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Psychological Empowerment and Organizational Innovation: Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment

Authors:
International Journal of Organizational Leadership 7(2018) 106-119
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF
ORGANIZATIONAL LEADERSHIP
WWW.AIMIJOURNAL.COM
Psychological Empowerment and
Organizational Innovation: Mediating Role
of Job Satisfaction and Organizational
Commitment
Amin Nikpour*
Department of Management, Kerman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman, Iran.
ABSTRACT
Keywords:
Psychological
empowerment, Job
Satisfaction,
Organizational
Commitment,
Organizational innovation,
Structural equation
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of employee’s psychological
empowerment, employee’s job satisfaction, and employee’s organizational commitment on
organizational innovation. The study is a kind of descriptive- correlational research that
was conducted using a survey. Also, this study is in terms of the objective of the
development-applied research. The statistical population of the study included all
employees in Refah bank of Kerman city, and 244 employees were selected as the sample.
The psychological empowerment, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and
organizational innovation questionnaires were used to collect the data, and descriptive and
inferential statistics including structural equation modeling technique were used to analyze
the gathered data. The findings confirmed the conceptual model of the study, and also
found that employee’s psychological empowerment beyond its direct influence exerts
indirect effect on organizational innovation through the mediations of employee’s job
satisfaction and organizational commitment and the extent of indirect effect is significantly
higher than that of direct one.
Received
09 November 2017
Received in revised form
01 May 2018
Accepted
28 May 2018
Correspondence:
nikpour2003@yahoo.com ©AIMI Journals
Today’s world is often described as a place that is constantly changing, markets are not stable,
and political and legal contexts are shifting more than before. Furthermore, technological
changes have increased the speed of communication which requires organizations to examine
and respond to the changes. Meanwhile, small and medium-sized enterprises are heavily
affected by environmental changes due to limited resources and capital. Therefore,
organizations must seek competitive advantage to remain in this dynamic and changing
environment (Rahimnia & Sajjad, 2015). In addition, organizational innovation is the key to
107 International Journal of Organizational Leadership 7(2018)
survival in a competitive environment and the most important source of competitive advantage
(Bas, Mothe, & Nguyen-Thi, 2015; Hill & Jones, 2012;). This is because it can lead to the
production of new products and services that better meet the needs of customers, and can
improve the quality of existing products or can reduce production costs (Hill & Jones, 2012;
Yesil, Koska, & Buyukbese, 2013). Therefore, it is hard to speak about growth and
competitiveness if there is no innovation in organization (Yesil, Koska, & Buyukbese, 2013).
And an organization’s ability to innovate is recognized as one of the determinant factors to
survive and succeed (Quinn, 2000).
On the other hand, there are various approaches to achieve innovation in organizations. One
of these practical approaches is the human capital approach (Alshekaili & Boerhannoeddin,
2011). In fact, the human capital of each company is one of the important factors influencing
the innovation of companies (Pizarro, Real, & Rosa, 2009). The tools that can help improve the
quality of human capital with the help of company managers are empowerment, enhancing job
satisfaction and organizational commitment of this human capital. As the theoretical evidence
suggests, employees are empowered, more satisfied, more committed, and more innovative
(Lau, 2011).
Although the word “empowerment” may have been used in similar forms or terms, the
scientific term can be ascribed to “Mary Parker Follett” (Herbert, 2009). Empowerment means
granting power, participation in decision making, receiving appropriate information, autonomy,
creativity and innovation in work, having knowledge and the necessary skills and accepting
responsibility (Petter, Byrnes, Choi, Fegan, & Miller, 2002). Empowerment is the personal
belief by which people can enhance the skills and knowledge and act according to it (Bogler &
Somech, 2004). Employee empowerment is a process of giving authority to the employees to
make important decisions on their own about their day to day activities (Jafari, Moradi, &
Ahanchi, 2013). Psychological empowerment is an internal motivating factor that reflects the
active role of employees in the organization (Thomas & Velthouse, 1990). Psychological
empowerment includes competence, self-determination, impact, trust, and meaning (Whetten &
Cameron, 2015).
Job satisfaction is a pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job
(Brief & Weiss, 2002). Lund (2003) defined job satisfaction as the amount of observed
communication between what a person demands from his job with what has given to him by
the job and the organization. Gunlu, Aksarayli and Sahin Perçin (2010) explained job
satisfaction as a kind of reaction to a particular job or an issue is related to a job. Acoording to
Antoncic and Antoncic (2011), job satisfaction refers to the employees’ satisfaction with their
job and the amount of interest in job-related activities. Low job satisfaction, leads to negative
implications such as isolated behavior, increased cost, reduced profits and customer
dissatisfaction (Abdulla, Djebarni & Mellahi, 2011). Job satisfaction includes satisfaction of
pay, coworkers, work, and supervision (Vitell & Davis, 1990).
Organizational commitment has become one of the most fashionable variables studied in the
last three or four decades. Like every other psychological construct, it is quite hard to have a
universally accepted definition (Suma & Lesha, 2013). Organizational commitment is defined
as the relative degree of identification with the organization and participation in it (Allen &
Meyer, 1990). As Dee, Henkin and Singleton (2006) noted organizational commitment is the
A. Nikpour 108
relative strength of identification with and involvement in an organization, acceptance of
organizational goals, and willingness to exert effort to remain in that organization. Cichy, Cha
and Kim (2009) referred to organizational commitment as the extent to which a person
internalizes values, goals, sense of loyalty and dutifulness to the workplace. Gunlu, Aksarayli
and Sahin Perçin (2010) described organizational commitment as an overall reaction to the
total organization. Organizational commitment includes affective commitment, continuance
commitment, and normative commitment (Meyer & Herscovitch, 2001).
The concept of innovation has changed significantly over the past four decades. In the
1950s, innovation was a discontinuous event that originated from the knowledge created by
researchers and inventors, but nowadays, innovation is the result of a process that comes from a
wide-ranging collaboration of many factors (Landry, Amara, & Lamari, 2002). Organizational
innovation is willingness of an organization to develop new and improved products and
services and deliver them to market for getting success (Gumusuluoglu & Ilsev, 2009).
Organizational innovation can refer to either ‘new-to-the-state-of-the-art’ or ‘new-to-the-firm’
(Mol & Birkinshaw, 2009). Innovation is to conform to an idea or behavior that is new to the
organization (Tamayo-Torres, Ruiz-Moreno, & Verdú, 2010). Organizational innovation is
defined as an organizational method in a firm’s business practices, workplace organization or
external relations that is new to the firm and intended to improve the firm’s performance
(Steiber, 2012). The concept of innovation is defined as the successful implementation of
useful creative ideas within the firm (Racela, 2014). Additionally, innovation can be described
as a new idea, application or object that is newly accepted by an individual or another
application unit (Celik, Iraz, Cakıci, & Celik, 2014). Organizational innovation includes
product innovation, market innovation, process innovation, behavior innovation, and strategic
innovation (Wang & Ahmed, 2004).
Regarding the above discussion, the purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of
employee’s psychological empowerment, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment on
organizational innovation.
Empowerment and Organizational Innovation
Yang and Alison (2011) conducted a study that examined the interactive effects of workplace
diversity and employee involvement on organizational innovation. This research demonstrated
that there is a positive relationship between the level of employee involvement and the
organizational innovation. Ertürk (2012) concluded that psychological empowerment of
employee is strongly and positively related to innovation capability. Singh and Sarkar (2012)
found that having greater control over one’s non-work domain influenced psychological
empowerment, which then had a positive influence on innovative behaviors. In addition, when
people felt their work had meaning, they tended to be more involved in their job, which also
tended to have a positive influence on innovative behavior. Berraies, Chaher and Benyahia
(2014) expressed that employee empowerment has a positive effect on innovation. Celik, Iraz,
Cakıci and Celik (2014) concluded that there is a meaningful relationship between employee
empowerment and innovativeness. Madhavan (2014) suggested that there is positive
relationship between employees empowerment and their innovation in the work.
109 International Journal of Organizational Leadership 7(2018)
Empowerment and Job Satisfaction
Laschinger, Finegan, Shamian and Wilk (2004) stated that workplace empowerment has impact
on job satisfaction. Hamed (2010) expressed that there is a positive association between
employee empowerment and job satisfaction. Mushipe (2011) found that there is a positive
relationship between employee involvement and job satisfaction. Kazlauskaite, Buciuniene and
Turauskas (2012) concluded that organizational empowerment has impact on job satisfaction.
Elnaga and Imran (2014) examined the relationship between employee empowerment and job
satisfaction by reviewing and determining all factors which affect on this relation. They found
that empowerment can lead to job satisfaction.
Empowerment and Organizational Commitment
Liu, Fellows and Chiu (2006) found that perceived empowerment does correlate with
organizational commitment. Chen and Chen (2008) concluded that there is positive and
significant relationship between dimensions of empowerment and organizational commitment.
Ismail, Mohamed, Sulaiman, Mohamad and Yusuf (2011) noted that there is a positive
relationship between empowerment and organizational commitment. Kazlauskaite, Buciuniene
and Turauskas (2012) did the research titled “Organizational and psychological empowerment
in the HRM-performance linkage”. This research demonstrated that organizational
empowerment has impact on affective commitment. Goudarzvandchegini and Kheradmand
(2013) in a study entitled “the relationship between empowerment and organizational
commitment” concluded that there is significant relationship between empowerment and
organizational commitment.
Job Satisfaction and Organizational Innovation
In their study, Shipton, West, Parkes, Dawson and Patterson (2006) found that there is a
relationship between aggregate job satisfaction and innovation. Lambert and Hogan (2010)
concluded that perceptions of organizational innovation had statistically significant positive
associations with job satisfaction. Tien and Chao (2012) stated that job satisfaction has impact
on organizational innovation. Ghoochkanloo and Talebieshlaghi (2016) explained that
employee’s job satisfaction has a significant impact on the innovation of the organization.
Organizational Commitment and Organizational Innovation
Ming and Ying (2010) demonstrated that affective commitment directly and indirectly had
significant and positive effects on both of technological innovation and administrative
innovation; continuance commitment directly and indirectly had significant and negative
effects on both of technological innovation and administrative innovation; and normative
commitment directly and indirectly had a significant and positive effect on technological
innovation. Lambert and Hogan (2010) concluded that perceptions of organizational had
statistically significant positive associations with organizational commitment. Holliman (2012)
found that there is a relationship between organizational commitment of teachers and
innovation and higher levels of commitment were associated with higher levels of innovation.
Rostami, Veismoradi and Akbari (2012) noted that there is significant relationship between
organizational commitment and innovation.
A. Nikpour 110
Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment
Meyer, Stanley, Herscovitch and Topolnytsky (2002) found that job satisfaction is a
determinative of organizational commitment. Adekola (2012) posited that organizational
commitment has a significant impact on job satisfaction. Yucel and Bektas (2012) concluded
that job satisfaction positively correlated with organizational commitment. Suma and Lesha
(2013) explained that dimensions of job satisfaction as work-itself, quality of supervision and
pay have significant positive influence on organizational commitment of employees.
Conceptual Model
In this research, for the design of variables of psychological empowerment, job satisfaction,
organizational commitment and organizational innovation, the models by Whetten and
Cameron (2015), Vitell and Davis (1990), Meyer and Herscovitch (2001), Wang and Ahmed
(2004) were used respectively. The reason for using these models is that these models have the
most citations. Figure 1 shows the conceptual model of research:
Figure 1. Conceptual model of study
Hypotheses
According to the conceptual model of study, the study hypotheses are presented as follows:
H1: Employee’s psychological empowerment has an effect on organizational innovation.
H2: Employee’s psychological empowerment has an effect on employee’s job satisfaction.
H3: Employee’s psychological empowerment has an effect on employee’s organizational
commitment.
H4: Employee’s job satisfaction has an effect on organizational innovation.
H5: Employee’s organizational commitment has an effect on organizational innovation.
H6: Employee’s job satisfaction has an effect on Employee’s organizational commitment.
H7: Employee’s job satisfaction mediates the relationship between employee’s psychological
empowerment and organizational innovation.
111 International Journal of Organizational Leadership 7(2018)
H8: Employee’s organizational commitment mediates the relationship between employee’s
psychological empowerment and organizational innovation.
Method
The present study is a descriptive- correlational research that was conducted using a survey.
Also, this study is a development-applied research. The statistical population of the study
included all employees in Refah bank of Kerman city. The number of employees during the
study was 600 people, and 244 employees were selected as the sample using Cochran’s
formula (because it was likely that some questionnaires were not going to be returned or
answered completely, 300 questionnaires were distributed among the statistical population).
Four questionnaires were used to collect the data which were standard and were adjusted based
on the range of 5 scales of Likert (1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree). The first
questionnaire includes 15 questions and evaluates the employees’ psychological empowerment
through its dimensions as competence (3 questions), self-determination (3 questions), impact (3
questions), meaning (3 questions) and trust (3 questions). The second questionnaire includes 11
questions and evaluates the employees’ job satisfaction through its dimensions as pay (3
questions), coworkers (2 questions), work (3 questions) and supervision (3 questions). The
third questionnaire includes 24 questions and evaluates the employees’ organizational
commitment through its dimensions as affective commitment (8 questions), continuance
commitment (8 questions) and normative commitment (8 questions). The fourth questionnaire
includes 20 questions and evaluates organizational innovation through its dimensions as service
innovation (4 questions), market innovation (4 questions), process innovation (4 questions),
behavior innovation (4 questions), and strategic innovation (4 questions).
Regarding the validity and reliability, the psychological empowerment, job satisfaction,
organizational commitment, and organizational innovation questionnaires are standard and
have always been used in other studies including Whetten and Cameron (2015), Vitell and
Davis (1990), Meyer and Herscovitch (2001), Wang and Ahmed (2004), respectively.
Since structural equation modeling (SEM) approach was used in this research. One of the
prerequisites for using structural equation modeling is the fitting of measurement models.
Therefore, the fitting of measurement models of the same structural validity of these
questionnaires has been re-examined which is addressed in the research findings section.
Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the gathered data. The data after
entry into computer was analyzed using SPSS and Amos software. In the analysis of the data,
initially all variables were tested for normality, and after fulfillment of Kolmogorov-Smirnov
statistical test, and confirming the normality of the variables, structural equation modeling
technique was used. Structural Equation Modeling is a prolific multivariate analysis technique
of the multivariate regression branch that allows researchers to test a set of regression
equations simultaneously (Hooman, 2014). This method, in contrast to regression analysis for
analyzing structural equations, is considered a suitable method because it allows the researcher
to measure the relations between the latent and manifest variables and also provides an analysis
of multi-agent relationships. In the present research, the structural modeling approach has been
used to fit the measurement models, the proposed model test, and the hypotheses.
A. Nikpour 112
Results
The findings showed that more than 50% of respondents were male, more than 40% of them
had bachelor degree, more than 50% of them were married and more than 60% of these people
were over 30 years old.
Since one of the prerequisites for modeling structural equations is the fit of measurement
models; therefore, the fit of measuring models, or the validity of the questionnaire structure,
was studied using the confirmatory factor analysis method and with the help of Amos software.
The results are as follows:
Table 1
Fit Indexes of Measurement Models of Psychological Empowerment Measurement, Job Satisfaction,
Organizational Commitment, and Organizational Innovation
IFI TLI NFI CFI AGFI GFI
CMIN/DF RMSEA Index
0.9≤ 0.9≤ 0.9≤ 0.9≤ 0.9≤ 0.9≤ 3 0.08 Global Fit
.928 .910 .928 .905 .891 .924 2.910 .071 Psychological empowerment
.918 .938 .918 .956 .911 .921 2.668 .069 Job satisfaction
.915 .929 .917 .924 .918 .939 2.372 .060 Organizational commitment
.937 .961 .938 .940 .950 .958 2.231 .077 Organizational innovation
As shown in Table 1, all fit indexes confirmed measurement models of the employees’
psychological empowerment, the employees’ job satisfaction, the employees’ organizational
commitment, and organizational innovation. As shown in Table 2, all indexes related to the
four variables of the employees’ psychological empowerment, the employees’ job satisfaction
(except for question 2), the employees’ organizational commitment, and organizational
innovation benefit from acceptable value of t-statistic (more than 1.98) and factor loading
(more than 0.3), respectively. Therefore, question 2 of job satisfaction variable is eliminated
from the process.
113 International Journal of Organizational Leadership 7(2018)
Table 2
Standardized Factor Load and T-Value of Questions Related to Psychological Empowerment, Job Satisfaction,
Organizational Commitment, and Organizational Innovation
P-value t-value Factor loading Question Contrast P-value t-value Factor loading Question Contrast
<.05 9.182 .565 Q9
Continuance
commitment
<.05 11.650 .756 Q1
Competence <.05 10.296 .657 Q10 <.05 11.910 .784 Q2
<.05 9.713 .668 Q11 <.05 - .648 Q3
<.05 10.448 .663 Q12 <.05 12.334 .719 Q4
Self-
determination <.05 9.648 .600 Q13 <.05 11.378 .657 Q5
<.05 10.916 .701 Q14 <.05 - .729 Q6
<.05 10.198 .650 Q15 <.05 11.101 .675 Q7
Impact <.05 - .601 Q16 <.05 11.037 .670 Q8
<.05 9.403 .667 Q17
Normative
commitment
<.05 - .679 Q9
<.05 8.222 .615 Q18 <.05 10.234 .690 Q10
Meaning <.05 9.651 .697 Q19 <.05 10.448 .712 Q11
<.05 8.402 .560 Q20 <.05 - .602 Q12
<.05 6.859 .431 Q21 <.05 10.132 .834
Q13
Trust <.05 9.286 .654 Q22 <.05 9.230 .724 Q14
<.05 10.522 .555 Q23 <.05 - .641 Q15
<.05 - .551 Q24 - - .515 Q1
Pay <.05 10.733 .621 Q1
Service
innovation
<.05 4.197 .248 Q2
<.05 13.048 .778 Q2 <.05 5.543 .343 Q3
<.05 12.637 .747 Q3 - - .557 Q4
Coworkers - - .691 Q4 <.05 9.842 .769 Q5
<.05 12.012 .781 Q5
Market
innovation
<.05 10.619 .689 Q6
Work <.05 10.536 .594 Q6 <.05 11.500 .778 Q7
<.05 10.878 .615 Q7 - - .624 Q8
- - .752 Q8 <.05 9.990 .782 Q9
Supervision <.05 9.107 .648
Q9
Process
innovation
<.05 9.416 .683 Q10
<.05 7.987 .538 Q10 - - .576 Q11
<.05 10.213 .638 Q11 <.05 10.696 .588 Q1
Affective
commitment
- - .532 Q12 <.05 44.567 .684 Q2
<.05 7.777 .697 Q13
Behavior
innovation
<.05 10.828 .634 Q3
<.05 8.120 .628 Q14 <.05 10.543 .616 Q4
<.05 8.810 .755 Q15 <.05 9.816 .568 Q5
- - .510 Q16 <.05 8.997 .492 Q6
<.05 9.767 .750 Q17
Strategic
Innovation
<.05 8.721 .505 Q7
<.05 10.041 .814 Q18 <.05 - .676 Q8
<.05 9.643 .704 Q19
- - .670 Q20
Factor loading>0.3; P-value<0.05; t-value>1.98
Test of the Conceptual Model and Hypotheses
In this study, structural equation modeling was used to test the conceptual model and
hypotheses of the research. The results are presented in Figure 2:
A. Nikpour 114
Figure 2. Model of Amos in standard estimation mode
Fit indexes in table 3 show that conceptual model of the research has a very good fit. In other
words, the suggested model has appropriate fit.
Table 3
Fit Indexes of Conceptual Model
IFITLI
NFICFIAGFIGFICMIN/DF RMSEA
Index
0.9≤ 0.9≤ 0.9≤ 0.9≤ 0.9≤ 0.9≤ 3 0.08 Global Fit
.953 .941 .953 .926 .891 .921 2.953 .065 Model
As shown in table 4, the employees’ psychological empowerment had a positive effect on
employees’ job satisfaction, employees’ organizational commitment, and organizational
innovation. The employees’ job satisfaction and organizational commitment had a positive
effect on organizational innovation. The employees’ job satisfaction had a positive effect on
the employees’ organizational commitment. According to these results, hypotheses 1 to 6 were
confirmed.
In addition, the results of path analysis in table 5 showed that the employees’ psychological
empowerment beyond its direct effect on organizational innovation, indirectly influenced the
organizational innovation through the employees’ job satisfaction and organizational
commitment, and that indirect effect was significantly higher than direct effect. Thus,
mediating role of the employees’ job satisfaction and organizational commitment on the
relationship between the employees’ psychological empowerment and organizational
innovation was verified. Moreover, significant level was obtained based on the performed
calculations by the Boot Strap method. The mediating role of employees’ job satisfaction and
organizational commitment was .001 and .001, respectively (in Boot Strap method if the level
of significance is less than .05, the role of the mediator variable is confirmed).
Empowerment
Satisfaction
Commitment
Innovation
115 International Journal of Organizational Leadership 7(2018)
Table 4
Testing of Research Hypotheses
Result P-value t-value Path coefficient Hypothesis
Confirmed .001 4.421 .308 Psychological empowerment →Organizational innovation
H1
Confirmed .001 7.402 .543 Psychological empowerment →Job satisfaction
H2
Confirmed .001 6.932 .404 Psychological empowerment→ Organizational commitment
H3
Confirmed .001 4.181 .360 Job satisfaction → Organizational innovation
H4
Confirmed .010 2.587 .254 Organizational commitment→ Organizational innovation
H5
Confirmed .001 8.271 .556 Job satisfaction → Organizational commitment
H6
t-value>1.96; P-value<0.05
Table 5
Direct, Indirect and Total Effects of Conceptual Model
Kind of relation Total effect Indirect effect Direct effect Paths
Additive .683 .375 .308 Psychological empowerment →Organizational innovation
Additive .543 - .543 Psychological empowerment →Job satisfaction
Additive .706 .302 .404 Psychological empowerment→ Organizational commitment
Additive .502 .141 .360 Job satisfaction → Organizational innovation
Additive .254 - .254 Organizational commitment→ Organizational innovation
Additive .556 - .556 Job satisfaction → Organizational commitment
Discussion and Conclusion
The findings of the study indicated that the employees’ psychological empowerment, beyond
its direct influence, exerts indirect effect on organizational innovation through the mediations
of the employees’ job satisfaction and organizational commitment in which the extent of
indirect effect is significantly higher than that of direct one. The findings of the study were also
analyzed and compared with the results of the different studies.
The findings revealed that the employees’ psychological empowerment has a positive and
significant effect on organizational innovation in Regional Power Company of Kerman. This
finding is coordinated with the results of the research of Yang and Alison (2011), Ertürk
(2012), Singh and Sarkar (2012), Berraies, Chaher and Benyahia (2014), Celik, Iraz, Cakıci
and Celik (2014), and Madhavan (2014).
Yang and Alison (2011) concluded that there is a positive relationship between the level of
employee involvement and the organizational innovation. Ertürk (2012) concluded
psychological empowerment of the employees is strongly and positively related to innovation
capability. Singh and Sarkar (2012) found that psychological empowerment has positive
impact on innovative behaviors. Berraies, Chaher and Benyahia (2014) expressed that
employees’ empowerment has a positive effect on innovation. Celik, Iraz, Cakıci and Celik
(2014) suggested that there is a meaningful relationship between employees’ empowerment
and innovativeness. Madhavan (2014) noted that there is positive and significant relationship
between employees’ empowerment and their innovation in the work.
The results also showed that the employees’ psychological empowerment has a positive and
significant effect on the employees’ job satisfaction in Regional Power Company of Kerman.
This finding is consistent with the results of the research of Laschinger, Finegan, Shamian and
Wilk (2004), Hamed (2010), Mushipe (2011), Kazlauskaite, Buciuniene and Turauskas (2012),
and Elnaga and Imran (2014).
A. Nikpour 116
Laschinger et al. (2004) concluded that workplace empowerment has an impact on job
satisfaction. Hamed (2010) found that there is a positive association between empowerment
and job satisfaction. Mushipe (2011) found that there is a positive relationship between
employee involvement and job satisfaction. Kazlauskaite, Buciuniene and Turauskas (2012)
stated that organizational empowerment has an impact on job satisfaction. Elnaga and Imran
(2014) concluded that empowerment can lead to job satisfaction.
Another finding of the study indicated that the employees’ psychological empowerment has
a positive and significant effect on the employees’ organizational commitment in Regional
Power Company of Kerman. This finding is consistent with the results of the research of Liu,
Fellows and Chiu (2006), Chen and Chen (2008), Ismail, Mohamed, Sulaiman, Mohamad and
Yusuf (2011), Kazlauskaite, Buciuniene and Turauskas (2012), and Goudarzvandchegini and
Kheradmand (2013).
Liu, Fellows and Chiu (2006) concluded that perceived empowerment correlates with
organizational commitment. Chen and Chen (2008) found that there is a positive and
significant relationship between dimensions of empowerment and organizational commitment.
Ismail, et al. (2011) claimed that there is a positive relationship between empowerment and
organizational commitment. Kazlauskaite, et al. (2012) concluded that organizational
empowerment has an impact on affective commitment. Goudarzvandchegini and Kheradmand
(2013) stated that there is significant relationship between empowerment and organizational
commitment.
Another finding of the study revealed that employee’s job satisfaction has a positive and
significant effect on organizational innovation in Regional Power Company of Kerman. This
finding is coordinated with the results of the research of Shipton, West, Parkes, Dawson and
Patterson (2006), Lambert and Hogan (2010), Tien and Chao (2012), and Ghoochkanloo and
Talebieshlaghi (2016).
Shipton, et al. (2006) concluded that there is a relationship between aggregate job
satisfaction and innovation. Lambert and Hogan (2010) posited that perceptions of
organizational innovation have statistically significant positive associations with job
satisfaction. Tien and Chao (2012) noted that job satisfaction has an impact on organizational
innovation. Ghoochkanloo and Talebieshlaghi (2016) found that employee’s job satisfaction
has a significant impact on the innovation of the organization.
Another finding of the study showed that the employees’ organizational commitment has a
positive and significant effect on organizational innovation in Regional Power Company of
Kerman. This finding is consistent with the results of the research of Ming and Ying (2010),
Lambert and Hogan (2010), Holliman (2012), and Rostami, Veismoradi and Akbari (2012).
Ming and Ying (2010) concluded that affective commitment and continuance commitment
have an effect on both technological innovation and administrative innovation and also
normative commitment has effect on technological innovation. Lambert and Hogan (2010)
found that organizational perceptions have statistically significant positive associations with
organizational commitment. Holliman (2012) claimed that there is a relationship between
organizational commitment and innovation and higher levels of commitment are associated
with higher levels of innovation. Rostami, et al. (2012) noted that there is a significant
relationship between organizational commitment and innovation.
117 International Journal of Organizational Leadership 7(2018)
Another finding of the study indicated that the employees’ job satisfaction has a positive and
significant effect on employee’s organizational commitment in Regional Power Company of
Kerman. This finding is coordinated with the results of the research of Meyer, Stanley,
Herscovitch and Topolnytsky (2002), Adekola (2012), Yucel and Bektas (2012), and Suma and
Lesha (2013).
Meyer, et al. (2002) concluded that job satisfaction is a determinative of organizational
commitment. Adekola (2012) found that organizational commitment has a significant impact
on job satisfaction. Yucel and Bektas (2012) stated that job satisfaction positively correlated
with organizational commitment. Suma and Lesha (2013) noted that dimensions of job
satisfaction as work-itself, quality of supervision and pay have significant positive influence on
organizational commitment of employees.
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... Psychological empowerment is a means to encourage and increase the ability to make the right decision in situations that need this. Nikpour (2018) also cited its effective role in enriching the individual's experiences for being a multi-dimensional motivating component, and psychological empowerment allows the individual to feel and realize that he can accomplish tasks ...
... Employee motivation and satisfaction affect the creative behavior of employees in public organizations ISSN : 2620-8091 print | 2620-3812 online (Demircioglu & Audretsch, 2017). Psychological empowerment, commitment, and job satisfaction are related to organizational innovation (Nikpour, 2018). Transformational leadership strengthens innovation by mediating job satisfaction (Al-edenat, 2018). ...
... This study ensured that employees' satisfaction has an impact on influencing employees' innovation (p-value=0.019). Therefore, the founding of this study strengthens the finding of other scholars (Demircioglu & Audretsch, 2017;Nikpour, 2018;Al-edenat, 2018;M. Al-Sabi et al., 2019;Ezeanyim & Ufoaroh, 2019;Tsai & Yen, 2020;Kadir et al., 2021;Liu et al., 2021). ...
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The authors do not have rights to distribute the full-text online so only the table of contents and front matter are provided here. If you are an instructor seeking a review copy or teaching supplements, please use this link to locate your Cengage representative: http://www.cengage.com/repfinder/ Brief Contents PART ONE INTRODUCTION TO STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT 1 Strategic Leadership: Managing the Strategy-Making Process for Competitive Advantage 1 2 External Analysis: The Identification of Opportunities and Threats 43 PART TWO THE NATURE OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE 3 Internal Analysis: Distinctive Competencies, Competitive Advantage, and Profitability 80 4 Building Competitive Advantage through Functional-Level Strategies 116 PART THREE STRATEGIES 5 Business-Level Strategy 153 6 Business-Level Strategy and the Industry Environment 178 7 Strategy and Technology 210 8 Strategy in the Global Environment 246 9 Corporate-Level Strategy: Horizontal Integration, Vertical Integration, and Strategic Outsourcing 286 10 Corporate-Level Strategy: Related and Unrelated Diversification 318 PART FOUR IMPLEMENTING STRATEGY 11 Corporate Performance, Governance, and Business Ethics 359 12 Implementing Strategy through Organization 395 CASES