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A new cavernicolous Parobisium Chamberlin 1930 (Pseudoscorpiones: Neobisiidae) from Yosemite National Park, U.S.A. /

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A new cavernicolous Parobisium Chamberlin 1930 (Pseudoscorpiones: Neobisiidae) from Yosemite National Park, U.S.A. /

... CRLs also harbor endemic arthropods. For instance, a cold-adapted pseudoscorpion (Parobsium yosemite) is only known from cold talus caves in the Sierra Nevada, USA, and is presumed to have evolved in situ (Cokendolpher & Krejca, 2010), highlighting the potential for longterm stability of environmental conditions associated with CRLs (Růžička & Zacharda, 1994). ...
Article
Mountains are global biodiversity hotspots where cold environments and their associated ecological communities are predicted to be threatened by climate warming. Considerable research attention has been devoted to understanding the ecological effects of alpine glacier and snowfield recession. However, much less attention has been given to identifying climate refugia in mountain ecosystems where present‐day environmental conditions will be maintained, at least in the near‐term, as other habitats change. Around the world, montane communities of microbes, animals, and plants live on, adjacent to, and downstream of rock glaciers and related cold rocky landforms (CRL). These geomorphological features have been overlooked in the ecological literature despite being extremely common in mountain ranges worldwide with a propensity to support cold and stable habitats for aquatic and terrestrial biodiversity. CRLs are less responsive to atmospheric warming than alpine glaciers and snowfields due to the insulating nature and thermal inertia of their debris cover paired with their internal ventilation patterns. Thus, CRLs are likely to remain on the landscape after adjacent glaciers and snowfields have melted, thereby providing longer‐term cold habitat for biodiversity living on and downstream of them. Here, we argue that CRLs will likely act as key climate refugia for terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity in mountain ecosystems, offer guidelines for incorporating CRLs into conservation practices, and identify areas for future research.
... Uncertainty of the characteristics of the sclerotic knob makes versus the damaged of galeae it di cult to identify and describe species -especially when only a single-sex specimen is available. We recommend that future researchers: (1) collect multiple specimens to help ensure both adult males and females are collected (enabling further examination and study of the sclerotic knob across additional specimens and species); (2) carefully collect pseudoscorpions to avoid damaging the galeae; (3) cautiously examine the galeae particularly when specimens are few; and, (4) use scanning electron microscopy (e.g., Cokendolpher and Krejca 2010) to more accurately examine the structure of the galeae. e latter will enable researchers to determine whether galea are reduced or altered during collection or transportation. ...
Article
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We summarize and discuss the 29 known cave-dwelling pseudoscorpion species from China. Four new troglomorphic pseudoscorpion species, Parobisium motianense sp. nov., P. qiangzhuang sp. nov., P. san- louense sp. nov., and P. tiani sp. nov., belonging to the family Neobisiidae, are described based on speci- mens collected in karst caves in Guizhou, China. Detailed diagnosis, descriptions, and illustrations are presented. We also provide recommendations for management of caves where they occur, as well as the cave arthropod communities and the habitats that support them.
... Hence, there are currently 15 species of Parobisium from China (two species), North America (seven species), Japan (four species) and Korea (two species) (Harvey 2013;Guo & Zhang 2016). Of these, only three species are troglobitic: P. yosemite Cokendolpher & Krejca, 2010 (Indian Cave, Yosemite National Park, California, U.S.A), P. charlotteae Chamberlin, 1962 (Redmond Lava Cave, Deschutes County, Oregon, U.S.A), and P. anagamidense (Morikawa, 1957) (Anagami-d Cave, Kochi Prefecture, Japan). ...
Article
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Two new troglomorphic pseudoscorpion species, Parobisium magangensis sp. n. and P. yuantongi sp. n., belonging to the family Neobisiidae, are described based on specimens collected in karst caves from Beijing, China. These are the first troglomorphic pseudoscorpions discovered from caves in northern China. Detailed diagnosis, descriptions, and illustrations are provided. We also offer future research and management recommendations for these two new pseudoscorpion species.
... Given findings in other parts of the world of unusual arthropod diversity within the matrices of these rocky landforms (R u zi cka and Zacharda, 1994;Molenda, 1996), a similar exploration of rock glaciers and highelevation taluses in the Sierra Nevada might reveal additional biodiversity roles of the internal environment. Indeed, Cokendolpher and Krejca (2010) recently described a new species of pseudoscorpion from talus caves in Yosemite, albeit at a lower elevation than our area of interest. Finally, repeat measurements of rock glacier and talus ecosystems and references sites, especially in association with thermal and hydrological monitoring, would allow assessment of the future refugial capacity of these environments as climates change. ...
Article
Unique thermal and hydrologic regimes of rock-glacier and periglacial talus environments support little-studied mountain ecosystems. We report the first studies of vascular plant and arthropod diversity for these habitats in the central Sierra Nevada, California, USA. Surfaces of active rock glaciers develop scattered islands of soil that provide habitat for vegetation. Total plant cover relative to the entire surface area of two rock glaciers was 0.2–1.7%. Vascular plant diversity was high relative to reference sites, with 16–28 species observed on 0.1–1 ha total area of soils patches on each rock glacier. Species had upland- and cold-adapted traits, and were primarily perennial herbs and sub-shrubs. Complex wetland environments in the forefield of two rock glaciers and two talus slopes supported a high diversity of vascular plants, with sedges and graminoid taxa abundant as well as other cold-environment, wetland-adapted, perennial herbaceous species. Talus forefields were small (mean, 0.6 ha) yet supported 65 vascular plant species each; larger rock-glacier forefields (mean, 11 ha) supported 48-84 species each, with diversity greater at the larger site. Relative to reference sites, taxonomic diversity on the wetlands associated with periglacial landforms overlapped that on reference wetlands. Arthropod diversity at the same four rock-glacier and talus wetlands was significantly higher than at reference wetlands, with overall abundance three times greater on the rock-associated wetlands. Forty-seven of the 60 arthropod families collected were more abundant in rock glacier and talus wetlands than in reference meadows. On average, 17 families (26 morphospecies) were observed on the talus wetlands and 45 families (69 morphospecies) on rock-glacier wetlands. Cicadellid leafhoppers and aphids were dominant on the rock-associated wetlands whereas chloropid flies were most abundant on reference sites. Given the known thermal and hydrologic capacity of rock-glacier and talus environments to resist warming, these distinct ecosystems might become increasingly important as mountain refugia for a diversity of biota in the future.
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Multiple studies have shown the importance of abandoned mines as surrogate habitat for bat species, but little information exists for other species that may use these habitats. Fifteen abandoned mines located on the Buffalo National River, Arkansas, near the historic mining town of Rush were inventoried from sum-mer 2001 to summer 2005 for the presence of cavernicoles. Over 80 taxa were observed in these abandoned mines, including nine troglobites. The troglobites observed were: a terrestrial isopod (Brackenridgia sp.), two families of springtails (Arrhopalitidae, Entomobryiidae), two families of diplurans (Campodeidae, Ja-pygidae), the grotto salamander (Eurycea spelaea), a millipede (Causeyella sp.), a harvestman (Crosbyella sp.), and an amphipod (Stygobromus sp.). Since these mines were driven into carbonate hillsides as discrete tunnels, a reasonable ex-planation for the presence of troglobites is colonization of mine passageways following the intersection of naturally occurring voids. This study suggests that abandoned mine habitats may be important to a suite of rare and interesting spe-cies, in addition to bats.
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A new pseudoscorpion classification is proposed with two new suborders, Epiocheirata and Iocheirata, based upon a cladistic analysis of relationships within the order. The Epiocheirata contains two superfamilies: Chthonioidea for Chthoniidae, Tridenchthoniidae and Lechytiidae, stat. nov. (for Lechytia), and Feaelloidea for Feaellidae and Pseudogarypidae. The Iocheirata is divided into two infraorders: Hemictenata Balzan and Panctenata Balzan. The Hemictenata contains a single superfamily, Neobisioidea for Bochicidae, Gymnobisiidae, Hyidae, Ideoroncidae, Neobisiidae, Parahyidae, fam. nov. (for Parahya) and Syarinidae. The Panctenata contains two microorders: Mestommatina, nov, with Garypoidea for Cheiridiidae, Garypidae, Geogarypidae, Larcidae, fam. nov. (for Archeolarca and Larca ) and Pseudochiridiidae, and Olpioidea for Menthidae and Olpiidae; and Elassommatina, nov. with Sternophoroidea, stat. nov, for Sternophoridae, and Cheliferoidea for Atemnidae, Cheliferidae, Chernetidae and Withiidae. The Vachoniidae is synonymised with the Bochicidae, and the Cheiridioidea is treated as a synonym of Garypoidea. Philomaoria Chamberlin and Philomaoriini are transferred from the Withiidae to the Cheliferidae. The chthoniid tribe Pseudotyrannochthoniini is elevated to subfamily rank, and the systematic position of the Devonian family Dracochelidae is discussed.
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Evaporation cold brings about all-season icing of the soil that covers an aerated talus deposit (Mount Matzen, Carinthia, Austria; about 1100 m above sea level). This extrazonal permafrost area represents a very rare mire type (condensation water mire) as well as a particular sort of underground biotope, a milieu souterrain superficiel. The subterranean fauna is poor in species and is characterized by troglobitic artropods such as the catopid beetle Aphaobius milleri brevicornis, the dipluran Paurocampa n.sp. and the Collembola Onychiurus mildneri and O. vomatscheri. All these species were confirmed in neighbouring caves. The thick talus layer has been accumulated under peri- and postglacial conditions. Today it spreads out over the karstic bedrock and covers the interconnected rock fissures, the source of the subterranean fauna. The Holocene origin of the talus mantle suggests a (sub-)recent colonization of the permafrost interstice by cave-dwelling species.
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Highly specialized obligatory cave beetles endemic to the French Pyrenees offer an opportunity to investigate the relative importance of environmental conditions and ecological characteristics on the organization of genetic variability, to describe the genetic structure of populations, and to assess the extent of gene flow between local populations in relation to geologic structure. Twenty-three geographically close populations of the beetle Speonomus hydrophilus occurring both in caves (reduced fluctuations in many abiotic parameters) and under the deepest layer of soil in mountains (more exposed to climatic variations) were studied. Significant genetic differentiation at 17 allozyme loci was found among populations in close proximity, as well as among those from distant parts of range. On a larger scale, genetic differences among populations appear to result from low dispersal rates between populations. The spatial patterning observed suggests that allozyme frequencies are not responding to environmentally controlled selection. Substantial genetic divergence (F(ST) = 0.112) occurred throughout the range, with important variation in levels of genetic variability (H: 0.065-0.184) among populations. A significant level of substructuring has occurred among the populations with four major geographic areas of similarity indicated. The substructuring of the species into regions suggests an influence of paleoclimatic gradient and paleoenvironment on the population's genetic structure. Also, founder effect and reduced gene flow appear to have influenced populations in the southeastern portion of the range.
Article
Lagynochthonius fragilis n. sp. is described from a limestone cave in the Hong Chong karst of Kien Giang Province, southern Vietnam, which is currently threatened by quarrying activities. This is the first record of a troglomorphic species of Lagynochthonius Beier, 1951 from continental Asia. The presence of chemosensory setae on the dorsum of the chelal palm is interpreted as a synapomorphy of the tribe Tyrannochthoniini Chamberlin, 1962. The New Zealand genus Maorichthonius Chamberlin, 1925 is transferred from the Chthoniini Daday, 1888 to the Tyrannochthoniini. The genus Tyrannochthoniella Beier, 1966, also endemic to New Zealand, is assigned to the tribe Chthoniini Daday, 1888. The genus Stygiochthonius Carabajal Márquez, García Carrillo & Rodríguez Fernández, 2001, from southern Spain, is synonymized with Paraliochthonius Beier, 1956 (n. subj. syn.). Five new combinations are proposed: Lagynochthonius ovatus Vitali-di Castri, 1984 (ex Tyrannochthonius); Paraliochthonius barrancoi (Carabajal Márquez, García Carrillo & Rodríguez Fernández, 2001) (ex Stygiochthonius); P. curvidigitatus (Mahnert, 1997) (ex Lagynochthonius); P. setiger (Mahnert, 1997) (ex Tyrannochthonius); and P. superstes (Mahnert, 1986) (ex Tyrannochthonius). A key is given to the genera of the Tyrannochthoniini. The parallel evolution in several groups of pseudoscorpions of a characteristic chelal morphology, here termed lagyniform, is discussed. New designations are proposed for the spot-sensilla of the chelal fingers. The so-called ‘sensorium’ near the tip of the fixed chelal finger of Lagynochthonius species is shown to be a modified tooth that has migrated dorsally from the dental margin. The new term rallum is introduced as a replacement for the inappropriate term ‘flagellum’, as applied to the cheliceral blades of pseudoscorpions. The term bothridial vestibulum is introduced for the internal cuticular sheath at the base of the bothridia of the trichobothria.Lagynochthonius fragilis n. sp. est décrit d’une grotte calcaire de la province de Kien Giang, au sud du Vietnam, actuellement menacée par une exploitation de carrière. Elle est la première espèce troglomorphe du genre Lagynochthonius Beier, 1951 connue de l’Asie continentale. La présence des soies chemosensorielles sur la main de la pince est interprétée comme une synapomorphie de la tribu des Tyrannochthoniini Chamberlin, 1962. Le genre néo-zélandais Maorichthonius Chamberlin, 1925 est transféré des Chthoniini Daday à la tribu des Tyrannochthoniini. Le genre Tyrannochthoniella Beier, 1966, également endémique de la Nouvelle Zélande, est attribué à la tribu des Chthoniini Daday, 1888. Le genre Stygiochthonius Carabajal Márquez, García Carrillo & Rodríguez Fernández, 2001, du sud de l’Espagne, est mis en synonymie avec Paraliochthonius Beier, 1956 (n. syn. subj.). Cinq combinaisons nouvelles sont proposées : Lagynochthonius ovatus Vitali-di Castri, 1984 (ex Tyrannochthonius) ; Paraliochthonius barrancoi (Carabajal Márquez, García Carrillo & Rodríguez Fernández, 2001) (ex Stygiochthonius) ; P. curvidigitatus (Mahnert, 1997) (ex Lagynochthonius) ; P. setiger (Mahnert, 1997) (ex Tyrannochthonius) ; et P. superstes (Mahnert, 1986) (ex Tyrannochthonius). Une clé de détermination des genres de Tyrannochthoniini est fournite. L’évolution parallèle des facies caractéristiques de la pince, ici qualifié de “ lagyniforme ”, est évoquée chez plusieurs groupes de pseudoscorpions. Desnouveaux sigles sont proposés pour les sensilles punctiformes des doigts de la pince. Il est démontré que le “ sensorium ” à l’extrémité du doigt fixe de la pince des espèces de Lagynochthonius est une dent modifiée qui a migré dorsalement dès la marge dentale. Le terme inapproprié de “ flagelle ”, dans le sens de son application aux lames chélicèriennes des pseudoscorpions, est remplacé par rallum. Le terme nouveau vestibule trichobothriale est introduit pour la gaine cuticulaire à la base des bothridies des trichobothries.
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The new species Parobisium martii sp. n., Parobisium scaurum sp. n., Parobisium titanium sp. n., and Nudochernes lipsae sp. n. are described from caves near the city of Zhen Xiong (Yunnan), and their taxonomic positions are discussed. Parobisium titanium sp. n., with a body length of about 4.5 mm, is the pseudoscorpion species with by far the largest known pedipalpal length of about 17 mm.
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The new species, Parobisium utahensis, is similar to P. vancleavei (Hoff) from Colorado, and intermediate in size and proportions between the forms known from Oregon and from California. The morphology of the cheliceral flagellum is compared with that of some other neobisiine species and genera.
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A summary is given of families, genera, species numbers, and state distributions of the obligate subter-ranean (cave and groundwater) faunas of the contiguous United States and Canada. A total of 425 aquatic and 928 terrestrial species (1353 species in all) is now known. Total genus level diversity is greatest (in descending order) in the states of Texas, Alabama, Kentucky, Tennessee and Virginia. This genus and species richness is vulnerable to a variety of land use and pollution problems. Nicholas (1960) provided the last complete list of the obligate subterranean fauna (troglobites and stygobites) of the United States. A total of 334 species and subspecies were then known. Since then, there has been much additional field work and taxonomic study on the U.S. cave fauna. Many taxonom-ic papers and state lists have been published, but they are too numerous to list here. No nationwide species-level list has been compiled since that of Nicholas. As a step towards this goal, I have compiled a summary list. This gives the taxo-nomic classification of obligate subterranean faunas to the genus level, and a numerical total of such species known in the genus, and the states or provinces in which they are known to occur. I believe this summary list to be a useful indicator of richness of subterranean faunas and their general areas of dis-tribution. Reviews about the origin and ecology of this fauna are in Barr (1967, 1968), Barr, Culver and Kane (1995), Barr and Holsinger (1985), Culver (1982), Holsinger (1988) and Howarth (1983). In this paper I do not attempt to analyze the causes of the different state diversities.
Article
A new supplemented concept of the genus Traegaardhia Zacharda, 1980 (Acari: Rhagidiidae) is presented and descriptions of seven new species of the genus are given. These are Traegaardhia cavernarum n. sp., T. cavernicola n. sp., T. distosolenidia n. sp., T. gracilis n. sp., T. nasuta n. sp., T. subterranea n. sp., from caves located in northeastern Prealps, Italy, and T. similis n. sp. from the Ozark Plateaus, southeastern USA. The neotype of Foveacheles holsingeri Zacharda, 1980 is assigned, the species is redescribed and together with Foveacheles paralleloseta Zacharda, 1985, transferred into the genus Traegaardhia. Foveacheles thaleri n. sp. is described as the possible epigean ancestor of the derivative troglobiotic T. subterranea and the adaptive shift hypothesis and parapatric speciation of T. subterranea is outlined. A key to adults of the known eleven species of the genus Traegaardhia is presented. The biogeography, morphological adaptations to life in caves (troglomorphisms), vicariance and di
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