychosomatic Health symptoms showed significant relationship with Job satisfaction.