Book

Media Effects and Society

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Abstract

Grounded in theoretical principle, Media Effects and Society help students make the connection between mass media and the impact it has on society as a whole. The text also explores how the relationship individuals have with media is created, therefore helping them alleviate its harmful effects and enhance the positive ones. The range of media effects addressed herein includes news diffusion, learning from the mass media, socialization of children and adolescents, influences on public opinion and voting, and violent and sexually explicit media content. The text examines relevant research done in these areas and discusses it in a thorough and accessible manner. It also presents a variety of theoretical approaches to understanding media effects, including psychological and content-based theories. In addition, it demonstrates how theories can guide future research into the effects of newer mass communication technologies. The second edition includes a new chapter on effects of entertainment, as well as text boxes with examples for each chapter, discussion of new technology effects integrated throughout the chapters, expanded pedagogy, and updates to the theory and research in the text. These features enhance the already in-depth analysis Media Effects and Society provides.
... research concluded that 'the literature has moved toward a pattern of research practices that test short-term reactions to specific message elements' and therefore '[m]uch of what is labeled as cultivation research now is oriented toward testing claims made by many other media effects theories much more than the claims made by cultivation theory' (Potter, 2014(Potter, , p. 1032. Similarly, Perse and Lambe (2017) note that 'much research has been limited to short-term manifestations of 'effects' that can be easily measured in laboratories or in surveys', leading them to conclude that, ' … for the most part, research has not considered the effects of long-term, cumulative media exposure' (p. 15). ...
... In addition to structuring knowledge, schemas (1) guide selective exposure, attention and perception, (2) facilitate interpretation of incoming information and (3) reduce uncertainty and allow inferences in new situations. Schemas, thus, help filling in the blanks when information is missing (Matthes, 2008;Perse & Lambe, 2017). ...
... Bookkeeping, conversion and subtyping offer a basis for understanding media effects through the lens of specific short-term and long-term belief dynamics. Extending upon these general principles of schema accommodation, as well as previous typologies of communication effects (Matthes, 2007;Perse & Lambe, 2017;Potter, 2012;Scheufele, 2004), Figure 3 proposes a set of distinct media effect dynamics that manifest over a longer period of time only. Long-term, in this sense, refers to a comprehensive conceptualization of unique dynamics of influence, allowing for combinations of effect cumulation and non-linearity across time. ...
Article
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This article critically examines long-term media effects in communication research. Focusing on news exposure, the purpose is to provide a review and theoretical conceptualization of long-term effects on societal beliefs. The first part presents an empirical overview of research published in leading communication journals. While longitudinal studies are not uncommon, few have an explicit and elaborated focus on long-term influences. To advance future research, the second part builds on cognitive schema theory to develop three distinct ways of conceptualizing long-term effects: in terms of (a) effect duration, (b) effect mechanisms and (c) effect dynamics. Finally, the third part condenses a comprehensive literature review into a multilevel framework model of factors contributing to long-term media effects on societal beliefs.
... According to priming theory, the most accessible information will be used for decision-making, so topics presented prevalently in the media will likely be readily available in consumers' minds and could alter their judgments and opinions. This occurrence has been welldocumented in the literature, with a multitude of examples of priming being illustrated in the media [8,19,26,28,35,39], with longitudinal analyses of survey data matching the content analysis of media coverage [3], as well as in consumer product evaluations [5,23,24,43]. ...
... The Verge Self-Driving Cars 251 Despite similarities in technical performance [30], Google Chrome is much more widely used than other web browsers [41]. Given the widely-reported influence of branding, media, and marketing on beliefs and attitudes [21,25,26] taken with Google's dominance in branding [9], the media [33], and advertising [38], including its primary marketing message that Chrome is faster than other browsers [12,29], its widespread usage over other browsers is not surprising. How can less popular web browsers without the resources of a multinational conglomerate compete? ...
Preprint
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With technical performance being similar for various web browsers, improving user perceived performance is integral to optimizing browser quality. We investigated the importance of priming, which has a well-documented ability to affect people's beliefs, on users' perceptions of web browser performance. We studied 1495 participants who read either an article about performance improvements to Mozilla Firefox, an article about user interface updates to Firefox, or an article about self-driving cars, and then watched video clips of browser tasks. As the priming effect would suggest, we found that reading articles about Firefox increased participants' perceived performance of Firefox over the most widely used web browser, Google Chrome. In addition, we found that article content mattered, as the article about performance improvements led to higher performance ratings than the article about UI updates. Our findings demonstrate how perceived performance can be improved without making technical improvements and that designers and developers must consider a wider picture when trying to improve user attitudes about technology.
... Although the likelihood of small effect sizes increases in survey studies, it does not mean that the effect is trivial. The small effect sizes might be due to the sensitive nature of the relation between media and individuals as well as individual differences and media consumption habits (Harris & Sanborn, 2014;Perse, 2001). Such small effect sizes can also be attributed to investigating specific media contents in the study, namely, childrearing information and celebrity mothers (Perse, 2001). ...
... The small effect sizes might be due to the sensitive nature of the relation between media and individuals as well as individual differences and media consumption habits (Harris & Sanborn, 2014;Perse, 2001). Such small effect sizes can also be attributed to investigating specific media contents in the study, namely, childrearing information and celebrity mothers (Perse, 2001). Thus, the small effect sizes might be accepted as nontrivial considering the multidimensional and complex nature of media exposures. ...
Article
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The aim of this exploratory and descriptive study was to investigate the links between motherhood-related variables and the determinants of the motivators behind mothers’ engagement decisions related to their children’s education. Specifically, the purpose of the study was to examine the associations between mothers’ media exposures and belief systems and the motivators of their engagement decisions. In a quantitative study of 1027 mothers (Mage = 32.91 years) with young children, the participants reported their media exposures and maternal belief systems, along with the factors motivating their engagement decisions within the first level of Hoover–Dempsey and Sandler’s parent involvement model. Path analysis (LISREL) revealed that mass media and maternal belief systems predicted the motivators influencing mothers’ engagement in their children’s education. However, the majority of the variables were not associated with their perceptions of invitations from school experts, i.e., teachers and schools. The results of the current study indicated a paradox in the family engagement process. On the one hand, mothers’ media exposures and intensive motherhood ideologies were associated with their commitment to be a part of their children’s education. On the other hand, their media exposures and intensive motherhood ideologies highlight their concerns regarding invitations of school professionals in a less caring way.
... In Arab societies, it is hard to find a home that is free of a TV screen. Many of the research studies that examined the impact of media on socialisation focused on the television in particular as a medium because it is easy to use and attractive to all age groups, even children of only six months of age (Perse and Lambe, 2001). Bentz and Mayers (1993) explain that people usually accept media messages that are more consistent with what they believe. ...
... In contrast, the impacts of media messages weaken when they are far from the reality of people. Thus, the media establishes roles that are done either through the provision of models close to the reality of individuals, or through providing them with alternatives to their realities (Perse, 2001). ...
Article
This research study examines Arab women experiences of being empowered by existing in the virtual world. The aim of the study is to establish paper that discuses if female users of Twitter in Arab countries believe that the religious and cultural restrictions of Arabs state institutions are circumvented by the Internet. The study is questioning the Arab female experiences and feelings if and when she bypasses the restrictions, that she is associate with as being Arab, to make herself existing online and how does this reflect on her in the real world. The investigation is carried out by conducting semi-structured interviews, targeting to collect qualitative data only. To achieve the aims of the study, the sample consists of seven females from different countries who all use Twitter. The study showed that there is a gap between the action of Arab women online and offline which is due to prompting of social and political empowerment. Keywords: Arab women, empowerment, media, virtual world
... One potential explanation for this finding may be due to a combination of the timing of the survey and the outlets through which people were obtaining their information about the virus. Research suggests that in the beginning of a crisis, there are few differences in the information that is shared by different news outlets (Perse & Lambe, 2016). Non-traditional news content containing misinformation and conspiracy theories about COVID-19 may be posted online and shared through social media almost instantaneously, however. ...
... It is important to note that these data were collected in the first few weeks of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. Research suggests that in the beginning of a crisis, there are few differences in the information that is shared by different news outlets (Perse & Lambe, 2016). This may account for the uniform trends in misperceptions across different cable news outlets that typically promote policy positions that are at odds with one another. ...
... These definitions draw on the theory of four forms of effects set out in 2001 by Elizabeth M. Perse: (i) direct effects, (ii) conditional effects, (iii) cumulative effects and (iv) cognitive-transactional effects (Perse, 2001) 66 . They also draw on the theory of four ways in which effects bring or prevent change, set out by Joseph been caused or potential harm risked as a result of the information's dissemination. ...
Book
Misinformation Policy in Sub-Saharan Africa is a single volume containing two research reports by eight authors examining policy towards misinformation in Sub-Saharan Africa. The volume first examines the teaching of ‘media literacy’ in state-run schools in seven Sub-Saharan African countries as of mid-2020, as relates to misinformation. It explains the limited elements of media and information literacy (MIL) that are included in the curricula in the seven countries studied and the elements of media literacy related to misinformation taught in schools in one province of South Africa since January 2020. The authors propose six fields of knowledge and skills specific to misinformation that are required in order to reduce students’ susceptibility to false and misleading claims. Identifying obstacles to the introduction and effective teaching of misinformation literacy, the authors make five recommendations for the promotion of misinformation literacy in schools, to reduce the harm misinformation causes. The second report in the volume examines changes made to laws and regulations related to ‘false information’ in eleven countries across Sub-Saharan Africa 2016-2020 from Ethiopia to South Africa. By examining the terms of such laws against what is known of misinformation types, drivers and effects, it assesses the likely effects of punitive policies and those of more positive approaches that provide accountability in political debate by promoting access to accurate information and corrective speech. In contrast to the effects described for most recent regulations relating to misinformation, the report identifies ways in which legal and regulatory frameworks can be used to promote a healthier information environment.
... These definitions draw on the theory of four forms of effects set out in 2001 by Elizabeth M. Perse: (i) direct effects, (ii) conditional effects, (iii) cumulative effects and (iv) cognitive-transactional effects (Perse, 2001) 66 . They also draw on the theory of four ways in which effects bring or prevent change, set out by Joseph been caused or potential harm risked as a result of the information's dissemination. ...
Chapter
Misinformation Policy in Sub-Saharan Africa is a single volume containing two research reports by eight authors examining policy towards misinformation in Sub-Saharan Africa. The volume first examines the teaching of ‘media literacy’ in state-run schools in seven Sub-Saharan African countries as of mid-2020, as relates to misinformation. It explains the limited elements of media and information literacy (MIL) that are included in the curricula in the seven countries studied and the elements of media literacy related to misinformation taught in schools in one province of South Africa since January 2020. The authors propose six fields of knowledge and skills specific to misinformation that are required in order to reduce students’ susceptibility to false and misleading claims. Identifying obstacles to the introduction and effective teaching of misinformation literacy, the authors make five recommendations for the promotion of misinformation literacy in schools, to reduce the harm misinformation causes. The second report in the volume examines changes made to laws and regulations related to ‘false information’ in eleven countries across Sub-Saharan Africa 2016-2020 from Ethiopia to South Africa. By examining the terms of such laws against what is known of misinformation types, drivers and effects, it assesses the likely effects of punitive policies and those of more positive approaches that provide accountability in political debate by promoting access to accurate information and corrective speech. In contrast to the effects described for most recent regulations relating to misinformation, the report identifies ways in which legal and regulatory frameworks can be used to promote a healthier information environment.
... The eff ects of the media have been well studied throughout the world for more than a century and although there is no one agreed-upon consensus of how the media influences and aff ects society, it is generally agreed that it does (Curran, 2010;Perse and Lambe, 2016). This can be through a multitude of methods that are still being understood but the fact remains that media, and films and television in particular portray new trends and reinforce existing norms to audiences in both explicit and implicit ways. ...
Book
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This one-of-a-kind report explains, through multiple means and across different spheres, the need to engage and empower men and boys to critically evaluate national, regional and local norms of masculinities and challenge negative gender stereotypes and behaviours. The report also outlines how such a positive transformation will help stakeholders from the civil society, government, academia, and others, in addressing myths and misconceptions surrounding the diff erent notions of masculinity, paving the way for societies to achieve peace and sustainable development, with gender equality as a core principle. This analysis and the resulting recommendations focused on India are expected to provide a valuable an important reference on this issue for the region and globally... LINK: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000377859.locale=en... Imprint: UNESCO New Delhi, 2021... Licence type: CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO... Country of publication: India... This publication is available in Open Access under the Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 IGO (CC-BY-SA 3.0 IGO) license (http://creativecommons. org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/igo/).
... Media bias refers to the bias produced when journalists report about an event in a prejudiced manner or with a slanted viewpoint (Gentzkow and Shapiro, 2006). Since news media play a crucial role in shaping public opinion toward various important issues (De Vreese, 2004;McCombs and Reynolds, 2009;Perse and Lambe, 2016), bias in media could reinforce the problem of political polarization. Due to its potential societal harm, this issue has been extensively studied in social sciences, and there have been both journalistic and computational efforts to detect and analyze media bias (Entman, 1993;Groseclose and Milyo, 2005;Recasens et al., 2013). ...
Preprint
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Media bias can lead to increased political polarization, and thus, the need for automatic mitigation methods is growing. Existing mitigation work displays articles from multiple news outlets to provide diverse news coverage, but without neutralizing the bias inherent in each of the displayed articles. Therefore, we propose a new task, a single neutralized article generation out of multiple biased articles, to facilitate more efficient access to balanced and unbiased information. In this paper, we compile a new dataset NeuWS, define an automatic evaluation metric, and provide baselines and multiple analyses to serve as a solid starting point for the proposed task. Lastly, we obtain a human evaluation to demonstrate the alignment between our metric and human judgment.
... The scholarly field of media effects is now almost a century old and has produced a large number of empirical studies (see Bryant & Oliver, 2009;Nabi & Oliver, 2009;Perse, 2001;Sparks, 2015) that was estimated to have been over 6200 published studies a decade ago (Potter & Riddle, 2007) and now is likely to be even larger. Scholars have periodically conducted content analyses of this growing literature to document various methodological features, such as the use of methods, theories, and types of samples (Kamhawi & Weaver, 2003;Lowry, 1979;Matthes, Marquart, Naderer, Arendt, Schmuck, & Adam, 2015;Moffett & Dominick, 1987;Perloff, 1976;Potter, Cooper, & Dupagne, 1993;Schramm, 1957;Trumbo, 2004;Wimmer & Haynes, 1978). ...
Article
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This essay presents a critical analysis of patterns of research design decisions exhibited by authors of recently published empirical tests of media effects. The content of 211 articles published from 2010 to 2015 in six core communication journals were analyzed to document the design decisions made by the authors concerning their use of theory, sampling, measurement, and experiments. We also recorded the amount of variance explained by their tests and use this indicator of strength of findings to explain the patterns of methodological design decisions. The findings indicate that authors of these studies commonly select weaker design options over stronger ones. The reasons for these patterns are explored then critiqued leading to a series of recommendations calling for an evolution in thinking in the areas of method, theory, and paradigm. The methods recommendations attempt to increase (a) awareness of the advantages and disadvantages of options available for each design decision, (b) an understanding that often assumptions made to justify the selection of an option are faulty, and (c) a commitment to meeting a higher degree of challenges. The theory recommendations focus on increasing an understanding about why designers of most tests of media effects ignore the many theories available when designing their studies. And the paradigm recommendations focus on examining more critically the assumptions we make about the nature of human beings, the purpose of our research as challenges evolve, and the defaults in practices we have established in an exploratory phase.
... Media elites and mass media coverage can shape public discourse around the Medicaid expansion through the number of editorials related to the expansion of Medicaid in state newspapers (MacKuen and Coombs 1981, Huckfeldt and Sprague 1995, Dalton, Beck et al. 1998, Perse 2001, Uscinski 2009, Perloff 2013. Even as rates of circulation and revenue have declined over time (Barthel 2017), newspapers remain an important provider of much of the public's knowledge about health and health policy (Brodie, Hamel et al. 2003, Barabas andJerit 2009). ...
Thesis
When the Supreme Court held in June 2012 that states were not required to expand their Medicaid program under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), it reset the politics of health reform at the state level, creating a natural experiment to understand implementation decisions. With a generous reimbursement from the federal government, economic benefits for businesses and health systems, and coverage for the previously uninsured, states had much to gain by expanding Medicaid. Yet, the political divisions which emerged during Congressional debate and passage of the ACA marked the implementation of the Medicaid expansion. With 18 states rejecting implementing the Medicaid expansion, what explains state decision-making and the Medicaid expansion? I find that partisanship matters, but the Medicaid expansion has had a destabilizing effect on the Republican Party; the institutional design, organized interests, waivers, and national events have influenced whether and how a state decides to implement the Medicaid expansion. Implementation decisions are complex social phenomena, influenced by several interacting factors. One common account of ACA implementation decisions has focused on the role of partisanship. While Democrats have embraced the Medicaid expansion, Republicans have a much more complicated connection with the policy. Of all the states that have rejected the expansion, all but one is has a Republican governor and majority control over both chambers of the legislature. Yet, more than forty percent of Republican governors and a third of Republican majority control state legislative chambers have voted to expand Medicaid. To examine the implementation of the Medicaid expansion, I conducted in-depth comparative case studies across three states. To facilitate case selection, I used fuzzy set/Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA), which identified three “pivot” cases, Arizona, Michigan, and Utah, for analysis. Each of the three Republican controlled states was on the brink of expanding or not their Medicaid programs. I collected two types of data to detect variations in implementation across the cases. First, I conducted semi-structured key informant interviews across each of the case study states. Second, I analyzed thousands of documents, including written and oral legislative testimony, legal material, and government and think-tank reports related to the expansion. Gubernatorial support was necessary, but not sufficient, to explain state decision-making for implementing the Medicaid expansion. Across each of these cases, the Medicaid expansion created divisions between traditional economic interests and ideologically driven factions within the Republican Party. Supportive Republican policymakers attempted to overcome these intra-party divisions by leveraging the idiosyncratic institutional design to pressure or bypass oppositional legislators. Additionally, organized interests influenced whether and how a state implemented the Medicaid expansion. The role of organized interests was moderated by the ability of these groups to stay unified, the timing of their mobilization in response to the Supreme Court decision, and the intensity of their policy preferences. Waivers gave supporters of the Medicaid expansion flexibility to pursue “reforms” to change the calculus of policymaker perception of Medicaid expansion and expand coalition formation within the legislature, while pushing the Medicaid program in more conservative directions. Lastly, the national political environment influenced whether and how a state implemented the Medicaid expansion. By 2017, each of the states had entered a period of stasis with Medicaid, only for the Trump administration and its shifting politics and policy around Medicaid to unsettle the programs, causing states to reevaluate and adapt their expansions to the new environment.
... The messages might not always seem to directly impact individuals, but these frames interact with other variables such as perceptions of benefits. These findings are at the heart of media effects research where studies show that the influence of media messages is conditioned upon other variables (McQuail, 2010;Perse, 2001). ...
Article
The United States is one of the hardest-hit countries by the COVID-19 pandemic and yet there is widespread hesitancy to take the vaccine. In order to address vaccine hesitancy and foster public understanding of the COVID-19 vaccine, it is necessary to strategize public health messages based on evidence. To this end, we use experimental data to examine the effects of four message frames on participants’ attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccine and their vaccine intention. The primary purposes of this paper are to examine the 1) impact of loss vs. gain frames and individual vs. collective frames and 2) role of perceived benefits on participants’ attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccine and their vaccine intention. Our findings show that participants with higher perceived benefits and exposed to the loss frame showed higher positive attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccine and greater intention to vaccinate. Similar patterns were revealed in case of the individual frame message. Implications are discussed.
... This shows the media's ability to cause the public to perceive crime in a more alarming and perilous manner than it actually appears to be. These are particularly manipulative when one does not have a personal experience with respect to a particular issue (Pearse, 2001). ...
Book
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This book offers a broad overview of public attitudes to the death penalty in India. It examines in detail the progress made by international organizations worldwide in their efforts to abolish the death penalty and provides statistics from various countries that have already abolished it. The book focuses on four main aspects: the excessive cost and poor use of funds; wrongful executions of innocent people; the death penalty’s failure as an efficient deterrent; and the alternative sentence of life imprisonment without parole. In closing, the book analyses the current debates on capital punishment around the globe and in the Indian context. Based on public opinion surveys, the book is essential reading for all those interested in India, its government, criminal justice system, and policies on the death penalty and human rights.
... Attention reflects an individual's active participation with media content through focusing mental energy and cognitive effort to some specific stimulus or messages (Perse, 2001). That is to say, the impact of attention is determined by the levels of attention and content of media messages that people choose to focus on. ...
Article
How did residents in Wuhan, who were at the epicenter of the initial COVID-19 outbreaks in China evaluate the risk to themselves and to society at large, and take action accordingly? This study examines the need for orientation, cognitive reasoning of COVID-19 news, and perceived risk, which all contributed to protective action during the city’s total lockdown. Using data collected in a mobile CATI survey during the peak of the outbreaks in February 2020, findings show that the attention to COVID-19 in digital media predicted the perception of the coronavirus pandemic as a personal risk. In addition, the need for orientation and elaboration of news about the outbreaks were positively associated with perceived risk target – personal and societal. Finally, perceived personal risk proved a stronger predictor than perceived risk to society in general for taking protective behavior.
... In modern living, media has a huge impact on audiences across a broad range of contexts. The media has the ability to manipulate, influence, convince, promote, pressurise government and/or society, as well as govern the world in both constructive and depraved manners (Perse 2001) socially, culturally, psychologically, intellectually, spiritually and in many ways. Without proper guidance, there is no doubt that the influence of the media is likely to have a bad social impact such as encouraging immorality and rampant wickedness such as gambling, prostitution and adultery. ...
Article
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This paper aims to assess Malaysian audiences' perceptions of non-linear broadcasting streaming media and its relationship with religion and culture, which is then linked to the content regulations in Malaysia with a particular focus on the movie, Behind Her Eyes, aired via Netflix platform. In Malaysia, the mainstream media is tightly controlled for public broadcasting. However, content broadcast through the over-the-top media such as Netflix platform has not yet been subject to censorship by the authorities. Prior to this a Film Censorship Board was formed to filter or ban films meant for public screening via theatres and TV, that violated any religious, cultural, or moral norms of Malaysian society. Now, the Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission governs and promotes the communications and multimedia sector, which includes telecommunications, broadcasting, and Internet services. To understand audiences' sentiments towards Behind Her Eyes, the authors used the face-to-face in-depth interview method as the main data collection instrument to obtain information on facts, feelings, beliefs and aspects that are contrary to Malaysian religion and culture, which is then linked to the non-linear broadcasting content regulation in Malaysia. The results show that Behind Her Eyes contains many elements that are contrary to religion and culture in Malaysia. In conclusion, the authors make some recommendations for further consideration, that might lead to for future research.
... Individualized images probably could not impact everyone in the same way. Our findings then can be referred back to the very core of media effects research where we know that the impact of media messages is often conditional and dependent on social and psychological factors (Perse 2001;McQuail 2010). ...
Article
Visual representations of refugees likely have a determinative function in the ways policies are written and aid is dispensed for crises resolution efforts. We use theoretical concepts from the visual framing literature and two studies—a content analysis and an experiment—to examine the effects of six visual frames. We study the content of newspapers from four countries for the following visual frames: ‘individual’, ‘massified’, ‘mother and child’, ‘father and child’, ‘receiving aid’ and ‘working refugees.’ Next, we examine the impact of these frames on intention to donate. Findings demonstrate that individuals with higher positive attitude towards refugees showed higher intention to donate. However, among these participants, intention to donate was highest in the ‘individual’ frame condition. On the other hand, among the participants with lower positive attitude towards refugees, the highest intention to donate was in the ‘working refugees’ frame condition. Implications are discussed.
... 12 Television was for Bandura a modeled learning that made it possible to easily capture the audience's attention while providing a range of symbolic patterns of behavior much greater than in the pre-media world, much greater than in people's direct daily experience. 13 Bandura had developed a cognitive learning model where individuals adopted models represented in the media through a process of mental conceptualization, in which television and movies had been agents modeling the behavior of children and adults in their emotional responses and in adopting new lifestyles-empirically proven in several previous experiments 14 . Bandura argued that media symbols dominate people's daily lives, resulting in the construction of the social reality of people's public consciousness occurring through electronic acculturation. ...
Article
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Modern media widely influences what the public considers reality and truth—but how? Empirical theories seek to show how the media can construct the reality in which the public mind lives. The theories of cultivation, cognitive learning, agenda setting, or framing explain how the audience’s cognitive process can be altered; psychology can be manipulated with tactical media tools. The theory of the spiral of silence describes how the audience that does not agree with the predominant idea in the media tends not to express its position—a wild card used with dissenting voices
... Screen media provides one possible venue to expose adolescents to inappropriate or unhealthy behaviors. It can also reinforce such behaviors, reduce existing behavioral inhibitions, and increase motivation to model these behaviors (Perse, 2001). For example, exposure to health and risk behaviors in screen media may increase substance use among adolescents. ...
Article
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Adolescent consumption of screen media continues to increase. A variety of theoretical constructs hypothesize the impact of media content on health-related attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. This study uses a coding instrument based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Youth Risk Behavior Survey to analyze health behavior contained in 95 episodes of the popular American teen drama series Pretty Little Liars. This content analysis identified several risk behaviors such as being bullied on school property, youth consumption of alcohol, and failure to use condoms or other birth control during sexual activity. Illegal or unethical behaviors related to lying, trespassing, vandalism, and age of consent violations were also identified. The analysis reveals several positive health behaviors frequently included in Pretty Little Liars episodes such as fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and avoidance of tobacco products. Health education efforts to increase media literacy skills and assist students in analyzing the influence of media messages on behavior are warranted. Parents concerned about their child's exposure to unhealthy, dangerous or illegal behavioral depictions may benefit from seizing opportunities provided by programs such as Pretty Little Liars to engage adolescents in discussions about expectations for health behavior.
... The messages might not always seem to directly impact individuals, but these frames interact with other variables such as perceptions of benefits. These findings are at the heart of media effects research where studies show that the influence of media messages is conditioned upon other variables (McQuail, 2010;Perse, 2001). ...
Article
Purpose: The main purposes of the current study are to examine 1) the influence of narrative vs. statistics messages on COVID-19 related information seeking and COVID-19 vaccine intention, and 2) the moderating role of perceived behavioral control (PBC). Design: Data for a between-subject randomized experiment were collected online. The manipulation messages were presented as screenshots from the CDC's Facebook page. Setting: The participants were recruited from Amazon MTurk. Subjects: A total of 300 subjects participated in the study, who were 18 years and above (M = 38.40). Measures: Intention to seek information, COVID-19 vaccine intention, and PBC. Analysis: To test the hypotheses, we utilized Hayes's (2014) PROCESS for SPSS (Model 1). For intention to seek information, the main effect of the message manipulation (narrative vs. statistics) [b = -2.10, t (300) = -4.14, p < .001] and the interaction [b = .41, t (300) = 3.88, p < .001] were significant. For vaccine intention the main effects of message manipulation [b = 1.64, t (300) = -2.61, p < .005] and the interaction [b = .34, t (300) = 2.64, p < .005] were significant. Results: Our research found that narrative messages were more persuasive for both information seeking and vaccine intention. But this was true only in the case of individuals whose PBC was low. Conclusions: Our findings have critical implications for vaccine promotion research.
... Beyond it all, the media should provide enough space for public issues, as exemplified earlier. The public also needs to keep an eye on the legal process concerning the people's money as a surveillance function of media (surveillance) in the book Media Effect and Society (Perse, 2001). ...
Article
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This study is based on news dissemination about the Corona Virus Disease 2019, COVID-19, as a global pandemic. The massive amount of coronavirus news dissemination provokes the audiences to behave inappropriately. This study uses the theory of agenda-setting, which elaborates on the process of forming opinion in national television media. After that, the theory of media exposure is used to analyze the impact of exposure to the COVID-19 dissemination on social media. The research method used is a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods, namely, survey and interview in social media that is on the WhatsApp group of students and lecturers in the Province of South Sulawesi. The results of this study; First, the process of forming an opinion by the public media has not done proportionally, the information dissemination of the coronavirus had covered the dissemination of other important cases, such as the legal and corruption issues. Second, the effect of the COVID-19 news dissemination on social media not only had an impact on people's health but also a multi-effect toward the economic, religious, and psychological condition. The multi-dimensional impacts are responsible for setting the exposure of COVID-19 news dissemination as the single issue that makes the diversion of opinion and other issues occurred, such as legal and corruption cases which are no longer being a public talk.
... The media evaluates the events categorised as more significant or problematic and echoes them. People, in turn, are affected by the media agenda because they will attribute greater importance to the news according to their media appearance, thereby leading to one effect or another: duration of the news piece, television footage, hit headlines… (Perse, 2001). The old media scholars' discussion of "what to think" and "what to think about" as potential denominators of the concept of Agenda Setting overlaps because if the media is extremely powerful in directing people "what to think about" it must also have significant influence over what they think, as pointed out by Entman (2007: 165). ...
... And this extreme increase of foreign population intrusion into the EU, came to be represented as a crisis, with crucial importance given to the domestic politics of the EU member States, as well as to the regional political environment, and regional cooperation, in their struggle to find durable solutions (Heisbourg, 2015). The refugee crisis created a climate of uncertainty about the political, economic, and societal implications to the EU and its respective countries (Perse, 2001). ...
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The rise of migrants from 258 million (UN, 2017) in 2015 to 272 million by 2019 (UN, 2019) indicates that migration a dominant crisis in the contemporary world today. Out of the 80 million forcibly displaced population in the world, 26 million are refugees, and 4 million are asylum-seekers (UNHCR, 2020). The number of refugees and asylum-seekers in the European Union (EU) increased drastically, resulting in numbers from 1.3 million in 2015 to 2.7 million in 2019 (Europarl, 2017). This refugee inflow was perceived to be the most crucial political issue facing the EU, and was identified as a 'crisis.' Forced migration becomes significant in world politics, yet however, received rather trivial attention from scholars in the field. Therefore, using a theoretical lens, this study attempts to analyze the refugee crisis in the EU, and the responses of the EU, and the member States, with the aim of examining the EU's shift as regional cooperation from its founding 'liberal values'. Two mainstream international relation theories: realism and liberalism, were used to analyze, and the research included a qualitative research approach, with data drawn from multiple sources. States within a regional mechanism, often cooperate or fall out over threatening issues like migration. The refugee influx posed challenges and obligations to the EU, challenging the 'EU-member State' cooperation. While the EU as a regional organization together with most of the member States favors a common response of shared responsibility that divides the burden, other member States with high concern on their national identity, dissented toward the EU's responsive immigration policies, by dividing EU and its citizens into halves. Though Germany which is seen as the EU's hegemonic power, plays a crucial role in shaping the politics of the EU and the European region concerning the refugee crisis, there continue to be rising nationalist ideologies and protectionist policies from member States that shape the EU's decisions. The politicization of the refugee crisis by the member States, pressurizes the EU to shift between the liberalist and realist ideologies when addressing the crisis, while simultaneously striving to sustain its future stability as a regional entity, to preserve regional cooperation, and ensure that regional integration is not jeopardized.
... Heightened interactivity combines with greater immersion in subjects to render more lasting effects on users. According to media effects research, higher levels of immersion in media content are associated with more intense identification with subjects and greater memory retention of the information imparted (Perse & Lambe, 2016). As an extension of immersive digital journalism, newsgames have begun to perform these roles more effectively than conventional forms of passively consumed, more abstract news media. ...
... Importantly, in the first scenario, media effects are evoked only once, at a single point in time. Conversely, in the second scenario media effects accumulate over time (see Perse, 2001). What becomes clear at this point is that there are many types of media effects (e.g., micro-or macro-level effects, content-specific or diffuse-general effects, attitudinal vs. behavioural vs. cognitive changes, alteration versus stabilization, short-or long-term effects; intended or unintended effects; conscious or unconscious effects; see Sparks, 2013). ...
... One of the first and most important assumptions of the study of mass communication is the assumption that the media and their content have significant and substantial effects (Perse, 2001). In general, media effects are usually described as cognitive, affective, or behavioral (Valkenburg, Peter, & Walther, 2016). ...
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