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Basil leaf (Ocimmum basillum form citratum) Extract Spray in Controling Aedes aegepty

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Abstract

One of the efforts in population control of Aedes aegypti is by fogging, basil leaf is one of natural insecticide that can be replaced with current chemical one that are commonly used. Our aim is to measure effectiveness of basil leaf extract on Knockdown time of Aedes aegypti and effective concentration on spray usage. Twenty mosquitoes with six different intervention, each 5%, 10%, 25%, 50%, positive control, and negative control. All intervention repeated 4 times in every 5 minutes for about 1 hour. The results will be statistically analysed using one-way ANOVA. Results: concentration of 5% and 10 % have KT50 with Insecticide Score of 1 and 2 respectively without any Knockdown concentration; concentration of 25% have KT50 with Insecticide Score of 3 and Weak Knockdown; concentration of 50% have KT50 with Insecticide Score of 5 and Quick Knockdown. Kruskall-Wallis test p-value=0,000 (p
KEMAS 14 (2) (2018) 147-156
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat
http://journal.unnes.ac.id/nju/index.php/kemas
Basil leaf (Ocimmum basillum form citratum) Extract Spray in Controling
Aedes aegepty
Denai Wahyuni, Beny Yulianto1
Public Health Study Program, STIKes Hang Tuah, Pekanbaru, Indonesia
Article Info
Article History:
Submitted November 2016
Accepted August 2018
Published November 2018
Keywords:
Basil, Aedes
aegypti, spraying
DOI
https://doi.org/10.15294/
kemas.v14i2.8000
Abstract
One of the eorts in population control of Aedes aegypti is by fogging, basil leaf is one
of natural insecticide that can be replaced with current chemical one that are commonly
used. Our aim is to measure eectiveness of basil leaf extract on Knockdown time of
Aedes aegypti and eective concentration on spray usage. Twenty mosquitoes with six
dierent intervention, each 5%, 10%, 25%, 50%, positive control, and negative control.
All intervention repeated 4 times in every 5 minutes for about 1 hour. e results will be
statistically analysed using one-way Anova. Concentration of 5% and 10 % have KT50
with Insecticide Score of 1 and 2 respectively without any Knockdown concentration;
concentration of 25% have KT50 with Insecticide Score of 3 and Weak Knockdown;
concentration of 50% have KT50 with Insecticide Score of 5 and Quick Knockdown.
Kruskall-Wallis test p-value=0,001 (p<0,05) with Spearman correlation of +0,87 or 87%.
e most eective concentration on Knockdown time of Ae. aegypti is 50%. e con-
clusion, Basil extract can be eecctifely used as natural and alternative insecticide for
fogging.
Correspondence Address:
Jl. Mustafa Sari No. 5 Tangkerang Selatan Pekanbaru.
Email : denaiwahyuni69@gmail.com
pISSN 1858-1196
eISSN 2355-3596
Indonesia’s health issues. Based on incidence
rate (IR) and case fatality rate (CFR) in four
decades, DHF case experiences ups and downs.
In 2013, data from Ministry of Health Republic
of Indonesia shows an increase of IR since 1968
to 2010 from 0.05 to 65.57 in every 100.000
people. In contrast, CFR shows a decrease
from 41.30% to 0,87%. is shows that eort
to control the spread and management of the
disease is necessary.
Until today, we still have not discovered
vaccine or cure for DHF, instead the main eort
to control the disease is focused on controlling
the vectors that is Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus) and
Ae. Albopictus (Skuse). DHF vectors can be
controlled with some ways, one of them by
Introduction
Aedes sp. mosquito is vector of Dengue
Fever (DF) and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever
(DHF) that has been distributed in tropical
countries. It is estimated that they responsible
for nearly 50 millions populations infected with
DHF in 100 countries each year. ere are two
vectors of DHF in Indonesia, the rst vector is
Aedes aegypti as main vector and the second
one is Aedes albopictus as potential vector. eir
habitat are widespread across nation, excluding
altitute 1.000 m above ocean level (Jacob, D.
Pijoh, & Wahongan, 2014).
DHF is infectious disease that is
prevalent and unsolved health problem. It
remains as a primary concern in current
148
Denai Wahyuni, Beny Yulianto / Basil leaf (Ocimmum basillum form citratum) Extract Spray
vectors represents a highly signicant problem
to malaria control worldwide. Several methods
have been proposed to mitigate insecticide
resistance, including rotational use of
insecticides with dierent modes of action.
Anopheles sinensis, an important malaria and
lariasis vector in Southeast Asia, represents an
interesting mosquito species for examining the
consequences of long-term insecticide rotation
use on resistance. We examined insecticide
resistance in two An. Sinensis populations from
central and southern China against pyrethroids,
organochlorines, organophosphates, and
carbamates, which are the major classes of
insecticides recommended for indoor residual
spray. We found that the mosquito populations
were highly resistant to the four classes of
insecticides. High frequency of kdr mutation
was revealed in the central population,
whereas no kdr mutation was detected in the
southern population. e frequency of G119S
mutation in the ace-1 gene was moderate
in both populations. e classication and
regression trees (CART claim that irrational
dosage (sublethal) will induce resistance.
According to Harfriani (2013), improper use
of synthetic insecticide will promote resistance,
cattle and human poisoning, environmental
contamination, so we need to resolve the issues
by searching for eective alternative insecticide
to control the vectors.
Fogging is one way to chemically control
Ae. aegypti by using synthethic insecticide.
However, fogging is not recommended
anymore as in 2013, Wahyudin, Head Section
of Disease Control from Ministry of Health
in Garut regency stated that fogging with
commonly used insecticide is an ineective
way to exterminate DHF vectors, it induces
mutation that promote resistancy of Ae. aegypti.
“Even fogging does not kill those mosquitoes,
they are immune to the kind of insecticide
frequently used for fogging”. Wahyudin adds,
the emerging resistance is without a doubt
caused by the frequent fogging that were done
irregularly, so it put the risk of resistance on
mosquito.
Other than that, control can be initated
by killing vectors larvae to cut the chain of
transmission by utilizing Abate (temephos).
Abate is one of pesticide that are commonly
monitoring and examinating the larvae stage
of the vector in community. Mubaraqah R &
Indarjo, I, (2013), study explained that eort
to encourage the Larva Monitor (ABJ- DHF)
can reduce the number of DHF larvae. e
most frequent insecticide used is the chemical
one (synthetic). Most of current study spotlight
is to determine the resistance status of target
organism, or insecticide potency concerning
the eective concentration (Wahyuningsih &
Sihite, 2015).
Sensitivity of mosquito to insecticide
is based on number of mortality at
intervention. As WHO protocol year
1998 stated that the results of insecticide
sensitivity test classied as vulnerable,
tolerant, or resistant to insecticide if
intervention resulted in 98-100%, 80-97%,
and less than 80% mortality rate, respectively.
Many research report resistance or
tolerant result regarding the use of certain
insecticide in an area with a proportion
of survived mosquito around 3-20% of its
total population. What exactly happened to
the mosquitoes that survived aer exposure
of insecticide? In fact, our report showed
that survived mosquitoes aer exposed to
chemical insecticide exhibit an increase in
fecundicity and long life span compared to
the one exposed to natural insecticide and
control. Wahyuningsih & Sihite (2015), explain
that the survivors have profound strength and
capability to reproduce. Longer life span will
increase the chance for more copulation. It
can be inferred that syntethic insecticide is no
longer reduces mosquito population, instead it
increases the population.
Syntethic insecticides circulating
widely in markets, unfortunately without the
proper use of it (Chang et al., 2014). Dengue
fever, and lariasis are three of the most
common mosquito-borne diseases worldwide.
Malaria and lymphatic lariasis can occur
as concomitant human infections while also
sharing common mosquito vectors. e overall
prevalence and health signicance of malaria
and lariasis have made them top priorities for
global elimination and control programmes.
Pyrethroid resistance in anopheline mosquito
149
KEMAS 14 (2) (2018) 147-156
used, its shape is sand granules that are spread
in nearby water reservoir with dosage of 1 ppm
or 1 gram for 10 liters of water. Abate use still
have potential for resistance as reported in
Surabaya (Arif, 2011).
As mentioned above, an eort is
urgently needed to search for alternative
insecticide such as natural insecticide from
plant that potentially poisonous for insect
to control pest eectively and protect the
environment. Natural insecticide is expected to
be able to supress insect population to desirable
ammount, that can be managed by its natural
predator. Furthermore, natural insecticide is
easily degradable that does not leave any heavy
residue for environment (Ellyfas et al., 2012).
As it serve as one of many environmental
friendly solutions to restraint negative impact
of chemical insecticide overusage, natural
insecticide is safe for human and nature as its
residue is easily decompose over shorttime
(Kartimi, 2015). Suitable insecticide should
have some of these requirement, namely strong
and fast (quick knockdown eect) killing power
with considerable amount of insect mortality,
safe for human other living beings, stable
compound (non-ammable), easy use, easy
access, aordable, and does not have strong
scent (Fadhlah & Wahyuni, 2016).
Some studies focused on natural
ingredients that are safe for human and
environment, also avalaible in large quantity.
Lots of plants can be used as insecticide, one of
it is basil (Bahasa: kemangi; Ocimum basilicum
forma citratum). In the past, basil is known as
plant used as vegetable and eaten raw or even
processed as medicine. roughout literature
records, basil contains active ingredients such
as eugenol, avonoid, saponin. Iah et al.,
(2008) explain that basil bioactive compound,
eugenol and methyl clavical has potential eect
as insecticide. Both are the chemical compound
that form atsiri oil extracted from basil. As
Chaieb I (2017), describes that saponin
nature, act as insecticide by aecting insects
dietary habit. As it reduce the food uptake in
gastrointestinal tract. Kristiana et al., (2008),
illustrate that saponin can induce destruction
of cell membrane that promote cytolysis. is
disturb cells components that is intake and
outake transport, aecting cell metabolism.
Flavonoid contains neurotoxic eects that
cause stretch of the body (Gautam, K. et al,
2013). Eugenol can promote denaturation of
cytoplasmic and necrosis of tissues.
Studies Iah et al., (2008), found that
basil extract inuences growth of domestic y.
Basil extract aect mortality rate of domestic
y (Musca domestica) with concentration of
2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 20% as the most eective
one. Larvacide study by Kartika D & Istianah
S, (2014), utilizing basil leaf ethanol extract
(Ocimum sanctum Linn) on Ae. aegypti larvae
instar III showed promising 90.4% mortality
in 2.500 ppm dose. Similar intervention of
larvicide research on Culexquinquefasciatus
larvae instar III by Wijayani & Isti’anah (2014),
resulted in the most eective concentration of
98.4% mortality rate is at 5,000 ppm dose.
Based on previous studies above, this
research aims to determine eectiveness of
basil leaf extract in various concentration with
knockdown time as indicator based on KT50
and eective spray concentration to kill Ae.
aegypti.
Method
Research conducted on Microbiology
and Parasyte Laboratorium at Health Analyst
Academy (AAK) of Fajar Foundation of
Abdurrab University in Pekanbaru, and
Integrated Lab of Chemistry Study of
Muhammadiyah University in Pekanbaru
in March to May 2016. Insects species for
intervention is Ae. aegypti obtained from
breeding sites of Microbiology and Parasytology
Laboratorium of AAK Fajar Foundation of
Abdurrab University. Basil leaves selected
from basil plantation at Kertama st. Marpoyan
Damai Sub-district, Pekanbaru.
Research revolved around utilization
of basil leaf extract in controlling vectors by
spraying Ae. aegypti without disregarding its
life span aecting factors such as temperature
and humidity. Research design was complete
randomized method with four intervention
concentrations namely, 5%, 10%, 25% dan 50%,
Control (+) Baygon spray, Control (-) aquadest
in four repetition.
Basil leaf extract created from 3.000
gr basil leaves, old basil leaves were washed
with owing tap water then dried and aired in
temperature-controlled room to avoid direct
150
Denai Wahyuni, Beny Yulianto / Basil leaf (Ocimmum basillum form citratum) Extract Spray
contact of sunlight. Next, basil leaves dried in
oven at 400C degree for 24 hours. Aer that,
dried leaves were minced until transformed
into powder approximately as much as 450
grams. e powder then completely immersed
(maseration) in ethanol 96% for about 3 x
24 hours, then ltered and underwent the
same step as third immersion. e ltered
results were concentrated with vacuum rotary
evaporator to obtain basil leaf extract and then
stored in cabinet for later use.
To get 5% concentration, we took 0.25
ml of the extract and added 4.75 ml aquades,
nally we obtained total of 5 ml solution. e
same method was used to obtain 10%, 25%, and
50% concentration. is solution then placed
in a spray can before used on Ae. aegypti.
At the test, twenty Ae. aegypti mosquitoes
placed in each box were sprayed with each
concentration of basil extract in 4 repetitions.
Observation of behavior, movement, and
physical condition when they fell and die aer
intervention was noted for every 5 minutes in
1 hour. Quick knockdown time of basil extract
was determined by the total amount of dead
mosquito at the end of each intervention.
Survived mosquitoes were le alone to die or
killed by using Baygon.
Data analyzed by using varians analytic
test with RAL, continued with one-way
ANOVA test. Because the requirement of using
one-way ANOVA test did not meet, we used
alternative non-parametric test, Kurskal-Wallis
and Spearman to show degree of correlation of
both independent and dependent variables.
Results and Discussion
Observation showed step-by-step of
death of Ae. aegypti aer intervention. First the
mosquito would y fast, and fell in standing
fashion and stop, legs and wings still moving but
it could not y anymore. Aer a few moments,
it stayed still then dead with sti body, body
color turned to brownish resembling burned
and dried specimen. Mortality rate of Ae.
aegypti in every 5 minutes for about 1 hour can
be seen in Figure 1.
From Figure 1, we can see that 5%
concentration of extract have the lowest
ecacy with longer duration of mosquito
death and even aer 60 minutes aer spray lot
of samples still alive. In the rst 5 minutes, the
mean death was 3.5 mosquitoes. Post-spray
behavior showed that samples stood still, wings
still moved, but cannot y anymore. Aer few
moments, they died (showed in Figure 2).
e bodies were sti and brownish. Aer 60
minutes, the mean death was 11.25 mosquitoes.
At 10% concentration, mean death of 5
minutes post-spray was 7 mosquitoes. Position
were slant, supine, stay still, and few of their
legs were still moving. Aer that, they died and
the body would sti with brownish color. At 55
minutes observation, the mean death was 20
mosquitoes.
At 25% concentration, mean death of
5 minutes post-spray was 9.25 mosquitoes.
Position were slant, supine, stay still, and few of
their legs were still moving. Aer that, they died
Figure 1. MortalityRate of Ae. aegypti in Various Concentration of Basil Leaves Extract.
151
KEMAS 14 (2) (2018) 147-156
and the body wiould sti with brownish color.
In this concentration the process of death was
faster compared to 10% and 5% intervention.
At 45 minutes observation, the mean death was
20 mosquitoes.
At 50% concentration, the fastest death
occurred compared to all intervention. In 5
minutes post-spray, the mean death was 16.25
mosquitoses. At 25 minutes observation, the
mean death was 20 mosquitos. Meanwhile,
positive control showed death of 77 mosquitos
and mean death of 19,25 at less than 5 minutes
with fast death phase of sti and spasm.
Negative control showed no death in every
repetition. All mosquitoes exhibited dodging
behavior to the spraying.
According to data in Figure 1, dierent
concentration showed dierent reaction. e
mortality rate was in line with concentration
increase. is conclude that, as concentration
increased the potency of basil leaves extract
against Ae. aegypti was getting stronger.
Kruskall-Wallis test resulted in p-value = 0.001
< 0.05, means that the dierence of increased
concentration in acceleration of knockdown
time was signicant. Spearman test resulted
in p-value = 0.001 < 0.05 with coecient
correlation +0.87 or 87%, means that there exist
high correlation of concentration basil leaves
extract with knockdown time. In conclusion,
the higher concentration of basil leaves extract,
the faster knockdown time on Ae. aegypti
mosquitoes.
Based on the average of the study
Figure 2. Mosquito Cannot Fly Anymore Caused by Active Compound of Basil Leaves Extract
Table 1. Ae. aegypti Falling at Various Concentrations Treatment by Knockdown Time (KT50)
Minutes C(-) C (+) 50% 25% 10% 5%
50 19.25 16,25 9,25 7 3,5
10 0 20 16,75 9,75 7,75 4,25
15 0 20 17,75 11,25 8,5 5,25
20 0 20 19 13 10,25 7
25 0 20 19,75 14,5 11,75 7,5
30 0 20 19,75 15,5 13,25 8,25
35 0 20 20 17,5 15,25 8,75
40 0 20 20 19,75 17 9,5
45 0 20 20 20 18,25 10
50 0 20 20 20 19 10,25
55 0 20 20 20 20 10,75
60 0 20 20 20 20 11,25
152
Denai Wahyuni, Beny Yulianto / Basil leaf (Ocimmum basillum form citratum) Extract Spray
repetitions on Table 1, we didn’t nd any Ae.
aegypti fell in C(-) while in C(+), the KT50
was less than 5 minutes. e KT50 in dierent
concentrantions were less than 5 minutes in
50% concentrations, between 11-15 minutes
in 25% concentrations, between 16-20 minutes
in 10% concentrations, and between 41- 45
minutes in 5% concentrations. is showed
that the dierence in concentrations of basil leaf
extract had dierent eects on the number of
Ae. aegypti falling, as well as for each treatment
and repetitions.
From Table 2, we could determine the
eectiveness level of four dierent concentration
of basil leaf extract and positive control based
on Insectiside Knockdown Time50(KT50). Basil
leaf extract in 5% concentrations had KT50 in
41-45 minutes which included as insectiside
score 1 or had no knockdown eect, whereas
10% concentrations had KT50 in 16-20
minutes which was insectiside score 2 or
had no knockdown eect, whereas in 25%
concentrations the KT50 was in 11-15 minutes
which was insectiside score 3 or had weak
knockdown eect, whereas 50% concentrations
had KT50 in less than 5 minutes with insectiside
score 5 or quick knockdown eect. In C(+)
(Baygon) the KT50 was less than 5 minutes with
insectiside score 5 or quick knockdown eect.
From the four treatment concentrations based
on Table 2 above, it can be known that the
eective concentration of basil leaf extract to be
able to make Ae. aegypti mosquitoes falling with
insecticide score 5 or had quick knockdown
eect was the concentration of 50%.
e observation results of the Ae. aegypti
mortality process based on various treatment
concentrations showed that the number of
deaths increased with increasing treatment
concentration. Based on the graph in Table 1,
there was an increase in mosquito mortality as
the concentration of basil leaf extract increased
because the higher concentration of basil leaf
extract the higher content of toxic compounds
absorbed by the body of Ae. aegypti, both
as contact poisons, respiratory poisons and
stomach poisons so it would accumulated faster
and had more toxic eect in the body of the
mosquito, and ultimately lead to death.
From the results of this study, the level of
toxicity in insecticidal eects of basil leaf extract
increased in higher concentration. e length
of exposed time to insecticides will also add to
the toxicity eect of basil leaf insecticides. e
toxic compounds absorption would aect the
Ae. aegypti mosquitoes body’s metabolism and
cause mortility. is was consistent with the
results of the study by Iah et al., (2008), about
the eect of Basil extract on the development
of house ies. e more house y larvae absorb
the toxic compounds contained in basil leaf
extract, the more house y larvae that died since
the compound would aected the metabolic
process of ies that led to death. Likewise,
this study was consistent with the study of
Alindatus et al., (2013) regarding the inuence
of Bintaro leaf extract on the development of
Grayak caterpillars, which was the higher the
toxic compounds absorbtion from bintaro leaf
extract the greater eect on the metabolism of
caterpillars that will eventually led to death.
is study was intended to explore
further and specic information about the
eectiveness of Basil leaf extract natural
insecticides properties against Ae. aegypti
mosquitoes through “Knockdown Time” (time
needed to make test animals fall). Time needed
to make half of the mosquitoes fell are called
KT50 or Median Knockdown time. KT50, then
could be used to determine the eectiveness of
Table. 2 Insecticide of Basil Leaf Extract (Ocimmum Basillum form citratum) based on KT50
Control Group KT50
(minutes)
Knockdown
Eect
Insecticide
Score Interpretation
5% Concentrations 41-45 - 1 -
10% Concentrations 16-20 - 2 -
25% Concentrations 11-15 + 3 Weak Knockdown
50% Concentrations < 5 +++ 5 Quick Knockdown
Positive Control < 5 +++ 5 Quick Knockdown
153
KEMAS 14 (2) (2018) 147-156
an insecticide using the Insecticide Score based
on WHO criteria.
From the observation, there were various
ways of the mosquito’s death process aer
spraying the Basil leaf extract: (1) When dierent
concentrations were sprayed, mosquitoes would
ew quickly, some fall in a standing position,
it was still but the legs and wings looked still
moving and the mosquitoes were unable to y
anymore. Aer a while the Ae. aegypti mosquito
fell and died. e body of a mosquito looked
sti, dry and brown colored. is was probably
caused by the content of avonoids as bioactive
compounds in the extract of Basil leaves which
containing alcohol that entering the mouth
and through the respiratory tract and through
the spiracles contained on the surface of the
skin of mosquitoes’ body. It could cause nerve
disorders which made the wings wither and
sti, led to the inability of the mosquitoes to y
again.
is study was in line with the study of
Gautam et al., (2013) conducted on Anopheles
and Ae. aegypti larvae which were given extracts
of Vitex negundo plant containing avonoids
which showed integument disintegration
which was associated with loss of chitin layer
and abnormal stretching of larval bodies. is
was because of the neurotoxic eects of Vitex
negundo plant extracts containing avonoids.
Hollingworth (2001) in Utami S (2010),
described rotenone as a avonoid compound
which had a deadly eect on insects. He stated
that rotenone worked as a poison for cell
respiration, which inhibits electron transfer
in NADH-coenzyme subquinone reductase
(complex 1) of the electron transfer system in
the mitochondria.
Other compounds contained in Basil
that had eects on the mortality of Ae. aegypti
mosquitoes were saponin. e saponin
compound tasted bitter and could damage cell
membranes and disrupt the metabolic process
of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes and reduce the
surface tension of the mucous membrane of the
digestive tract so that the tract’s walls become
corrosive led to its death. Chaieb I, (2017)
reported that saponin compounds could act as
insecticides by changing their eating behavior
by inhibited food uptake in the digestive tract.
Saponin could also inhibit larval stage growth
by interfering with the molting larva stage.
Furthermore Chaieb I, et al., (2007) added that
saponin could cause molecular disorganization
in Schistocereagregaria and Spodoptera
lottoralis. Saponin were strong surfactant in
which low concentrations could be toxic to
mammals because they caused red blood cells
hemolysis (Iah et al., 2008). Pratama & Dwi A,
(2009), explained that saponin could damage
cell membranes and disrupt the metabolic
processes of insects whereas polyphenols were
inhibitors of insects digestive tract. Saponin
was a secondary metabolite compound
produced by dierent plant species, especially
dicotyledonous plants and acts as part of a
defense system and was included in a large
group of plant protective molecules.
From the results of the second
observation (2), aer spraying the Basil leaf
extract to Ae. aegypti mosquitoes body’s,
they would ew fast, fall down and died. e
mosquito’s body was burning, brownish, sti
and dry. is was caused by the compounds
contained in Basil extract, Eugenol. Eugenol is
a phenol compound with an alcohol group.
Eugenol contained in basil leaf extract
functioned as an insecticide by working as a
contact poison through the body surface of
the Ae. aegypti mosquito. Eugenol (phenol)
was easily absorbed through the skin and
could cause denaturation by destroying the
integument resulting in a burning eect.
Agusta (2000), explained that eugenol, known
as allyl guaiacol worked by inhibiting oxidation
avin-Linked toxins & NAD-linked substrates
causing cytoplasmic denaturation and tissue
necrosis. Contact toxin would seep into the
body of the animal through the outer skin
and the animal would die if touched its skin.
According to Department of Parasitology FKUI
(2008), contact poison was usually used to
eradicate insects that had suction-type mouth.
Insecticides entered through the exoskeleton
into the body of the insect through tarsus.
Toxins would seep into the body through the
outer skin, penetrated the blood vessels or
through toxic breathing in the body led to the
insect death.
Eugenol (phenol) could cause burn and
toxic defects and caused allergies if exposed
to the skin. is substance caused the body of
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Denai Wahyuni, Beny Yulianto / Basil leaf (Ocimmum basillum form citratum) Extract Spray
Ae. aegypti to appear brown, sti because it
aected the nervous system of mosquitoes. is
results in the death of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes
in dry physical form and brownish color that
looked like burnt. Iah et al., (2008) explained
that eugenol was a phenol compound that had
an alcohol group so that it could weaken and
disrupt the nervous system. In the research on
house y larvae, house y larvae that exposed
to basil leaves extracts would die and it looked
like the body of the larvae was sti because it
aects the nervous system of the larva and the
body looked like a brownish burning color.
e research conducted by Iah et al.,
(2008) showed us the eect of Basil leaf extract
on the development of house ies (Musca
domestica) with a concentration of 2.5%, 5%,
10% and 20% which were carried out four
times. e results of the study found that Basil
leaves inuence the mortality of most house y
larvae, the lowest ability of ecdysis and eclosion
of y (inhibits the development of pupae) was
a concentration of 20%. e conclusion of this
research was that the best concentration of Basil
leaf extract as a y larvasida of Musca domestica
was a concentration of 20%.
Research by Wijayani, LA & Istianah,
S. (2014) about the larvicidal eect of ethanol
extract of Basil leaves on instar III larvae of
Culex quinquefasciatus with concentrations of
5000 ppm, 4500 ppm, 4000 ppm, 3500 ppm,
3000 ppm, 2000 ppm, 1500 ppm, 1000 ppm,
with control using Tween 0.25% in aquadest
which was done with three repetitions. In this
study, 25 instar III larvae of C. quinquesfasciatus
were used which were exposed to the extract
for 24 hours. e results of this research
showed that the ethanol extract of Basil leaves
had a larvacidal eect on instar III larvae
of C. quinquesfasciatus. e most eective
concentration in killing instar III larvae of C.
quinquefasciatus was at a dose of 5000 ppm
which was equal to 98.4%.
Other studies on the larvacidal eect
of the ethanol extract of Basil leaves (Ocimum
sanctum Linn) on Aedes aegypti instar III larvae
were carried out by Kartika & Istianah, (2014).
It consisted of preliminary research and nal
research. A preliminary study was conducted
to determine the concentration range of the
test material that killed test larvae of 10%-
90% which would be used in the nal test. e
highest concentration in this preliminary study
was 5000 ppm which was a concentration that
was estimated to cause death> 90% and dead
larvae can still be seen because the solution was
not too thick. e nal research was carried out
on ve treatment groups with variations in the
concentration of Basil leaf extract which was
able to kill test larvae of 10% - 90% based on
preliminary tests of 50 ppm, 1000 ppm, 1500
ppm, 2000 ppm and 2500 ppm. e results of
the analysis showed that the ethanol extract of
Basil leaves can kill Ae. aegypti instar III larvae
up to 90.4% at 2500 ppm.
Research on the potential test of fragrant
pandan extract as a vegetable insecticide against
house ies to determine Knockdown Time50
(KT50) carried out by Fadhlah H & Wahyuni, D
(2016). It showed that fragrant pandan extract
had the potential as an insecticide against
house ies at a concentration of 75% with quick
knockdown time. e greater the concentration
of fragrant pandan extract, the faster the
“Knockdown Time” was.
Kristiana et al., (2008) stated from the
results of the study found that administration
of Bintaro leaf extract signicantly aected
the mortality of Ae. aegypti larvae both at 24,
48 and 72 hours aer treatment. e optimal
concentration to kill Ae. aegypti mosquito
larvae was 1.0% concentration which could
cause mosquito larvae Ae. aegypti mortality
with an average mortality of 85% within 24
hours aer treatment.
Overall, it can be concluded that the
active substances contained in Basil leaf extract
had potential as vegetable insecticides. is
was because the higher active molecules of
Basil leaf extract enter the body of Ae. aegypti
mosquitoes, the greater the eect. In addition,
the increased exposure time of Basil leaf extract
would increase the number of molecules of
active substances that enter the body of Ae.
aegypti mosquitoesto led to greater toxic eects.
In its use as fresh vegetables, it turns
out that Basil leaves had benets as a vector
control, especially Ae. aegypti mosquitoes
as seen from the test results. e results of
this study indicated that Basil leaf extract in
spray form had the eectiveness in Ae. aegypti
mosquito vector control. e eectiveness
155
KEMAS 14 (2) (2018) 147-156
of Basil leaf extract showed that it contained
active compounds that could be used as
vegetable / natural insecticides. Besides, Basil
plants were common, the residues were easily
biodegradable, did not pollute the environment,
were safe for other living creatures and did not
cause any resistance to Ae. aegypti mosquitoes.
Chang et al., (2014) stated that natural
insecticides were necessary to suppress the
dangers of insecticides which could lead to
resistance and will slow down the genetic
adaptation process in vectors. In his report
entitled “Multiple Resistance and Complex
Mechanism of Anopheles sinensis Mosquito:
a Major Obstacle to Mosquito-Borne Disease
Control and Elimination in China” he
emphasized that there were two mechanisms
thought to cause resistance in mosquitoes.
First: the use of inappropriate doses which
made mosquitoes adaptable by performed a
series of metabolite detoxication processes
or quickly eliminates the rest of toxins, in this
case, chemical insecticide very fast, second:
inappropriate doses will made mosquitoes
adapt to improve survival against sub lethal
doses over time which called incentication.
Both of these would aect the cyclical power of
the mosquito’s immune power and eventually
bequeathed to the next generation. e
resistance that occurred due to DNA metabolism
was nally known as the gene mutation in the
G119S and L1014 aces-1. Chang recommended
consistently replacing the use of chemical
insecticides and diversifying them with natural
insecticides so that they were expected to create
synergy eect between chemistry and nature,
at least prolonging the duration of the genetic
adaptation process for mosquitoes to reduce
the risk of the 2 mechanisms described above.
Based on Chang’s research results above, it was
clear that natural insecticides were necessary to
suppress the dangers of insecticides which led
to resistance and will slow down the genetic
adaptation process in vectors. Besides resistance,
there were still other problems, such as toxic
eects of insecticides that occurred not only in
insects, humans, and also on the environment
and even the balance of the ecosystem.
In terms of availability, Basil plants
was a common and ubiquitous plants. Utami,
(2010) explained that there were several things
that need to be considered in using plants as
a potential insecticide, namely: (1) Plants that
had the potential as vegetable insecticides
should be easily obtained in nature and were
everywhere. (2) Biomass could be obtained in
abundant conditions. (3) Easy to decompose in
nature so it did not pollute the environment and
was relatively safe for humans and pets because
the residue was easily disappeared.
Of course this was also supported by
various other theories and literature, which
stated that Basil leaves were very benecial
for the community, in the use as alternative
plant-based insecticides that environmentally
friendly, especially in controlling Ae. aegypti
mosquitoes and was could potentially be used
as alternative substitute for fogging.
Conclusion
Based on the research, it can be concluded
that Basil leaves extract had knockdown power
on Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. e KT50 and
Insecticide Score on dierent concentrations
were as follow: 5% concentration had KT50
between 41-45 minutes with insectiside score 1
/ no knockdown eect, 10% concentration had
KT50 in 16-20 minutes with insectiside score 2 /
no knockdown eect, 25% concentration had
KT50 in 11-15 minutes with insectiside score 3
/ weak knockdown eect, 50% concentration
had KT50 in less than 5 minutes with insectiside
score 5 / quick knockdown eect. e 50%
concentration of Basil leaf extract is the most
eective as insecticide against Ae. aegypti
because of the large amount of killing power
with a short time and quick knockdown eect.
Basil leaf extract (Ocimmum Basillum
form citratum) could be used by the community
as an alternative plants-based insecticide that
are environmentally friendly to control Ae.
aegypti mosquitoes and potentially also as an
alternative to fogging.
Acknowledgments
Author would like to thank the DRPM
Kemenristek DIKTI for funding this research
and also the Laboratory of Microbiology &
Parasitology of the AAK Fajar Foundation
of Abdurrab Pekanbaru University and the
Integrated Laboratory of Chemistry Study
Program at the University of Muhammadiyah
Riau Pekanbaru for allowing the research to
take place there.
156
Denai Wahyuni, Beny Yulianto / Basil leaf (Ocimmum basillum form citratum) Extract Spray
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In Indonesia there are two vectors are known, the main vector Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus as a potential vector, Aedes spp mosquito breeding varies but generally prefer clear water reservoirs. Eggs Aedes spp mosquitoes can hatch in the sewage, although not known survival and growth of larvae into pupae and adult mosquitoes. Objective: To determine the survival and growth of Aedes spp in various types of water breeding. Methods: Four types of breeding water taken directly from the settlement, and immediately used. Eggs Aedes spp laboratory strains incubated in water media. Larvae reared until the age of 4 days. A sample of 25 healthy larvae included six types of breeding water. The number of surviving larvae, pupae and adult mosquitoes be observed and counted every day for 15 days. Data security and growth of larvae processed manually in the form of percentages and graphs. Results: Aedes spp shown to survive in water dug wells (SGL), sewage water (sewer), as well as tap water. The presence of mosquitoes living in the sewer water can last up to 15 days with the same amount of mosquitoes from the first day until the last day. This phenomenon is different in the SGL and PAM water where mosquitoes can survive until day 15, although with a small percentage. Aedes spp proved unable to survive in wastewater soap. Conclusion: Water drains were left in place and clear become breeding places for Aedes spp good to note that its presence in the cleaning mosquito breeding. Keywords: The larvae of Aedes spp, life, death, pupa, adult mosquitoes, breeding water. Abstrak: Di Indonesia dikenal ada dua vektor, vektor utama nyamuk Aedes aegypti dan Aedes albopictus sebagaivektor potensial, perindukan nyamuk Aedes spp sangat bervariasi tetapi umumnya lebih menyukai tempat penampungan air jernih. Telur Aedes sppdapat menetas pada air comberan,meskipun belum diketahui ketahanan hidup dan pertumbuhan larva menjadi pupa dan nyamuk dewasa. Tujuan: mengetahui ketahanan hidup dan pertumbuhan nyamuk Aedes spp pada berbagai jenis air perindukan. Metode: Empat jenis air perindukan diambil secara langsung dari pemukiman penduduk dan langsung digunakan. Telur Aedes spp strain laboratorium ditetaskan pada media air bersih. Larva dipelihara hingga berumur 4 hari. Sampel sebanyak 25 ekor larva sehat dimasukkan ke enam jenis air perindukan. Jumlah larva yang bertahan hidup, menjadi pupa dan nyamuk dewasa diamati dan dihitung setiap hari selama 15 hari. Data ketahanan dan pertumbuhan larva diolah secara manual dalam bentuk persentase dan grafik. Hasil: Nyamuk Aedes spp terbukti dapat bertahan hidup pada air sumur gali (SGL), air comberan (got), serta air PAM. Keberadaan nyamuk hidup pada air got mampu bertahan sampai 15 hari dengan jumlah nyamuk yang sama dari hari pertama sampai hari terakhir. Fenomena ini berbeda pada air SGL dan PAM dimana nyamuk mampu bertahan sampai hari ke-15 meskipun dengan persentase kecil. Nyamuk Aedes spp terbukti tidak dapat bertahan hidup pada air limbah sabun. Simpulan: Air got yang didiamkan dan jernih menjadi tempat perindukan yang baik bagi Aedes spp sehingga keberadaannya perlu diperhatikan dalam pembersihan sarang nyamuk. Kata kunci: Larva Aedes spp, hidup, mati, pupa, nyamuk dewasa, air perindukan.
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Filariasis carried by mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. Filariasis cause elephantiasis sequelae that often lower the sufferers productivity . Eradication of the disease is difficult, then , an attempt to do is to control the vector. The other way is to use insecticide vector control plant. Basil (Ocimum sanctum Linn) which contain fiavonoids, saponins, and eugenol has been shown in the laboratory have larvicidal effect. This study aimed to determine the larvicidal effects from Ethanol extract 96% of basilleaf (Ocimum sanctum Linn) against third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. This is an laboratory experimental methods with Post test only control group design. The Ethanol extract of basil leaf (Ocimum sanctum Linn) diluted to a concentration of 5000 ppm, 4500 ppm, 4000 ppm, 3500 ppm, 3000 ppm, 2000 ppm, 1500 ppm, 1000 ppm. The experiments were repeated three times. Each experiment included a control ie Tween 20 of 0.25% in distilled water. Statistical analysis was performed with Kruskal-Walls test and probit analysis to determine LC50 and LC90. In the analysis result of Kruskal Walls (CI: 95%) it obtained the results that each test group had a significant difference (p=0,005) in mortality of third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus.The results of probit analysis showed that the ethanol extract of basil leaf give the concentration LC50 and LC90 2281.931 ppm and 5016.314 ppm. Ethanol extract 96% of basilleaf (Ocimum sanctum Linn) has an larvicidal effect on third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus.Keywords: Culex quinquefasciatus - larvicidal - ethanol extract - Basilleaf (Ocimum sanctum Linn).
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Effect of Kemangi Extract (Ocimum basilicum forma citratum) to House Fly (Musca domestica) (L.). The aim of this study was to know larvacidal effect of basil leave on house fly (Musca domestica ). Using atsiri oil which extracted through the steam distillation procedure, this study applied 5 treatments and 4 replications. The treatment were 2.5, 5, 10, and 20% asitri oil dilluted on water compared to control (water only, 0%), The study showed that 20% dilluotion has highest larvacidal effect, cause highest mortality rate (83%), and inhibited ecdysis shown by lowest ecdysis and enclosy ability sharing only 13 and 37%.
Article
Background & objectives: Development of insect resistance to synthetic pesticides, high operational cost and environmental pollution have created the need for developing alternative approaches to control vector-borne diseases. In the present study, larvicidal activity of flavonoid extracts of different parts of Vitex negundo (Linnaeus) and Andrographis paniculata (Nees) have been studied against the late III or early IV instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi (Liston). Methods: Flavonoids were extracted from different parts of the selected plants using standard method. Bioassay test was carried out by WHO method for determination of larvicidal activity against mosquitoes. Different compounds of the most active extract were identified by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Results: Flavonoid extract of whole aerial part of A. paniculata was found to be inactive against the selected larvae of Ae. aegypti even at the concentration of 600 ppm, whereas it caused 70% mortality in An. stephensi at the concentration of 200 ppm. Flavonoid extract of flower-buds produced highest mortality (100%) at the concentration of 600 ppm for the late III or early IV instar larvae of Ae. aegypti and at the concentration of 200 ppm for the larvae of An. stephensi. GC-MS analysis of the most active flavonoid extract from flower-buds of Vitex showed 81 peaks. Phenol (26.83% area), naphthalene (4.95% area), 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran (6.79% area), Phenol-2,4-Bis (1,1-dimethyl) (4.49% area), flavones 4'-OH,5-OH,7-di-O-glucoside (0.25% area) and 5-hydroxy- 3,6,7,3',4'-pentamethoxy flavones (0.80% area) were present in major amount. Conclusion: Flavonoid extracts from different parts of two selected plants possess larvicidal activity against two selected mosquito species, hence, could be utilized for developing flavonoid-based, eco-friendly insecticide as an alternative to synthetic insecticides.
Kematian Larva Aedes aegypti Setelah Pemberian Abate Dibandingkan dengan
  • D N Arif
Arif, D.N., 2011. Kematian Larva Aedes aegypti Setelah Pemberian Abate Dibandingkan dengan Pemberian Serbuk Serai. Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat, Kemas, 7(1), pp.91-96.