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Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) a Source of Valuable Phytonutrients

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... Ocimum basilicum L. (cv "Genovese", a cultivar protected by the European Union with the Denominazione di Origine Protetta certification), or sweet basil, is a highly valued horticultural crop that is widely consumed around the world, especially in Mediterranean and South East Asian countries. The fresh or dried leaves of this species are commonly used as a spice [9,10]. Basil leaves are rich in essential oils and phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, caffeic acid derivatives, and flavonoids), contributing to their high antioxidant activity [10][11][12]. ...
... Considering the polyphenolic composition of leaf extracts, in accordance to previous investigations, our results showed a predominance of HCAs in the chromatographic profile, mainly rosmarinic, chicoric, and caffeic acid derivatives (Supplementary Figure S2, Figure 2) [9,34,35]. Despite previous studies having reported the presence of some flavonoids in O. basilicum leaves, they indicated HCAs as the most abundant compounds, including rosmarinic, caffeic, caftaric, and chicoric acids [9,34]. ...
... Considering the polyphenolic composition of leaf extracts, in accordance to previous investigations, our results showed a predominance of HCAs in the chromatographic profile, mainly rosmarinic, chicoric, and caffeic acid derivatives (Supplementary Figure S2, Figure 2) [9,34,35]. Despite previous studies having reported the presence of some flavonoids in O. basilicum leaves, they indicated HCAs as the most abundant compounds, including rosmarinic, caffeic, caftaric, and chicoric acids [9,34]. In addition, we found catechin and its derivatives, as previously detected by Jayasinghe et al. (2003) [34]. ...
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Ocimum basilicum (basil) leaves are rich in polyphenols, conferring them a high antioxidant activity. The application of UV-B can be used to maintain the post-harvest nutraceutical quality of basil leaves. We aimed to investigate the effects of pre-harvest UV-B application on polyphenolic and pigment contents, antioxidant capacity, and the visual quality of basil stored leaves. We also evaluated the applicability of the non-invasive Dualex® for monitoring the accumulation of leaf epidermal phenolics (Flav Index). After exposing plants to white light (control) and to supplemental UV-B radiation for 4 d, the leaves were harvested and stored for 7d (TS7). The UV-B leaves showed both a higher phenolic content and antioxidant capacity than the controls at TS7. In addition, the correlations between the Flav Index and phenolic content demonstrated that Dualex® can reliably assess the content of epidermal phenolics, thus confirming its promising utilization as a non-destructive method for monitoring the phytochemical quality of O. basilicum leaves. In conclusion, a pre-harvesting UV-B application may be a tool for enhancing the content of polyphenols and the antioxidant potential of basil stored leaves without detrimental effects on their visual quality. These results are important considering the nutraceutical value of this plant and its wide commercial distribution.
... Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) belonging to the Lamiaceae family is an annual aromatic herb native to Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan and India (Kőszeghi et al. 2014). Due to its strong fragrance and valuable pharmaceutical potentials, sweet basil is synonymous with the title of "Aromatic King" among the pharmaceutical and aromatic herbs (Filip, 2017) and is widely used in pharmaceutical, food (Slougui et al. 2018) and cosmetic industries (Mith et al. 2016). Sweet basil poses over 200 phytochemicals (Ghasemzadeh et al. 2016) with phenolics and flavonoids being the main phytochemical compounds (Filip, 2017). ...
... Due to its strong fragrance and valuable pharmaceutical potentials, sweet basil is synonymous with the title of "Aromatic King" among the pharmaceutical and aromatic herbs (Filip, 2017) and is widely used in pharmaceutical, food (Slougui et al. 2018) and cosmetic industries (Mith et al. 2016). Sweet basil poses over 200 phytochemicals (Ghasemzadeh et al. 2016) with phenolics and flavonoids being the main phytochemical compounds (Filip, 2017). Due to its richness in phytochemicals, sweet basil is considered as one of the most important herbs (Costa et al. 2015) and acts as natural source of antioxidant compounds (Murali and Prabakaran, 2018). ...
... Due to its richness in phytochemicals, sweet basil is considered as one of the most important herbs (Costa et al. 2015) and acts as natural source of antioxidant compounds (Murali and Prabakaran, 2018). Previously, it had been reported that the consumption of natural antioxidants reduce the risk of critical illnesses such as cancers, cardiac disease, respiratory diseases and skin disorders (Ch et al. 2015;Filip, 2017;Murali and Prabakaran, 2018). Sweet basil is said to have beneficial properties such as anticancer (Pereira et al. 2009), antiviral (Koca and Karaman, 2015), antidiabetic (Ch et al. 2015) and anti-inflammatory (Ghasemzadeh et al. 2016). ...
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Sweet basil is one of the popular herbs that contains various types of antioxidants and is widely used in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. Although sweet basil is considered as an easy and fast-growing herb, yet, the production is still insufficient to cater to the rising demand. Thus, the aim of this study is to increase biomass of sweet basil by the application of chitosan at different timing. The experiment was arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications. Plants were treated with different concentrations of chitosan (0, 2, 4 and 6 ml/L) at three different times of application (20, 40 and 20+40 days after transplanting), and kept for 60 days under open field. Data was analysed by using Statistical Analysis Software (version 9.4), Analysis of Variance was used and means were separated using Least Significant Differences. Based on the findings, all treated plants showed greater value compared to the control treatment. Among the treatments, it was found that plants treated with 4 ml/L at 20 days after transplanting performed the best where the plants reached highest stem fresh weight (44.59 g/plant), root dry weight (2.83 g/plant), leaf fresh weight (54.28 g/plant) and leaf dry weight (8.80 g/plant). The yield was higher than control treatment at 43.45% and 59.71% based on its leaf fresh weight and leaf dry weight, respectively. Therefore, it is recommended for sweet basil to be treated with 4 ml/L at 20 days after transplanting. Besides, more details study on compound profiling and its fraction from sweet basil leaf extract can be conducted in the future. Keywords: dry weight; fresh weight; physiology; sweet basil; yield
... To date, phenolic compounds have become among the most investigated natural molecules (Dias et al., 2016). In addition to having a considerable impact on quality attributes (flavor and color), they possess antioxidant, antifungal, and antimicrobial properties, such as being considered multitarget drugs with potential applications in the agri-food sector as surrogates for artificial preservatives (Filip, 2017). Increasingly extreme environmental conditions combined with the demand for high-quality agricultural production have led the growers to alternative cropping systems (Alexopoulos et al., 2021;Ciriello et al., 2021a;Teklić et al., 2021). ...
... The inability to "escape" from possible environmental threats has "bound" plants to passive defense mechanisms based on the production of specialized metabolites that have allowed their survival over time (Trivellini et al., 2016). In medicinal plants, specialized metabolites are characterized by significant structural and chemical diversity that uniquely confers the desired technological and nutritional attributes (Dias et al., 2016;Filip, 2017). Although we had used "Genovese" genotypes characterized by a similar phenolic profile in our study, the concentration of total phenolic acids differed considerably ( Table 3). ...
... The data in Table 3 clearly show the influence of genetics on the diversity of the phenolic profile of the basil genotypes. Although rosmarinic acid is referred to as the most represented phenolic acid in basil (Kiferle et al., 2013;Filip, 2017;Ciriello et al., 2020), in our study, both "Eleonora" and "Italiano Classico" were characterized by a predominant concentration of chicoric acid. The influence of genotype on the predominant biosynthesis of chicoric acid was also confirmed by Kwee and Niemeyer (2011) in basil. ...
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The floating raft constitutes a valuable system for growing herbs as it effectuates high yield and prime functional quality. However, the pressing need for advancing sustainability in food production dictates the reduction of chemical fertilizer inputs in such intensive production schemes through innovative cultivation practices. In this perspective, our work appraised the productive and qualitative responses of two "Genovese" basil genotypes (Eleonora and Italiano Classico) grown in a floating raft system with nutrient solutions of varied electrical conductivity (EC; 2 and 1 dS m −1) combined with root application of protein hydrolysate biostimulant at two dosages (0.15 and 0.3 0 ml L −1 of Trainer ®). The phenolic composition, aromatic profile, and antioxidant activities (ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP) of basil were determined by UHPLC/HRMS, GC/MS, and spectrophotometry, respectively. "Eleonora" demonstrated higher number of leaves (37.04 leaves per plant), higher fresh yield (6576.81 g m −2), but lower polyphenol concentration (1440.81 μg g −1 dry weight) compared to "Italiano Classico." The lower EC solution (1 dS m −1) increased total phenols (+32.5%), ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP antioxidant activities by 33.2, 17.1, and 15.8%, respectively, and decreased linalool relative abundance by 5.5%. Biostimulant application improved crop performance and increased total phenolic concentration in both genotypes, with the highest phenolic concentration (1767.96 μg g −1 dry weight) registered at the lowest dose. Significant response in terms of aromatic profile was detected only in "Eleonora." Our results demonstrate that the application of protein hydrolysate may compensate for reduced strength nutrient solution by enhancing yield and functional quality attributes of "Genovese" basil for pesto.
... This latter acid is an ester of caffeic acid, synthesized from the amino acids L-tyrosine and L-phenylalanine [61,65]. Rosmarinic acid is a characteristic secondary metabolite of sweet basil to which is attributed a high antioxidant capacity [66]. In general, the average concentration of rosmarinic acid of the two basil cultivars (Aroma 2 and Italiano Classico) grown in floating was lower than that obtained by Kiferle et al. [23] and Javanmardi et al. [59] but higher than that recorded by Sgherri et al. [10]. ...
... In general, the average concentration of rosmarinic acid of the two basil cultivars (Aroma 2 and Italiano Classico) grown in floating was lower than that obtained by Kiferle et al. [23] and Javanmardi et al. [59] but higher than that recorded by Sgherri et al. [10]. These results, besides underlining the influence of the genotype, may have been due to the different extraction methods and solvents used for the determination of such a phenolic acid [66] but, most importantly, to the different growth conditions. In this specific case, the lower production of phenolic compounds compared to basil grown in the open field [59] could be related to the different methods of cultivation. ...
... In fact, the hydroponic cultivation optimizing the growing conditions reduces the possibility of oxidative stress [10] and, therefore, the biosynthesis and the accumulation of phenolic compounds that are actively involved in neutralization of the free radicals formed just under conditions of oxidative stress [30]. Although rosmarinic acid is constantly defined as the most represented phenolic acid in basil [3,4,59,66], the results showed that the phenolic profile of Eleonora was characterized by a dominant presence of chicoric acid. The influence of the genotype on the major biosynthesis of this phenolic acid is confirmed by the work of Kwee et al. [67], where nine varieties of basil were identified with an absolute higher content of chicoric acid. ...
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Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is among the most widespread aromatic plants due to its versatility of use and its beneficial health properties. This aromatic plant thrives in hydroponics, which is a valid tool to improve the production and functional quality of crops, but nevertheless, it offers the possibility to de-seasonalize production. A floating raft system was adopted to test the production and quality potential during autumn season of three different genotypes of Genovese basil (Aroma 2, Eleonora and Italiano Classico) grown in three nutrient solutions with crescent electrical conductivity (EC: 1, 2 and 3 dS m −1). The aromatic and phenolic profiles were determined by GC/MS and HPLC analysis, respectively. The combination Aroma 2 and the EC 2 dS m −1 resulted in the highest production, both in terms of fresh weight and dry biomass. The 2 dS m −1 treatment determined the major phenolic content, 44%, compared to the other two EC. Italiano Classico showed a higher total polyphenolic content in addition to a different aromatic profile compared to the other cultivars, characterized by a higher percentage of Eucalyptol (+37%) and Eugenol (+107%) and a lower percentage of linalool (−44%). Correct management of the nutritional solution combined with adequate genetic material managed an improvement in the production and the obtainment of the desired aromatic and phenolic profiles.
... Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) belonging to the Lamiaceae family is an annual aromatic herb native to Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan and India (Kőszeghi et al. 2014). Due to its strong fragrance and valuable pharmaceutical potentials, sweet basil is synonymous with the title of "Aromatic King" among the pharmaceutical and aromatic herbs (Filip, 2017) and is widely used in pharmaceutical, food (Slougui et al. 2018) and cosmetic industries (Mith et al. 2016). Sweet basil poses over 200 phytochemicals (Ghasemzadeh et al. 2016) with phenolics and flavonoids being the main phytochemical compounds (Filip, 2017). ...
... Due to its strong fragrance and valuable pharmaceutical potentials, sweet basil is synonymous with the title of "Aromatic King" among the pharmaceutical and aromatic herbs (Filip, 2017) and is widely used in pharmaceutical, food (Slougui et al. 2018) and cosmetic industries (Mith et al. 2016). Sweet basil poses over 200 phytochemicals (Ghasemzadeh et al. 2016) with phenolics and flavonoids being the main phytochemical compounds (Filip, 2017). Due to its richness in phytochemicals, sweet basil is considered as one of the most important herbs (Costa et al. 2015) and acts as natural source of antioxidant compounds (Murali and Prabakaran, 2018). ...
... Due to its richness in phytochemicals, sweet basil is considered as one of the most important herbs (Costa et al. 2015) and acts as natural source of antioxidant compounds (Murali and Prabakaran, 2018). Previously, it had been reported that the consumption of natural antioxidants reduce the risk of critical illnesses such as cancers, cardiac disease, respiratory diseases and skin disorders (Ch et al. 2015;Filip, 2017;Murali and Prabakaran, 2018). Sweet basil is said to have beneficial properties such as anticancer (Pereira et al. 2009), antiviral (Koca and Karaman, 2015), antidiabetic (Ch et al. 2015) and anti-inflammatory (Ghasemzadeh et al. 2016). ...
... Also, it used in folk medicine for earache, stomachache, against vomiting and others (5). Previous studies on this plant led to the isolation and characterization of essential oils from herbs (6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12), fatty oils (13), triglycerides (14,15), and polysaccharides from seeds (16). ...
... It is known that basil species have different chemotypes and subtypes, and the composition of the essential oils of these varieties is a very important quality criterion for their marketing and promotes their commercialization as functional ingredients in food technology or phytopharmacy. The composition of essential oils also often changes in different parts of the plant and depending on the climatic conditions of the place of its cultivation (9,10,12). The main constituents in basil essential oils from different countries were reported to be linalool, methyl chavicol, 1,8-cineole, methyl cinnamate and methyl eugenol (2,(9)(10)(11)(12). ...
... The composition of essential oils also often changes in different parts of the plant and depending on the climatic conditions of the place of its cultivation (9,10,12). The main constituents in basil essential oils from different countries were reported to be linalool, methyl chavicol, 1,8-cineole, methyl cinnamate and methyl eugenol (2,(9)(10)(11)(12). Also known antioxidant capacity (9,17), antimicrobial (10,18), antispasmodic (19) and antifungal activity of basil volatile substances (20,21). ...
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In the current work the flowers of green and dark purple Ocimum basilicum L. varieties cultivated in Uzbekistan were comparatively studied in terms of chemical composition of the lipids, essential oils and fatty acids by using TLC, GC-FID and GC-MS techniques. The lipid composition of flowers both basil varieties comprised biologically active substances such as unsaturated fatty acids, phospholipids, phytosterols, carotenoid pigments and essential oils. The flower volatiles were obtained by hydrodistillation technique and subjected to GC analysis. Enantiomeric status of chiral volatile compounds was determined by analysis on chiral RTex cyclodextrin column. It is revealed that the flowers of green and dark purple basil produce essential oils with a high abundance of oxygenated monoterpenes with linalool (52.4% and 72.3%, respectively) as a major constituent. The flower volatiles from the green basil were distinct from that of dark purple variety, having strong sweet-spicy odor due to higher percentage of phenylpropanoid methyl chavicol (19.5%).
... Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is an annual herbaceous species of the Lamiaceae family considered among the most popular Mediterranean aromatic and edible herbs (Shahrajabian et al., 2020). The genetic and morphological variability of the Ocimum genus has led to the classification of over 60 species (Filip, 2017), which differ in growth habits, leaf morphology, pigmentation, and aromatic content (Makri and Kintzios, 2008). Furthermore, the recent intense plant breeding has made taxonomic classification more challenging by fixing morphological natural variation in a number of different horticultural types (Dudai and Belanger, 2016). ...
... In sweet basil, most of the aromatic molecules are stored in trichomes and belong to (mono-)terpenes and phenylpropanoids (Marotti et al., 1996). Among the latter, linalool and methyl chavicol characterize the fine aroma of this herb (Makri and Kintzios, 2008;Bekhradi et al., 2015;Filip, 2017). Nowadays, consumer's choice is increasingly oriented toward high-quality foods with nutritional properties (Sgherri et al., 2010;Morano et al., 2017). ...
... Rosmarinic acid accumulation was higher than the one obtained by Sgherri et al. (2010) in a soilless experiment, but well below the values of Javanmardi et al. (2002) in the open field. These discrepancies can be ascribed to the different growing conditions, extraction and determination methods, and various plant material adopted by each author (Filip, 2017). A study carried out by Kwee and Niemeyer (2011) revealed in the spice basil (O. ...
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Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is an economically important leafy vegetable especially in Mediterranean countries. In Italian gastronomy, the large elliptical leaves of the Genovese type are mostly used for the well-known pesto sauce, and almost all (>90%) professional production is for the food industry. The growing demand for fresh leaves with standardized technological and sensory characteristics has prompted basil producers to adopt advanced cultivation methods such as the floating raft system (FRS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the productive, qualitative, and physiological performance of three Genovese basil cultivars ("Aroma 2," "Eleonora," and "Italiano Classico") in two successive harvests and at two densities (159 and 317 plants m −2). Caffeic, chicoric, rosmarinic, and ferulic acid were determined through the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system, whereas the extraction and quantification of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were performed by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC/MS). "Aroma 2" showed the highest fresh yield and photosynthetic rate together with the lowest nitrate content. For all the tested cultivars, the higher density, while reducing the number of leaves per plant, resulted in higher fresh and dry production per unit area, without altering the aroma profile. Successive harvests resulted in a significant increase in both the yield (37.5%) and the total phenolic acids (75.1%) and favored Eucalyptol and 1-octen-3-ol accumulation (+25.9 and +15.1%, respectively). The here presented comprehensive and multifactorial assessment of the productive and qualitative response of basil provides evidence of the positive effects (from biomass to specialized metabolites) that can be obtained from the management of the pre-harvest factors in soilless cultivation. In addition, it also highlights the role and constraints of the genetic factor in the observed response. We also discuss the implications of our work considering the impact for the food processing industry. Future research may explore the phenolic acids accumulation as a possible fortification means to extend the pesto sauce shelf life, reducing the need of added antioxidants and thermal processing.
... Further compounds, occurring in amounts between 2 and 3%, are trans-muurola-4-(14), 5-diene (2.8%), €-caryophyllene (2.4%), isobornylacetate (2.1%), whereas all the others are present in amounts lower than 2%. The study of taxonomy of BEO is quite complex because of the numerous botanical varieties, cultivar, and chemotypes [30]. Moreover, a variability due to climatic factors has been described by Milenković et al. (2019) [31], who demonstrated that shade-grown basil plants have a high content of eugenol with respect to plants grown without shading that contain more linalool than eugenol. ...
... Moreover, Ghasemi Pirbaoluti et al. (2017) [33], reported that the major constituents of EO extracted from the aerial parts of Iranian O. basilicum were methyl chavicol (49.7%), linalool (10.7%), α-cadinol (5.9%), (Z)-β-farnesene (3.8%), and 1,8-cineole (3.5%). Conversely, further studies reported methyl chavicol or estragol as one of the main BEO constituents that instead resulted totally absent in the BEO analyzed in the present study, even if also sweet basil, the European type, contains both linalool and methylchavicol as the major constituents [30]. For example, linalool is the most abundant component in Serbian BEO (31.6%) followed by methyl chavicol (23.8%) [34], whereas the BEO tested in the present study derives from the cv. ...
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The essential oil (EO) from basil—Ocimum basilicum—was characterized, microencapsulated by vibration technology, and used to prepare a new type of packaging system designed to extend the food shelf life. The basil essential oil (BEO) chemical composition and antimicrobial activity were analyzed, as well as the morphological and biological properties of the derived BEO microcapsules (BEOMC). Analysis of BEO by gas chromatography demonstrated that the main component was linalool, whereas the study of its antimicrobial activity showed a significant inhibitory effect against all the microorganisms tested, mostly Gram-positive bacteria. Moreover, the prepared BEOMC showed a spheroidal shape and retained the EO antimicrobial activity. Finally, chitosan-based edible films were produced, grafted with BEOMC, and characterized for their physicochemical and biological properties. Since their effective antimicrobial activity was demonstrated, these films were tested as packaging system by wrapping cooked ham samples during 10 days of storage, with the aim of their possible use to extend the shelf life of the product. It was demonstrated that the obtained active film can both control the bacterial growth of the cooked ham and markedly inhibit the pH increase of the packaged food.
... This finding is consistent with the previous study, which reported that the administration of the methanolic extract of basil at dose 150mg/kg body weight caused a lower level of cardiac enzymes in the rat model of myocardial infarction [58]. This may due to possessing basil a high content of magnesium and potassium that improving the health of the cardiovascular system [59]. Also, basil contains omega-3 fatty acids [29], which reported that they have the potential for protecting and stabilizing cardiac tissue against arsenic-induced cardiotoxicity in vivo and in vitro [60]. ...
... [66] that demonstrated basil reduced the level of MDA and restored the activities of antioxidant enzymes CAT, SOD, and GPx in heart tissue in myocardial necrosis experimental model. Basil is a good source of scavenging free radicals due to it contains compounds have antioxidant properties such as vitamins (E, C, and β-Carotene) [59], essential oils (linalool, estragole, and methyl cinnamate) [67], phenolic compounds (flavonoids and phenolic acids) [68]. So, the coadministration of arsenic with raw or irradiated basil results in amelioration of oxidative stress by antioxidants. ...
Article
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Exposure to pollution from the environment is a very important factor that impacts on health. Arsenic is considered one of these pollutants and it has harmful effects on various organs including the heart. This study aimed to assess the effect of raw and irradiated basil on the damage of the heart in rats exposed to arsenic. Albino rats (n=32) were divided into four groups as follows "Control" group received distilled water, "As" group received arsenic(10mg/kg), "As+Basil" group received raw basil(400mg/kg) along with arsenic (10mg/kg) and "As+Irr. basil" group received 400mg/kg of irradiated basil (10kGy) along with arsenic (10mg/kg). To estimate the effect of gamma-irradiation on the antioxidant properties in basil, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used. This analysis revealed an increase in the antioxidants compounds in irradiated basil as compared to raw basil. Rats exposed to arsenic showed a significant increase in serum lipid profile, cardiac enzymes as well as increasing the heart oxidative stress with a decline in their antioxidants. The administration of raw or gamma-irradiated basil leaves to arsenic exposed rats has significantly reduced the accumulation of lipids and enzymes in serum accompanied by an improvement in antioxidant and oxidative stress of the heart. In conclusion, our findings showed that raw or irradiated basil has a therapist effect on cardiac damage prompted by arsenic.
... Among passive protection mechanisms, specialized metabolites play a relevant role in plant survival and colonization of our planet [45]. Most of the technological and nutritional attributes of medicinal herbs such as basil are indeed associated with their high levels of these metabolites, of which phenolic acids are the most representative [8]. ...
... The phenolic compounds in aromatic herbs have a high antioxidant activity that imparts health benefits, reinforces the immune system, and improves life expectancy [5]. These bioactive compounds' attributes are a valuable resource for the food industry to replace the widespread synthetic antioxidants (e.g., BHA, butylated hydroxyanisole; BHT, Butylated hydroxytoluene) [8], thus making the food system safer and more sustainable. For example, Genovese basil with high phenolic acid content could be an excellent tool to improve "pesto" quality, extending its shelf-life and reducing oxidation during storage [56]. ...
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Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is an essential ingredient of the Mediterranean cuisine due to its distinctive aroma. Genovese basil leaves are used to prepare “pesto”, a condiment that has always caught the interest of consumers and producers. Usually, basil for industrial processing is harvested more than once to extract a higher yield. However, successive cuts can affect quality traits that play a crucial role in defining the product’s final sensory profile. This research was aimed to evaluate the impact of cut on the quantitative and qualitative properties of three Genovese basil cultivars (Aroma 2, Eleonora and Italiano Classico) grown in an open field. Nitrate content, phenolic acids and aromatic profile were determined by ion chromatography (IC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC/MS) analysis, respectively. The second harvest increased fresh biomass and total phenolic acids content by 172% and 413%, respectively, with Italiano Classico recording the highest values. The combination of second-cut Aroma 2 yielded the lowest nitrate (473.8 mg kg−1 of fresh weight) and Eugenol (2.4%) levels. In the second harvest, Eleonora showed an increase in eugenol and trans-α-bergamotene of 75.3% and 48.2%, respectively; whereas, eucalyptol and β-cis-ocimene decreased by 34.4% and 51.6%, respectively. Although successive harvests may increase basil yield and quality overall, the cultivar-dependent response to successive cuts needs to be accounted for in order to accomplish standardization of industrial “pesto” sauce.
... Basil is also called ''the king of plants'' due to its intense aroma, potent antioxidant capacity, antimicrobial activity and anticarcinogenic activity. These properties of basil are attributed to the content of its phenolic and aromatic substances (Lee and Scagel 2009;Filip 2017). ...
... In parallel with the present research, Gulcin et al. (2007) declared that water and ethanol extracts of basil have very strong antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of basil has been connected to being rich in phenolic substances (Lee and Scagel 2009;Celebi 2010;Filip 2017). Indeed, Lee and Scagel (2009) found total polypheolic amount as 208 and 236 mg gallic acid 100 g -1 tissue in sweet basil and Thai basil, respectively. ...
Article
Herein, the effects of basil usage in meatball production on various quality criteria and heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) formation were investigated. The use of basil at every rate caused a significant reduction in TBARS value compared to control group. Cooking caused an increase in pH and TBARS values. IQx, IQ, AαC and MeAαC compounds could not be detected, while various amounts of MeIQx, MeIQ, 7,8-DiMeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx and PhIP were determined in the samples. Total HAA contents were determined up to 1.61 ng g−1 and increasing of cooking temperature increased total HAA content, except for meatball with 1% basil. The reducing or enhancing effect of the use of basil in meatball production on the formation of HAA varied depending on the usage rate and cooking temperature. It was determined that even if 100 g of the meatballs containing 0.5% basil cooked at 250 °C whose total amount of HAA content was the highest, is eaten, the intake amount is far below 1 μg.
... This finding is consistent with the previous study, which reported that the administration of the methanolic extract of basil at dose 150mg/kg body weight caused a lower level of cardiac enzymes in the rat model of myocardial infarction [58]. This may due to possessing basil a high content of magnesium and potassium that improving the health of the cardiovascular system [59]. Also, basil contains omega-3 fatty acids [29], which reported that they have the potential for protecting and stabilizing cardiac tissue against arsenic-induced cardiotoxicity in vivo and in vitro [60]. ...
... [66] that demonstrated basil reduced the level of MDA and restored the activities of antioxidant enzymes CAT, SOD, and GPx in heart tissue in myocardial necrosis experimental model. Basil is a good source of scavenging free radicals due to it contains compounds have antioxidant properties such as vitamins (E, C, and β-Carotene) [59], essential oils (linalool, estragole, and methyl cinnamate) [67], phenolic compounds (flavonoids and phenolic acids) [68]. So, the coadministration of arsenic with raw or irradiated basil results in amelioration of oxidative stress by antioxidants. ...
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Arsenic is a toxic substance that causes tissue damage. It is well-known that exposure to this substance induces oxidative stress and causes liver injury. The present study has been conducted to evaluate the protective role of raw or irradiated basil against arsenic-induced liver damage. Basil leaves were irradiated at a dose of 10 kGy by cobalt-60 gamma rays. Forty-eight female albino rats were divided into six groups where the ‘Control’ group received distilled water, ‘Basil’ group received water extract of raw basil, ‘Irr. Basil’ group received water extract of irradiated basil, ‘As’ group received arsenic, ‘As+Basil’ and ‘As+Irr. basil’ groups received a water extract of either raw or irradiated basil along with arsenic. Results showed that exposure basil leaves to gamma-irradiation increased their antioxidants. Exposure of rats to arsenic resulted in increased hepatic enzymes as well as increased hepatic oxidative stress with a decline in hepatic antioxidants. The administration of raw or irradiated basil to arsenic-exposed rats has significantly reduced serum enzyme activity accompanied by an improvement in the liver’s antioxidant/oxidant status. In conclusion, our findings showed that radiation is effective in improving basil antioxidants. Furthermore, raw or irradiated basil can protect against hepatic injury caused by arsenic.
... We found 95%-99% similarity as per the peak values and retention time, such as ricinoleic acid, gamabufotalin, colchicine, beclomethasone, prednisone, β carotene, levodopa, retinol, triaziquone, retinyl acetate and vincamine. Some of them are known for their biological activity [26], whereas a few compounds remain unexplored (Table 1). In addition, basil seed hexane extract also showed the availability of dihydroxybutanedioic acid, octodriene, colchicine, gamabufotalin, retinol, β carotene and retinyl acetate (spectral data available in Supplementary Materials Figure S1 and Table S1). ...
... Traditional medicinal plants provide abundant bioactive compounds with proved health-promoting activities, such as anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions [18,26]. In the present study, we identified that the major phytochemical compounds from basil seed methanolic extract (BSME) are ricinolic acid, gamabufotalin, colchicine, beclomethasone, prednisone, beta carotene, levodopa, retinol, triaziquone, retinyl acetate and vincamine. ...
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Excessive storage of lipids in visceral or ectopic sites stimulates adipokine production, which attracts macrophages. This process determines the pro- and anti-inflammatory response regulation in adipose tissue during obesity-associated systemic inflammation. The present study aimed to identify the composition of Ocimum basilicum L. (basil) seed extract and to determine its bio-efficacy on adipocyte thermogenesis or fatty acid oxidation and inhibition of lipid accumulation and adipokine secretion. Ocimum basilicum L. seed methanol extract (BSME) was utilized to analyze the cytotoxicity vs. control; lipid accumulation assay (oil red O and Nile red staining), adipogenesis and mitochondrial-thermogenesis-related gene expression vs. vehicle control were analyzed by PCR assay. In addition, vehicle control and BSME-treated adipocytes condition media were collected and treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage to identify the macrophage polarization. The results shown that the active components present in BSME did not produce significant cytotoxicity in preadipocytes or macrophages in the MTT assay. Furthermore, oil red O and Nile red staining assay confirmed that 80 and 160 μg/dL concentrations of BSME effectively arrested lipid accumulation and inhibited adipocyte maturation, when compared with tea polyphenols. Gene expression level of adipocyte hyperplasia (CEBPα, PPARγ) and lipogenesis (LPL)-related genes have been significantly (p ≤ 0.05) downregulated, and mitochondrial-thermogenesis-associated genes (PPARγc1α, UCP-1, prdm16) have been significantly (p ≤ 0.001) upregulated. The BSME-treated, maturing, adipocyte-secreted proteins were detected with a decreased protein level of leptin, TNF-α, IL-6 and STAT-6, which are associated with insulin resistance and macrophage recruitment. The “LPS-stimulated macrophage” treated with “BSME-treated adipocytes condition media”, shown with significant (p ≤ 0.001) decrease in metabolic-inflammation-related proteins—such as PGE-2, MCP-1, TNF-α and NF-κB—were majorly associated with the development of foam cell formation and progression of atherosclerotic lesion. The present findings concluded that the availability of active principles in basil seed effectively inhibit adipocyte hypertrophy, macrophage polarization, and the inflammation associated with insulin resistance and thrombosis development. Ocimum basilicum L. seed may be useful as a dietary supplement to enhance fatty acid oxidation, which aids in overcoming metabolic complications.
... 11,12 Basil leaf has bioactive compounds that act as antioxidants, antimicrobials, antiviral, antihypertensive, and antiinflammatory agents. 13 Essential oils as one of the active ingredients on basil leaf has the highest content named Linalool. Linalool is similar to terpenoid alcohol. ...
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Backgrounds: The use of mouthwash daily may influence the mechanical properties of bioactive composite resin as a dental restoration, one of the mechanical properties is surface hardness. Herbal mouthwash can be used to minimize the side effect of mouthwash that contain alcohol. Mauli banana stem and basil leaf extracts can be produced into herbal mouthwash. Methods: Thirty specimens (10mm diameter x 2mm thick; n=5/group) bioactive composite resins were immersed in a mixed solution of Mauli banana and basil leaf extracts with concentration of 25%, 50%, 75 %%, 100%, the control group of chlorhexidine gluconate 0.2% and aquadest for 7 days in 37oC. Measurement of the surface hardness was using the Vickers Microhardness Tester with 100 gf load for 15 seconds. Results: One Way ANOVA and Post Hoc Bonferroni exhibited the significant differences (p <0.05) in hardness values between the specimens that immersed in the mixed solution Mauli banana and Basil leaf extracts, which in the concentration of 100% (4,49 ± 4,61 VHN) compared with 25% (38,20 ± 2,58 VHN), 50% (41,40 ± 3,84 VHN) and 75% concentration (40,40 ± 3,55 VHN). There was no siginificant difference (p >0.05) between specimens immersed in CHX, aquadest and the mixed solution of mauli banana and basil leaf extracts in all concentration. Conclusion: There is no change in bioactive composite resin surface hardness after immersed in the mixed solution of Mauli Banana stem (Musa acuminata) and Basil leaf (Ocimum basilicum) extracts.Keywords: Basil leaf extract, Bioactive resin, Mauli Banana stem extract, Surface hardness
... Interestingly, the elemental analysis of macro and micro contents of O. sanctum leaves using LIBS and ICAP-AES techniques revealed the presence of elements as C, H, O and N which suggest its application in maintaining electrolytic balance and obtaining organic compounds. The same study also showed the presence of vitamin A, vitamin C, b-carotene, ribiflavone, chlorophyll, insoluble oxalates, proteins (30 kcal), fats (0.5 g), carbohydrates (2.3 g) and minerals (Tripathi et al. 2015 (Filip 2017). A related study concerned with O. gratissimum revealed that each 100 g of powdered leaves or stems of the plant contained Ca (5.2 and 3.73 mg l, s), Mg (0.53 and 0.33 mg l, s), Fe (13.9, 6.76 mg l, s) and P (4.25 and 3.05 mg l, s). ...
Article
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Ocimum, commonly known as Tulsi, is a huge genus within family Lamiaceae, comprising about 64 species of annual to perennial aromatic medicinal herbs with a long history of traditional uses. The aromatic plants of the genus Ocimum have long been used as flavouring agents, as well as diverse medicinal applications. Our comprehensive review covers the published literature through the period from 1961 to April 2019 and provides a complete survey of nearly all the studied species up to date. Additionally, all related taxonomic data, geographical distribution as well as different traditional uses are discussed here in details. The major chemical classes within the genus Ocimum include flavonoids, phenolic acids and terpenes. The bioactivities of various extracts or individual compounds, both in vitro and in vivo, include antimicrobial, cytotoxic, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycemic and antioxidant. This comprehensive review will serve as a database for future research and drug development from the genus Ocimum.
... These entire compounds were reported to have a variety of biological activities (Table 3). This result is consistent with other studies reported that O. basilicum is rich in polyphenols like Phenolic acids 17,69 . It is interesting that the current study is not consistent with Murali and Prabakaran 27 whom found that O. basilicum methanol extract contains 13 compounds that did not resemble the chemical compounds found in this study. ...
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The present study evaluates the antimicrobial activity of Ocimum basilicum leaves extracts using well diffusion assay. Microbicidal or Microbiostatic activities were determined using (MBC or MFC) /MIC ratio. All O. basilicum extracts ethanol, methanol, and water possess antimicrobial activity. Methanol was the best solvent with greater inhibitory activity followed by ethanol then water against bacteria. However, all three solvents showed no difference in their inhibitory activity against yeast. The MIC and MBC values were in decreasing order methanol, ethanol then water against bacteria whereas Candida albicans was more sensitive at MIC 12.5µg/mL than C. tropicalis at MIC 25µg/mL and MFC values were lower against C. albicans than C. tropicalis at 25µg/mL and 50µg/mL, respectively in all type of solvents. The ratio of (MBC or MFC) /MIC were one to three-folds. The GC-MS result showed the presence of several important chemical compounds like terpene, steroids, phenols, esters, and fatty acids most of these compounds were reported to have an antimicrobial activity. The study indicates the importance of O. basilicum extracts as microbicidal agent with wide spectrum and high inhibitory properties in low concentrations. Therefore, O. basilicum leaves extracts may be important in the field of antimicrobial production as alternatives to antibiotics.
... Traditionally, basil has been extensively utilized in food as a flavoring agent, and in the perfumery and medical industries (Telci et al. 2006). Basil has a characteristic odor and sharp taste deriving from phenolic compounds and other natural products, including polyphenols (Filip 2017). Basil is also considered a source of aromatic compounds and essential oils containing biologically active constituents that possess insect repellent (Kweka et al. 2008) antibacterial (Verma et al. 2011), antifungal (Zhang et al. 2009), and antioxidant activities (Lee et al. 2005). ...
Article
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Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) has been used not only as culinary herb for flavor, but traditional medicines such as antiseptic, antispasmodic, digestive regulatory, anti-oxidant and antimicrobial properties. However, the anti-inflammatory activity of plant tissue cultures developed from Ocimum basilicum L. remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of callus induction and the ethanol extract of in vivo leaf and in vitro (leaf, callus light and dark condition) of Ocimum basilicum L. to examine its anti-inflammatory activity on LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells in vitro. Callus induction from leaf explants of Ocimum basilicum L. was conducted by incubating leaf explants on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of KIN in combination with 2,4-D. The constituents of leaf and leaf callus ethanol extracts of Ocimum basilicum L. were quantified using GC–MS analysis. Additionally, cell viability was determined using an MTT assay and anti-inflammatory effects were investigated by measuring NO production. The results showed that the leaf callus was induced on MS medium supplemented with various combination of KIN and 2,4-D over a short time period. Analyses confirmed that in vivo leaf contained many of the constituents than in vitro leaf and callus. Moreover, the ethanol extracts of leaf and leaf callus of Ocimum basilicum L. exhibited non-cytotoxicity and reduced NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Thus, these results suggest that Ocimum basilicum L. may have potential benefits in preventing pathological inflammation.
... The essential oils extracted from basil organs are of light yellow color with a subtle aroma [6]. Similar to the fresh plant and basil-derived products, basil essential oils also exhibited numerous valuable pharmaceutical properties, most notably antimicrobial and anti-fungal activities [7][8][9][10][11]. Regarding chemical composition, basil oil is a complex mixture composed of many chemical components, few of which are found at relatively high concentrations including citral, 1,8-cineole, linalool, estragole, eugenol, methyl eugenol and methyl cinnamate [12]. ...
Article
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Basil plant is a common source for linalool and estragole. However, it has been showed that the chemical composition of basil varies considerably depending on many factors including method of extraction, cultivar of the plant or geographical location. In this study, we attempted to extract essential oil from Vietnamese basil and analyze the chemical composition of the obtained oil using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The extraction method of choice was microwave-assisted hydro-distillation (MAHD) and the process was optimized with Response Surface Methodology (RSM) with regard to four experimental parameters including raw material size, raw material to water ratio, extraction time and microwave power. The results showed that ground basil leaves, when extracted with optimal conditions of water-to-material ratio of 3.2:1, extraction time of 97 (min) and microwave power of 430 (W), gave the actual essential oil yield of 0.6%. Regarding ANOVA results of the quadratic model, high determination coefficient (R2 = 0.9077), significant F-value of 10.92 and the p-value of less than 0.05 indicate that this model is significant between experimental and predicted variables, and should be fixed. In addition, GC-MS analysis revealed that major components of Vietnamese Basil were Estragole (87.869%), α-Bergamotene (2.922%), τ-Cadinol (2.770%), and Linalool (1.347%).
... The essential oil of basil is rich in compounds like phenols and terpenes. The major compounds present in basil essential oil are linalool, eugenol, 1,8-cineole, caryophyllene, methyl eugenol, methyl chavicol, and methyl cinnamate (Filip, 2017;Shiwakoti et al., 2017). Bakry et al. (2016) reported that Ocimum basilicum L. oil exhibit antimicrobial and anti-oxidant activities. ...
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Ocimum basilicum L., commonly known as “sweet basil” is a plant with high medicinal values and antioxidant potential. Basil oil is rich in phenolics and terpenoid compounds and used as a potential antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agent. Present research work was aimed to study the effect of wall materials for basil oil microencapsulation. Various wall materials, including sodium alginate (SA) and sodium caseinate (SC), were combined with maltodextrin (MD) in two different ratios (1:2 and 1:1) were used for microencapsulation through spray drying. Among the evaluated wall materials, a combination of MD+SA at a ratio of 1:1 bestowed excellent performance both in terms of encapsulation efficiency and morphological characteristics of the prepared basil oil microcapsules.
... The higher flavonol content of basil grown on GM1 should be noted for its interest in aromatic and medicinal production. Higher flavonol contents are indeed interesting for applications in the areas of functional foods and nutraceuticals because they act as preserving agents to protect the human body system against degenerative diseases caused by oxidative damage (Filip, 2017). However, the NNI was optimal in Peat (around 1, Rahimikhoob et al., 2020), but was lower in GM1, suggesting that basil grown on Peat was in a more comfortable situation in terms of N nutrition (i.e., accumulation in its tissues), while basil grown on GM1 maximized the utilization of available N. ...
Article
Sustainable production in soilless cultivation systems may be achieved by using recycled organic materials as constituents of growing media (GM) and as organic fertilizers. Synchronizing nutrient releases from organic fertilizer mineralization with plant needs in containerized production is difficult to manage for greenhouse growers. This is further amplified by the diversification of GM constituents, driving microbial activities. We aimed to evaluate how the plant can adapt its nutrition to different organic fertilization strategies and ensure its growth depending on the GM and organic fertilizer types. Ocimum basilicum L. was grown for 60 days in a greenhouse in pots filled with three different GM: 100% peat (Peat); 70% peat and 30% coir fiber (GM1); and 50% coir pith, 25% composted bark, 25% wood fiber (GM2). Two contrasted organic fertilizers were used (horn and a granular fertilizer), mixed to the GM, localized in the pot, or combined with Bacillus sp. inoculation as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Standard mineral fertilization mixed to the GM was also used as a control treatment. We investigated basil growth (height, biomass, leaf area, chlorophyll and flavonol contents) as well as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) use efficiencies, from their uptake by the roots to their allocation to the plant organs. Basil performances were mainly affected by the GM type. Peat provided optimal conditions for plant development. In GM1, basil maximized the utilization of available N and P taken up from the GM and reached the highest biomass production. Basil performances were especially low when it was grown on GM2 because of a strong competition for N between microbes and the roots. The fertilizer type, its localization and PGPR inoculation did not affect basil growth or nutrition in peat; these treatments had only little effect on basil grown on GM1 and GM2, and affected its performances differently depending on the GM type. This study provides evidence that fertilization must be thoughtfully managed depending on the GM in organically fertilized systems.
... They are effective in the control of human pathogenic infections (Jimoh et al., 2008). The antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds are mainly attributed to their redox properties, allowing them to act as reducing agents, hydrogen donors, etc. (Firoozi et al., 2016;Filip, 2017). Flavonoids interfere with the activities of enzymes involved in reactive oxygen species generation and quenching of free radicals (Doughari, 2012). ...
Article
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The seeds of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (sweet orange) are waste products usually discarded. They may however contain phytochemicals that have potent bioactivities. In this study, the phenolic content, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of oil and non-oil (solid) extracts of C. sinensis seeds were evaluated using standard protocols. The seed oil contained significantly (P>0.05) higher contents of total phenol and total flavonoid when compared to the solid extract. However, the non-oil extract contained significantly (P<0.05) higher tannin contents than the seed oil. Ferric reducing antioxidant potential was not significantly different between both extracts. The antimicrobial activities of both extracts revealed that the seed oil possesses better antibacterial activities compared to the non-oil extract. The antifungal test revealed that the seed oil significantly inhibited the growth of Candida albicans (20 mm zone of inhibition at a concentration of 200 μg/mL), however, it did not inhibit the growth of Aspergillus niger and Penicillum sp. The minimum inhibitory concentration values against the bacterial and fungal strains were similar for both extracts in the range of 50∼100 μg/mL. Minimum bactericidal concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration values ranged from 100∼200 μg/mL for both extracts. The results in this study indicate that C. sinensis seed oil and non-oil extracts possess antioxidant, and antibacterial and antifungal properties that may be differentially exploited in the development of antimicrobial agents.
... In the same context, O. basilicum contains high amounts of such minerals where 100 g of fresh plant contains Mg (64 mg), K (295 mg) and Fe (3.17 mg). The plant is also rich in a variety of important nutrients, where a 100 g fresh plant was found to contain vitamin A (264 lg), vitamin C (18 mg), riboflavin (76 lg), vitamin K (414 lg), Ca (177 mg) and P (56 mg) (Filip 2017). A related study concerned with O. gratissimum revealed that each 100 g of powdered leaves or stems of the plant contained Ca (5.2 and 3.73 mg l, s), Mg (0.53 and 0.33 mg l, s), Fe (13.9, 6.76 mg l, s) and P (4.25 and 3.05 mg l, s). ...
Article
Ocimum, commonly known as Tulsi, is a huge genus within family Lamiaceae, comprising about 64 species of annual to perennial aromatic medicinal herbs with a long history of traditional uses. The aromatic plants of the genus Ocimum have long been used as flavouring agents, as well as diverse medicinal applications. Our comprehensive review covers the published literature through the period from 1961 to April 2019 and provides a complete survey of nearly all the studied species up to date. Additionally, all related taxonomic data, geographical distribution as well as different traditional uses are discussed here in details. The major chemical classes within the genus Ocimum include flavonoids, phenolic acids and terpenes. The bioactivities of various extracts or individual compounds, both in vitro and in vivo, include antimicrobial, cytotoxic, antinociceptive, antiinflammatory, antihyperglycemic and antioxidant. This comprehensive review will serve as a database for future research and drug development from the genus Ocimum. Keywords Lamiaceae � Ocimum � Taxonomy � Phytoconstituents � Biological activities
... It is also called reihan and rehan in Persian and Arabic language, respectively. The most important member of Ocimum genus, are Ocimum americanum L., Ocimum basilicum L., Ocimum hispidulum Schum, Ocimum tenuiflorum L., Ocimum sanctum L. and Ocimum ratissimum L. [1][2][3] Common names of Octimum basilicum is sweet basil, while common names of O. americanum are hoary basil, hairy basil, American basil, lemon basil and spice basil. Common names O. campechianum are least basil, Peruvian basil and spice basil, and African basil, tree basil and shrubby basil are common names of O. gratissimum. ...
Article
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Basil (Ocimum Basilicum) is one of the most important crops with essential oils as well as polyphenols, phenolics, flavonoids and phenolic acids. This annual plant belongs to mint family, and indigenous to tropical regions. Basil leaves also has tremendous pharmaceutical benefits and it is common to use in rice, meat, stews and soups. Traditionally, it has been used in kidney problems, as a haemostyptic in childbirth, earache, menstrual irregularities, arthritis, anorexia, treatment of colds and malaria. Basil has been shown positive effects against viral, fungal, bacterial and some infections. Basil leaves have been used in treatment of fevers, coughs, flu, asthma, bronchitis, influenza and diarrhea. Basil Seed Mucilage, commonly known as basil seed gum. Basil seed mucilage can be considered as thickening, stabilizing, fat substitute, texurizer, surface-active and emulsifying hydrocolloid. The most important pharmacological uses of basil are anti-cancer activity, radioprotective activity, anti-microbial activity, anti-inflammatory effects, immunomodulatory activity, anti-stress activity, anti-diabetic activity, anti-pyretic activity, anti-arthritic activity, anti-oxidant activity, as a prophylactic agent and in cardiovascular disease.
... The aromatic herb sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is used as a preservative and flavouring agent in various food products due to phenolic and terpenoid compounds (Paul et al. 2020). The essential oil of sweet basil can be used in frozen dairy products like ice cream due to its functional characteristics (Filip, 2017;Shiwakoti et al. 2017;Paul et al. 2020). The challenge in employing these natural ingredients in food products is the degradation of bioactive components during processing and storage (Corrêa-Filho et al. 2019). ...
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The frozen dairy products like ice cream act as vehicles for incorporating natural-bioactive ingredients to provide various nutritional health benefits. Basil is valued for its medicinal and therapeutic properties. In the present study, basil oil microcapsules were incorporated in ice cream. Ice cream mix with 10% milk fat, 12% sucrose, 0.5% stabilizer, and 0.5 % emulsifier was prepared. Basil oil was encapsulated by spray drying in 1:2 (core to coating ratio) using sodium alginate and maltodextrin as wall material. Basil oil microcapsules were incorporated at 0.5% w/v of ice cream mix. After experimentation, it was found that the sensorial attributes of ice cream incorporated with basil oil microcapsules were slightly lower than the control ice cream. The basil oil microcapsules brought considerable variations in overrun and hardness of ice cream. Furthermore, the ice cream incorporated with basil oil microcapsules shows high antioxidant (94.57±0.06% DPPH inhibition) and phenolic content (76.80±0.11 μg GAE/ml) as compared to ice cream incorporated with basil oil (93.54±0.13% DPPH inhibition and 58.35±0.17 μg GAE/ml total phenolic content).
... Universally recognized for its aroma, basil is an annual herbaceous plant belonging to the Lamiaceae family [2]. Due to its intrinsic genetic variability, the myriad species of basil identified by researchers and botanists, differ in morphological traits (e.g., color and shape) and in chemical and aromatic composition [1,3]. Hence, making it a multifaceted vegetable highly demanded by the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food processing industries [4]. ...
Article
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In the Italian culinary tradition, young and tender leaves of Genovese basil (Ocimum ba-silicum L.) are used to prepare pesto sauce, a tasty condiment that attracts the interest of the food processing industry. Like other leafy or aromatic vegetables, basil is harvested more than once during the crop cycle to maximize yield. However, the mechanical stress induced by successive cuts can affect crucial parameters associated with pesto processing (leaf/stem ratio, stem diameter, and dry matter). Our research accordingly aimed to evaluate the impact of successive harvests on three field-grown Genovese basil cultivars (“Aroma 2”, “Eleonora” and “Italiano Classico”) in terms of production, physiological behavior, and technological parameters. Between the first and second harvest, marketable fresh yield and shoot dry biomass increased by 148.4 % and 172.9 %, respectively; by contrast, the leaf-to-stem ratio decreased by 22.5 %, while the dry matter content was unchanged. The increased fresh yield and shoot dry biomass at the second harvest derived from improved photosynthetic efficiency, which enabled higher net CO2 assimilation, Fv/Fm and transpiration as well as reduced stomatal resistance. Our findings suggest that, under the Medi-terranean environment, “Italiano Classico” carries superior productive performance and optimal technological characteristics in line with industrial requirements. These promising results warrant further investigation of the impact successive harvests may have on the qualitative components of high-yielding basil genotypes with respect to consumer expectations of the final product. (PDF) Successive Harvests Modulate the Productive and Physiological Behavior of Three Genovese Pesto Basil Cultivars. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/350124728_Successive_Harvests_Modulate_the_Productive_and_Physiological_Behavior_of_Three_Genovese_Pesto_Basil_Cultivars [accessed Mar 17 2021].
... Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), belonging to the Lamiaceae family, is a leafy and aromatic vegetable originated in Asia (Marotti et al., 1996;Bufalo et al., 2015). In addition to pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and sanitary industry, it is commonly used for fresh consumption and is an excellent source of iron, vitamin K, calcium and vitamin A (Singh et al., 2014;Filip, 2017). There are numerous factors influencing vegetables production. ...
Article
Simulation models are effective tools for evaluation of alternative management options. These models have been applied to address the impact of diverse environmental and management conditions on crop production. Nitrogen (N) is considered as the major nutrient influencing crop quality and quantity. In greenhouse cultivation, where both crops quality and quantity are important, application of a mathematical model which integrates different crop growth processes, is crucial. AquaCrop model employs a semi-quantitative approach for estimation of crop biomass under N-deficiency conditions. In AquaCrop model, the effect of soil N fertility stress on biomass production is simulated indirectly based on stress coefficients. However, proper fertilizer management requires the knowledge of crop N demand during growth period to ensure maximum production. In this respect, a direct simulation approach based on the concept of critical N concentration was employed. Two experiments with different N application rates were conducted on basil grown under greenhouse conditions. The AquaCrop model was initially parameterized for basil and then calibrated under N stress conditions. Validation results indicated an acceptable accuracy (17.20 %< relative root mean square error (RRMSE) < 19.10%) for biomass simulation by application of semi-quantitative approach. In contrast, the direct simulation approach performed better than AquaCrop model by RRMSE ranging from 7.48% to 12.97%. Results demonstrated that the direct simulation approach by considering the crop N status during simulation period is capable of improving soil fertility management which can lead to improve human and environmental health.
... Purple varieties, such as cv. Red Rubin, accumulate anthocyanins in leaves and are attractive for functional food/pharmaceutical industries [17,18]. Basil is sensitive to drought and a higher anthocyanin content can increase tolerance to water stress [19][20][21][22]. ...
Article
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Azospirillum spp. are plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) that exert beneficial effects on plant growth and yield of agronomically important plant species. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a root treatment with Azospirillum baldaniorum Sp245 on hormones in xylem sap and physiological performance in purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L. cv. Red Rubin) plants grown under well-watered conditions and after removing water. Treatments with A. baldaniorum Sp245 included inoculation with viable cells (1ˑ107 CFU mL–1) and addition of two doses of filtered culture supernatants (non-diluted 1ˑ108 CFU mL–1, and diluted 1:1). Photosynthetic activity, endogenous level of hormones in xylem sap (salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and abscisic acid), leaf pigments, leaf water potential, water-use efficiency (WUE), and drought tolerance were determined. Fluorescence and gas exchange parameters, as well as leaf water potential, showed that the highest dose of filtered culture supernatant improved both photosynthetic performance and leaf water status during water removal, associated with an increase in total pigments. Moreover, gas exchange analysis and carbon isotope discrimination found this bacterial treatment to be the most effective in inducing an increase of intrinsic and instantaneous WUE during water stress. We hypothesize that the benefits of bacterial treatments based on A. baldaniorum Sp245 are strongly correlated with the synthesis of phytohormones and the induction of plant-stress tolerance in purple basil.
... Interestingly, the elemental analysis of macro and micro contents of O. sanctum leaves using LIBS and ICAP-AES techniques revealed the presence of elements as C, H, O and N which suggest its application in maintaining electrolytic balance and obtaining organic compounds. The same study also showed the presence of vitamin A, vitamin C, b-carotene, ribiflavone, chlorophyll, insoluble oxalates, proteins (30 kcal), fats (0.5 g), carbohydrates (2.3 g) and minerals (Tripathi et al. 2015 (Filip 2017). A related study concerned with O. gratissimum revealed that each 100 g of powdered leaves or stems of the plant contained Ca (5.2 and 3.73 mg l, s), Mg (0.53 and 0.33 mg l, s), Fe (13.9, 6.76 mg l, s) and P (4.25 and 3.05 mg l, s). ...
Article
Ocimum, commonly known as Tulsi, is a huge genus within family Lamiaceae, comprising about 64 species of annual to perennial aromatic medicinal herbs with a long history of traditional uses. The aromatic plants of the genus Ocimum have long been used as flavouring agents, as well as diverse medicinal applications. Our comprehensive review covers the published literature through the period from 1961 to April 2019 and provides a complete survey of nearly all the studied species up to date. Additionally, all related taxonomic data, geographical distribution as well as different traditional uses are discussed here in details. The major chemical classes within the genus Ocimum include flavonoids, phenolic acids and ter-penes. The bioactivities of various extracts or individual compounds, both in vitro and in vivo, include antimicrobial, cytotoxic, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycemic and antioxidant. This comprehensive review will serve as a database for future research and drug development from the genus Ocimum.
... The harvesting time during the day can therefore be quite important in order to obtain the desired secondary metabolites. Besides the above-mentioned aspects, basil also contains carotene, vitamin A, B 6, and C, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, and iron [51,52]. All of these nutrient incidences add to basil's potential uses and value and necessitate the effective parameterization of the basil microgreen production environment via hydroponic systems to optimize their beneficial compound content. ...
Article
Full-text available
Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), including other species and cultivars, is an excellent source of nutritional compounds, the accumulation of which can be stimulated by exogenous factors (environmental and nutritional conditions). Although best practices are relatively established for mature basil plants, microgreens production requires further research to optimize quality and quantity. The study objectives are (i) to provide an overview of the many uses of basil, (ii) collate and present common hydroponic systems available in the market, (iii) review effects of key production environment parameters on basil yields in hydroponic systems, and (iv) summarize the effects of the growth environments on yield quantity and quality of basil microgreens. The paper analyzes in detail key production parameters of basil microgreens in hydroponic systems, such as temperature, humidity, pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrient solutions, and the influence of light (quantity, quality, and photoperiods). The collated literature review has shown that basil, grown hydroponically, can tolerate high variations of environmental parameters: pH 5.1–8.5, temperature 15–24 °C, relative humidity 60–70%, electrical conductivity up to 1.2 mS cm−1, depending on the developmental stage, dissolved oxygen at 4 mg L−1 (optimally 6.5 mg L−1), and light intensity between 200 and 400 μmol m−2 s−1. The study has synthesized an overview of different production parameters to provide guidance on the optimization of environmental conditions to ensure the quantity and quality production of basil microgreens. Improving the quality of basil microgreens can ideally spur continued gastronomic interest in microgreens in general, which will encourage more entrepreneurs to grow basil and other microgreens. Hence, the study findings are a great resource to learn about the effects of different environments on basil microgreen production. This information can inform research for successful production of different species and cultivars of basil microgreens, and establishing testing protocols to improve the quantity and quality of the harvest.
... Similar to other aromatic plants grown for fresh herbs, basil is mainly cultivated as a short-lived annual crop, preferably in an organic production system, including hydroponics [19]. It is a green herb that can reach about 90 cm in height, displaying lanceolate leaves, which are glossy and fragrant [20]. The O. basilicum has several varieties that differ in the general morphological structure and texture, and in the chemical contents as well [21]. ...
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Applying larvicides to interrupt a mosquito’s life cycle is an important strategy for vector control. This study was conducted to evaluate the larvicidal properties of the hexane extract of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.; family Lamiaceae) leaves against the wild strain of Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse). Third instar larvae (20 larvae/replicate, n = 3) were exposed to different concentrations of the extract (6.25–200 µg/mL), and the mortality rate was recorded. Probit analysis showed that the median lethal concentration and 95% lethal concentration of the extract were 16.0 (10.9–22.1) and 53.0 (34.6–136.8) µg/mL, respectively, after 24 h exposure. Only the fractions F3, F4, and F5 from the column chromatography displayed high mortality rates of 91.7–100% at 25.0 µg/mL after 24 h exposure. Subsequent column chromatography from the pooled fraction yielded two active subfractions, H-F345-S2 and H-F345-S3, with mortality rates of 100% and 98.3 ± 2.9%, respectively, at 12.5 µg/mL. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis unveiled that methyl chavicol, 2-(2-butoxyethoxy)ethanol, cedrelanol, methyl eugenol, 2,4,di-tert-butylphenol, and phytol were the major components in both subfractions with some of them being reported as larvicidal compounds. The results suggest that sweet basil has substantial larvicidal activity against Ae. albopictus mosquito and is a potential source of naturally derived larvicide.
... The higher flavonol content of basil grown on GM1 should be noted for its interest in aromatic and medicinal production. Higher flavonol contents are indeed interesting for applications in the areas of functional foods and nutraceuticals because they act as preserving agents to protect the human body system against degenerative diseases caused by oxidative damage (Filip, 2017). However, the NNI was optimal in Peat (around 1, Rahimikhoob et al., 2020), but was lower in GM1, suggesting that basil grown on Peat was in a more comfortable situation in terms of N nutrition (i.e., accumulation in its tissues), while basil grown on GM1 maximized the utilization of available N. ...
Article
The shade impact by Ingo densiflora on water use and drainage in a coffee agroforestry system (AFS) was compared to coffee monoculture (MC) in Costa Rica. Rainfall interception, transpiration, runoff and soil water content were monitored during 3 years. Runoff was lower in AFS than MC (5.4 and 8.4% of total rainfall, respectively) and a higher water infiltration was observed under AFS. Still, the higher combined rainfall interception + transpiration of coffee and shade trees in AFS resulted in a lower drainage than in MC. No coffee water stress was recorded either in AFS or MC as relative extractable soil water remained above 20% during the dry seasons. Time course of soil water content showed enhanced access to soil water between 100 and 200 cm depth in AFS. This suggests complementarity for soil water between coffee and shade trees. The model HYDRUS 1D predicted that drainage at 200 cm depth accounted for a large fraction of annual rainfall (68% for MC and 62% for AFS). Climatic scenario simulations showed (1) a potential competition for water between coffee and shade trees when the dry season was extended by 4-6 weeks compared to actual, and (2) a severe reduction in annual drainage, but without competition for water when rainfall was reduced down to 40% of the actual. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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The quality of 12 basils (Ocimum basilicum L.) extracts was evaluated based on content of phenolics, antioxidant activity, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint combined with chemometrics. Evaluation of antioxidant activity was performed using DPPH technique and total phenolic was determined using Folin–Ciocalteau reagent. Highest antioxidant activity was obtained for O. basilicum L. “Petit Anis Blanc”, O. basilicum L. “Fine Verde”, O. basilicum L. var. Lactucaefolium, O. basilicum L. “Siam Queen” and two species from market. The evaluation of chemical similarity was performed using similarity and distance measures, principle component analysis and cluster analysis (CA). Similarity between O. basilicum L. “Fine Verde” and O. basilicum L. ‘Siam Queen’ was confirmed using chemometric techniques. Similarity between one of the market species and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. was confirmed based on similarity measures and CA. The relationship between chromatographic data and antioxidant activity was determined using partial least squares. High value of correlation coefficient between chromatographic data and total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were obtained. These results confirm the usefulness of statistical method for predicting the relationship between chemical composition of samples and their biological activity. In conclusion, applied chromatographic and chemometric techniques have been proved suitable for estimation of phytochemical similarity of selected basils and for predicting their antioxidant activities.
Article
Background Ocimum basilicum (OB) possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The components of this plant have been used to treat respiratory disorders such as asthma. Aim This study examined the effects of OB seeds on upstream cytokine gene expression and bronchial goblet cell hyperplasia in a murine asthma model. Materials and methods The anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of daily consumption of OB seeds were investigated by gene expression of interleukins IL-8, 9, 11, 25 and 33 and eotaxin production. Two groups of 6-week-old female BALB/c mice were sensitized by intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin (OVA) plus alum on days 1 and 14. On days 24, 26, 28 and 30, the mice were exposed to OVA in saline for 30 minutes using a nebulizer. One of the asthmatic groups received OB seeds orally on days 25, 27 and 29. Identical tests were conducted on mice receiving saline as negative controls. Results OB significantly reduced mRNA expression for IL-8, 9, 11, 25, 33 and eotaxin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from the mice (P < 0.05). Further, goblet cell hyperplasia was significantly decreased in OB-treated mice (P < 0.05). Conclusion Our results show that OB may inhibit expression of Th2 upstream cytokines and goblet cell hyperplasia in OVA-induced asthma and thus alleviate allergic asthma in the mouse model.
Chapter
Basil is rich in bioactive components such as linalool, eugenol, 1,8‐cineole, caffeic, rosmarinic, chicorinc, and caftaric acids, which provide carminative, galactogogue, digestive, antispasmodic, antibacterial, anticonvulsant, and anticarcinogenic activities. The level of bioactive components is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Plants have been used since ancient times for the treatment of an enormous number of diseases. O . basilicum L . has a vast spectrum of pharmacological activities. Extracts and essential oils of the various parts have been used for their antibacterial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anticancer, anticonvulsant, antihyperlipidemic, anti‐inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and immunomodulatory activities. Future research should be emphasized on O. basilicum L . for evaluation of its pharmacological properties for control of various diseases especially in cancer, cardiac, and neuropsychological disorders.
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The aim of this study was evaluation of phytochemical components, antioxidant activity, and antibacterial effects of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) essential oil (BEO) in vitro. The lipid oxidation of the meat and antibacterial effects of BEO were also evaluated in beef burger product. In this empirical study, essential oil of the basil was isolated by hydrodistillation. Then, BEO was analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The effect of different concentrations of BEO (0.00, 0.062, 0.125, and 0.25%) at 4±1ºC temperature and storage time of up to 12 days was evaluated on lipid oxidation, anti Staphylococcus aureus activity, and organoleptic effects in beef burger. The main compounds in BEO were methyl chavicol (85.19%), 1,8 cineol (3.96%), trans-alpha bergamotene (1.18%) and linalool (1.03%). In the storage temperature (4±1ºC), the BEO decreased the growth rate of S. aureus in beef burger (P< 0.05). Also, overall acceptance rate in the beef burger containing 0.125% BEO created a better sense in the product (P< 0.05). No significant differences were observed after adding different concentrations of essential oil to decrease lipid oxidation in raw beef burger (P> 0.05). Therefore, this essential oil might be used as antibacterial agent and flavor enhancer in meat products such as beef burger.
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The antiproliferative activity of the ethanolic extract and the essential oil of O. basilicum, cultivated in Greece, was evaluated in vitro against four different humans cancer cell lines: the human cervix adenocarcinoma HeLa cells, human melanoma FemX cells, human chronic myelogenous leukaemia K562 cells and human ovarian SKOV3 cells. Qualitative analysis has been carried out with HPLC and LC/ESI-MS measurements and the prevalent constituents of the extract which were rosmarinic and caffeic acid and of the essential oil which were eugenol, isoeugenol and linalool have been tested with the above cell lines. All phytochemicals showed significant cytotoxic activity particularly against SKOV3 cell lines. Mild but definite inhibition was noticed regarding the extract and the essential oil. Remarkably, caffeic acid was found to be in the same range compared to cisplatin against the four cell lines exhibiting significant anticancer activity while isoeugenol is more cytotoxic than eugenol. In silico modelling has shown that isoeugenol can effectively inhibit cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase enzymatic action.
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The hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic effects of the aqueous extract of Ocimum basilicum (OB) whole plant were investigated in normal and streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. After a single oral administration, OB significantly reduced blood glucose levels in normal (p<0.01) and diabetic rats (p<0.001). After 15 days of repeated oral administration, OB produced a potent reduction on blood glucose levels (p<0.001) in diabetic rats and a less reduction in normal rats (p<0.05). Total plasma cholesterol and triglycerides levels were significantly reduced after repeated oral administration in diabetic rats (p<0.001) and (p<0.05) respectively. However, no change was observed in total plasma cholesterol and triglycerides levels in normal rats after both single and repeated oral administration. In addition, plasma insulin levels and body weight remained unchanged over 15 days of oral administration in normal and diabetic rats. We conclude that the aqueous extract of OB exhibits potent anti-hyperglycaemic and hypolipidemic activities in diabetic rats without affecting basal plasma insulin concentrations.
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Basil, one of the most popular culinary herbs in North America is sold as a fresh-cut and dried processed product. There are over 40 cultivars available (De Baggio and Belsinger 1996), with many developed specifi-cally for the fresh and/or ornamental markets. The popular cultivars for the fresh market and garden have dark green leaves and white flowers, with a rich spicy pungent aroma due to the presence of linalool/ methylchavicol/1,8-cineole. Lesser known cultivars vary in growth habit, size, and color, and can contain a wide range of aromas including, lemon, rose, camphor, licorice, woody, and fruity. The popularity of basil has led to an infusion of many introductions into the marketplace. For example, new cultivars, both All-American selections, include the new fusarium resistant lemon basil,'Sweet Dani', a tall (65-70 cm), up-right plant with an intense lemon aroma (Morales and Simon 1997) and'Siam Queen', an attractive plant with purple flowers on a dense dark green foliage. This paper will address the diversity of basil in the North American market and potential new uses for the natural products of this species.
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The present review focuses on the various Ocimum species, often referred to as the “king of the herbs.” The botany of more than 50 species of herbs and shrubs belonging to this genus is thoroughly reported, along with traditional uses and cultivation techniques. Since basil is a rich source of natural compounds, details on the several chemical constituents of essential oil, plant parts and derived food and medical products, such as monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, phenylpropanoids, anthocyanins, and phenolic acids, as well as their effect on sensory qualities are included. Furthermore, particular emphasis is given to the application of biotechnology for the clonal micropropagation of basil lines with improved traits and the use of basil tissue culture for the derivation of valuable compounds, such as antioxidant phenolics and essential oil components.
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To prospectively examine whether higher intakes of total flavonoids and their subclasses (flavanones, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, flavonols, flavones, and polymers) were associated with a lower risk of developing Parkinson disease (PD). In the current analysis, we included 49,281 men in the Health Professional Follow-up Study and 80,336 women from the Nurses' Health Study. Five major sources of flavonoid-rich foods (tea, berry fruits, apples, red wine, and orange/orange juice) were also examined. Flavonoid intake was assessed using an updated food composition database and a validated food frequency questionnaire. We identified 805 participants (438 men and 367 women) who developed PD during 20-22 years of follow-up. In men, after adjusting for multiple confounders, participants in the highest quintile of total flavonoids had a 40%lower PD risk than those in the lowest quintile (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.60; 95% confidence interval 0.43, 0.83; p trend = 0.001). No significant relationship was observed in women (p trend = 0.62) or in pooled analyses (p trend = 0.23). In the pooled analyses for the subclasses, intakes of anthocyanins and a rich dietary source, berries, were significantly associated with a lower PD risk (HR comparing 2 extreme intake quintiles were 0.76 for anthocyanins and 0.77 for berries, respectively; p trend < 0.02 for both). Our findings suggest that intake of some flavonoids may reduce PD risk, particularly in men, but a protective effect of other constituents of plant foods cannot be excluded.
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Total equivalent antioxidant capacities (TEAC) and phenolic contents of 32 spices extracts from 21 botanical families grown in Poland were investigated. The total antioxidant capacity was estimated by the following methods: ABTS+ (2,2′azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)), DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical) and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) expressed as TEAC. The total phenolics were measured using a Folin–Ciocalteu assay. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of major phenolics by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) were also used. Major phenolic acids identified in analyzed species were caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic and neochlorogenic, while predominant flavonoids were quercetin, luteolin, apigenin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin. Myricetin was detected only in Epilobium hirsutum. Many investigated spices had high levels of phenolics and exhibited high antioxidant capacity. The TEAC values of the spices ranged from 1.76 to 346 μM trolox/100 g dw, from 7.34 to 2021 μM trolox/100 g dw, and 13.8 to 2133 μM trolox/100 g dw for ABTS+, DPPH and FRAP, respectively. The total phenolic content, measured using a Folin–Ciocalteu assay, ranged from 0.07 to 15.2 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g dw. The herbs with the highest TEAC values were Syzygium aromaticum, E. hirsutum and the species belonging to the Labiatae and Compositae family. A positive relationship between TEAC (ABTS+ and FRAP) values and total phenolic content, measured by HPLC, was found only in family groups with many representative herbs within Labiatae and Compositae.
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Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is used in traditional medicine, as a culinary herb and a well-known source of flavouring principles. Total antioxidant activity in 23 Iranian basil accessions was determined as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). Total phenolic contents were determined using a spectrophotometric technique, based on the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent, according to the method of Spanos and Wrolstad [Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemistry, 38 (1990) 1565] and calculated as gallic acid equivalents GAE/g dw. Total antioxidant activity varied from 10.8 to 35.7 μM Trolox, and total phenolic content ranged from 22.9 to 65.5 mg gallic acid/g dw in “Dezful I” and “Babol” accessions, respectively. A linear positive relationship existed between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic acids content of the tested basil accessions (R2=0.71). Iranian basils possess valuable antioxidant properties for culinary and possible medicinal use.
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This study examines the chemical composition and in vitro anticancer activity of the essential oil from Ocimum basilicum Linn. (Lamiaceae), cultivated in the Western Ghats of South India. The chemical compositions of basil fresh leaves were identified by GC-MS: 11 components were identified. The major constituents were found to be methyl cinnamate (70.1%), linalool (17.5%), β-elemene (2.6%) and camphor (1.52%). The results revealed that this plant may belong to the methyl cinnamate and linalool chemotype. A methyl thiazol tetrazolium assay was used for in vitro cytotoxicity screening against the human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), human laryngeal epithelial carcinoma cell line (HEp-2) and NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The IC(50) values obtained were 90.5 and 96.3 µg mL(-1), respectively, and the results revealed that basil oil has potent cytotoxicity.
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The use of natural compounds from plants can provide an alternative approach against food-borne pathogens. The mechanisms of action of most plant extracts with antimicrobial activity have been poorly studied. In this work, changes in membrane integrity, membrane potential, internal pH (pHin), and ATP synthesis were measured in Vibrio cholerae cells after exposure to extracts of edible and medicinal plants. A preliminary screen of methanolic, ethanolic, and aqueous extracts of medicinal and edible plants was performed. Minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were measured for extracts showing high antimicrobial activity. Our results indicate that methanolic extracts of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica var. Villanueva L.), sweet acacia (Acacia farnesiana L.), and white sagebrush (Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt.) are the most active against V. cholera, with MBCs ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 mg/ml. Using four fluorogenic techniques, we studied the membrane integrity of V. cholerae cells after exposure to these four extracts. Extracts from these plants were able to disrupt the cell membranes of V. cholerae cells, causing increased membrane permeability, a clear decrease in cytoplasmic pH, cell membrane hyperpolarization, and a decrease in cellular ATP concentration in all strains tested. These four plant extracts could be studied as future alternatives to control V. cholerae contamination in foods and the diseases associated with this microorganism.
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The antioxidant activity of a methanolic extract of Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) was examined using different in vitro assay model systems. The crude extract was fractionated on a Sephadex LH-20 column, and six fractions were identified. The DPPH scavenging assay system and the oxidation of the soy phosphotidylcholin liposome model system were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of each fraction. Fraction IV showed the strongest activity followed by fractions V and VI. Phenolic compounds responsible for the antioxidative activity of the fractions were characterized by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major antioxidant compound in fraction IV was confirmed as rosmarinic acid by (1)H NMR and characteristic fragmentations in the mass spectrum. Moreover, the native of antioxidant activity of rosmarinic acid in the liposome system was examined. The results showed that one rosmarinic acid can capture 1.52 radicals, and furthermore, the existence of a synergistic effect between alpha-tocopherol and rosmarinic acid was revealed.
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Anthocyanins, the pigments responsible for spectacular displays of vermilion in the leaves of deciduous trees, have long been considered an extravagant waste of a plant's resources. Contemporary research, in contrast, has begun to show that the pigments can significantly influence the way a leaf responds to environmental stress. Anthocyanins have been implicated in tolerance to stressors as diverse as drought, UV-B, and heavy metals, as well as resistance to herbivores and pathogens. By absorbing high-energy quanta, anthocyanic cell vacuoles both protect chloroplasts from the photoinhibitory and photooxidative effects of strong light, and prevent the catabolism of photolabile defence compounds. Anthocyanins also mitigate photooxidative injury in leaves by efficiently scavenging free radicals and reactive oxygen species. Far from being a useless by-product of the flavonoid pathway, these red pigments may in some instances be critical for plant survival.
I have been privileged to witness and participate in the great growth of knowledge on chemical carcinogenesis and mutagenesis since 1939 when I entered graduate school in biochemistry at the University of Wisconsin­ Madison. I immediately started to work with the carcinogenic aminoazo dyes un­ der the direction of Professor CARL BAUMANN. In 1942 I joined a fellow graduate student, ELIZABE1H CAVERT, in marriage and we soon commenced a joyous part­ nership in research on chemical carcinogenesis at the McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research in the University of Wisconsin Medical School in Madison. This collaboration lasted 45 years. I am very grateful that this volume is dedi­ cated to the memory of Elizabeth. The important and varied topics that are reviewed here attest to the continued growth of the fields of chemical car­ cinogenesis and mutagenesis, including their recent and fruitful union with viral oncology. I feel very optimistic about the application of knowledge in these fields to the eventual solution of numerous problems, including the detection and estimation of the risks to humans of environmental chemical carcinogens and re­ lated factors.
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Antitumor, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of basil were studied, along with its characterization in phenolic compounds, organic acids and soluble sugars. The results placed basil as a valuable candidate for functionalization and conservation of food products, maintaining their nutritional properties, while increasing their shelf life and potential health effects. The basil leaves were then incorporated in “Serra da Estrela Cheese”, either in its dehydrated form or as a decoction. The cheeses were then subject to a nutritional evaluation, being characterized for their fatty acids, minerals and CIE color parameters. To assess the combined effects of plant incorporation and storage time, a 2-way ANOVA was used to process the results, further analysed through a linear discriminant analysis. Overall, basil leaves provided antioxidant activity to the cheeses, reduced the moisture, and preserved the unsaturated fatty acids and proteins. Comparing both incorporation types, the decoctions had a higher functionalizing and conservative effect.
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The anti-HIV-1 activity of aromatic herbs in Labiatae was evaluated in vitro. Forty five extract from among 51 samples obtained from 46 herb species showed significant inhibitory effects against HIV-1 induced cytopathogenicity in MT-4 cells. In particular, the aqueous extracts of Melissa officinalis, a family of Mentha x piperita "grapefruit mint," Mentha x piperita var. crispa, Ocinum basilicum cv "cinnamon," Perilla frutescens var. crispa. f. viridis, Prunella vulgaris subsp. asiatica and Satureja montana showed potent anti-HIV-1 activity (with an ED of 16 mu g/ml). The active components in the extract samples were found to be water-soluble polar substances, not nonpolar compounds such as essential oils. In addition, these aqueous extracts inhibited giant cell formation in co-culture of Molt-4 cells with and without HIV-1 infection and showed inhibitory activity against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.
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The present study reports on the extraction of antioxidant compounds from Iranian Ocimum basilicum. Central composite design (CCD) was used to investigate the effect of extraction variables on the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). Three independent variables including temperature, methanol to water ratio percent, and sonication time were studied for simultaneous optimization of antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and extraction yield. Both quantitative modeling and response surface methodology suggested that methanol to water ratio percent and extraction temperature were the most effective parameters of UAE process. However, sonication time was found out to be an insignificant factor in ultrasound-assisted extraction of antioxidant and total phenolic compounds of O. basilicum. The optimum conditions were determined as temperature of 59°C, methanol to water ratio of 65.2% (v/v), and extraction time of 20min. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article
In this study, the influences of cultivar on the phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of 15 different basil varieties was determined. Cultivar had a statistically significant effect on total phenolic levels (p < 0.001) and anthocyanin concentrations (p < 0.001). Analysis of individual phenolic acid levels by high-performance liquid chromatography showed substantial variations in the phenolic acid profiles among cultivars. Rosmarinic (p < 0.001), chicoric (p = 0.002) and caffeic (p = 0.001) acid concentrations were affected by cultivar, although caftaric acid levels (p = 0.083) were not. Nine of the cultivars in this study contained chicoric acid in higher concentrations than rosmarinic acid. These are the first basil cultivars that have been identified in which rosmarinic acid is not the dominant phenolic acid. In addition, six of the cultivars in this study had caftaric and caffeic acid concentrations that were similar or higher than rosmarinic acid levels. Cultivar also had a significant impact on both FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power, p = 0.007) and DPPH (2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, p = 0.004) antioxidant capacities. For the basil cultivars in this study, the individual phenolic acid composition was found to be an important factor influencing the measured antioxidant capacity.
Article
Herbs that are commonly used in Thai dishes were selected for evaluation in order to determine their phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and in vitro potential inhibition against α-amylase and α-glucosidase. The total phenolic content ranged from 2.89 to 75.26 mg GAE/g dw. The three aqueous herb extracts with the highest total phenolic content were yellow-berried nightshade (Solanum xanthocarpum), holy basil (Ocimum sanctum) and acacia (Acacia pennata). The antioxidant activity was expressed as percent inhibition of DPPH, ranging from a high of 85% in bitter gourd (Monordica charantia) to a low of 0% in garlic (Allium sativum) and shallot (Allium cepa). A high correlation (r = 0.70, p < 0.05) was observed between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity for the herb extracts in the Solanaceae family while, an insignificant high and negatively correlation (r = −1.00, p > 0.05) for the herb extracts in the Cucurbitaceae and Umbelliferae families was observed. All of the herbs had caffeic content, varying from 0.00 to 23.93 mg/g dw. Peppermint (Mentha canalenisa), galangal (Languas galangal) and holy basil (O. sanctum) had a significant p-coumaric acid content. The first and second obtained principal component represented 60% of the total variation. The potential inhibition against α-amylase for the herbs extracts ranged from 0% to 58%, while the highest percentage was observed in the acacia (A. pennata) extract. The potential inhibition against α-glucosidase varied from 7% to 100%. A high correlation (r = 0.68, p < 0.05) was observed between α-amylase inhibition and caffeic acid content for aqueous extracts in the Alliaceae, Cucurbitaceae, and Leguminosae families, while a high correlation (r = 0.49, p < 0.05) was observed between α-glucosidase inhibition and total phenolic content for the aqueous extracts of all herbs. Therefore, specific culinary herbs showed to have a potential use for dietary management during the early stages of hyperglycaemia.
Article
Aromatisation of olive oil is a new trend in the Mediterranean area, both for sensory and for nutritional improvement. This work presents the development of a green enrichment of an olive oil with basil. In fact instead of a solvent extraction of the aromas, purify them and add them to the olive oil or instead of doing steam distillation prior to add the essential oil into the olive oil, basil leaves were directly put into the olive oil. Ultrasounds were then applied to the mixture in order to accelerate diffusion of the basil volatile compounds into the olive oil. The processing time is reduced from hours or days to few minutes when comparing traditional maceration and ultrasound assisted aromatisation. GC/MS chromatographs have similar profiles between macerated and ultrasounds assisted macerated oils. Concentration of linalool and eugenol were calculated into the aromatised oils and used as indicators of the aromatisation.
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Specimens of Ocimum basilicum L., O. grattisimum and O. sauve L. were collected at Coyah, Kindia and Faranah in the Republic of Guinea (voucher specimens were deposited in the herbarium of the Environmental Studies and Research Center (ERSC), University of Conakry-Guinea). Steam distillation of the specimens was done at ESRC. The essential oil obtained was analysed by GC and GC – MS, and had the following major constituents: linalool (69%), eugenol (10%), t-α-bergamotene (3%) and thymol (2%) for O. basilicum; thymol (46%), p-cymeme (12%) and γ-terpene+t-sabiene hydrate (17%) for O. gratissimum; and p-cymeme (59%), α-thujene (10%), myrcene (7%) and thymol (7%) for O. sauve. A list of compounds is given for each plant species. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Thirty-one accessions of nine species belonging to three subgenera of Ocimum (basil, family Lamiaceae) were surveyed for flavonoid glycosides. Substantial infraspecific differences in flavonoid profiles of the leaves were found only in O. americanum, where var. pilosum accumulated the flavone C-glycoside, vicenin-2, which only occurred in trace amounts in var. americanum and was not detected in cv. Sacred. The major flavonoids in var. americanum and cv. Sacred, and also in all other species investigated for subgenus Ocimum, were flavonol 3-O-glucosides and 3-O-rutinosides. Many species in subgenus Ocimum also produced the more unusual compound, quercetin 3-O-(6″-O-malonyl)glucoside, and small amounts of flavone O-glycosides. The level of flavonol glycosides produced was reduced significantly in glasshouse-grown plants, but levels of flavone glycosides were unaffected. A single species investigated from subgenus Nautochilus, O. lamiifolium, had a different flavonoid glycoside profile, although the major compound was also a flavonol O-glycoside. This was identified as quercetin 3-O-xylosyl(1‴→2″)galactoside, using NMR spectroscopy. The species investigated from subgenus Gymnocimum, O. tenuiflorum (=O. sanctum), was characterised by the accumulation of flavone O-glycosides. These were isolated, and identified as the 7-O-glucuronides of luteolin and apigenin. Luteolin 5-O-glucoside was found in all nine species of Ocimum studied, and is considered to be a key character for the genus.
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There is currently much interest in phytochemicals as bioactive components of food. The roles of fruit, vegetables and red wine in disease prevention have been attributed, in part, to the antioxidant properties of their constituent polyphenols (vitamins E and C, and the carotenoids). Recent studies have shown that many dietary polyphenolic constituents derived from plants are more effective antioxidants in vitro than vitamins E or C, and thus might contribute significantly to the protective effects in vivo. It is now possible to establish the antioxidant activities of plant-derived flavonoids in the aqueous and lipophilic phases, and to assess the extent to which the total antioxidant potentials of wine and tea can be accounted for by the activities of individual polyphenols.
Article
Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils from aerial parts of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) as affected by four seasonal, namely summer, autumn, winter and spring growing variation were investigated. The hydro-distilled essential oils content ranged from 0.5% to 0.8%, the maximum amounts were observed in winter while minimum in summer. The essential oils consisted of linalool as the most abundant component (56.7-60.6%), followed by epi-α-cadinol (8.6-11.4%), α-bergamotene (7.4-9.2%) and γ-cadinene (3.2-5.4%). Samples collected in winter were found to be richer in oxygenated monoterpenes (68.9%), while those of summer were higher in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (24.3%). The contents of most of the chemical constituents varied significantly (p<0.05) with different seasons. The essential oils investigated, exhibited good antioxidant activity as measurements by DPPH free radical-scavenging ability, bleaching β-carotene in linoleic acid system and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of the essential oils and linalool, the most abundant component, against bacterial strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pasteurella multocida and pathogenic fungi Aspergillus niger, Mucor mucedo, Fusarium solani, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Rhizopus solani was assessed by disc diffusion method and measurement of determination of minimum inhibitory concentration. The results of antimicrobial assays indicated that all the tested microorganisms were affected. Both the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the oils varied significantly (p<0.05), as seasons changed. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article
The composition of volatile compounds in seven spices was analysed by means of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS–SPME) from aqueous solutions of the spices, in order to devise an effective method for the analysis of volatile compounds from aqueous preparations seasoned with spices. A PDMS–DVB fibre was used for the analysis of the main volatile compounds of a saline solution of the spice. The main volatile components identified in the spices tested were: linalool in oregano; t-anethole in fennel; methyleugenol and eucalyptol in laurel; geraniol in coriander; terpinen-4-ol in marjoram; eucalyptol in thyme; and cuminaldehyde in cumin. Volatile profiles depended on the botanical species of the spice. Thus, thymol was the main volatile compound of a commercial thyme (Thymus sp.), whereas in the Thymus mastichina, which is usually used in the preparation of ‘Campo Real’ table olives, the main volatile component was eucalyptol. The effects of these spices in the characteristic aroma of ‘Campo Real’ table olive preparations have been evaluated and the results suggest that HS–SPME is a useful tool for the analysis of the spices aroma compounds in aqueous preparations. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
The concentrations of caffeic acid derivatives within Lamiaceae and Echinacea (herb, spice, tea, and dietary supplement forms) readily available in the US marketplace (n = 72) were determined. After the first identification of chicoric acid in Ocimum basilicum (basil), the extent to which chicoric acid could be found within the family Lamiaceae was investigated. The dominant phenolic acid in all Lamiaceae samples was rosmarinic acid, which ranged from 2.04 mg/100 g (one of 12 oregano samples) to 622.28 mg/100 g (lemon balm). Of the herbs tested in this study (marjoram, oregano, peppermint, rosemary, sage, spearmint, and thyme from the family Lamiaceae), only basil and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) con-tained chicoric acid. Basil samples (starting material and resulting end product) obtained from an industry cooperator, showed substantial phenolic deficiency as a result of process-ing (approximately 78% loss). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Article
Basil seed (Ocimum basilicum L.) is cultivated in large quantities in different regions of Iran. This seed has reasonable amounts of gum with good functional properties which is comparable with commercial food hydrocolloids. A central composite rotatable design was applied to evaluate the effects of temperature, pH and water/seed ratio on the yield, apparent viscosity and protein content of water-extracted Basil seed gum. All of the variables significantly (P < 0.05) affected the extraction yield, whereas the effect of water/seed ratio on apparent viscosity and the effects of pH and water/seed ratio on protein content were not significant (P > 0.05). Numerical optimisation determined the optimum extraction conditions based on the highest yield and viscosity and the lowest protein content as being temperature 68.71 °C, pH 8.09 and water/seed ratio 65.98:1. Power law model well described non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behaviour of BSG. Flow behaviour index (n) and consistency index (K) of 1% crude and pure BSG samples were 0.306, 0.283 and 17.46, 20.22 Pa sn, respectively.
Article
Eleven fruit and vegetable byproducts and two minor crops were screened for industrial polyphenol exploitation potential by determination of their extraction yield, total phenolic content (TPC, Folin–Ciocalteu), and antioxidant activity (NTZ/hypoxanthine superoxide assay, ferric thiocyanate method). Extracts with the highest activity, economic justification and phenolic content were obtained from apple (TPC maximum 48.6 ± 0.9 mg Gallic acid equivalents g−1 dry extract), pear (60.7 ± 0.9 mg GAE g−1), tomato (61.0 ± 3.0 mg GAE g−1), golden rod (251.4 ± 7.0 mg GAE g−1) and artichoke (514.2 ± 14.9 mg GAE g−1). Apple, golden rod and artichoke byproducts were extracted at pilot plant scale and their antioxidant activity was confirmed by determination of their free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) and the inhibition of stimulated linoleic acid peroxidation (TBA and Rancimat® methods). The preservative effect of the three extracts (determination of the peroxide value in test crème formulations with 0.1–1.0% extract concentrations) was similar to the established antioxidants Oxynex® 0.1%, Controx® KS 0.15%, and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) 0.01%. This study demonstrates the possibility of recovering high amounts of phenolics with antioxidant properties from fruit and vegetable residuals not only for food but also cosmetic applications.
Article
This is the first report to identify the presence of chicoric acid (cichoric acid; also known as dicaffeoyltartaric acid, which is a caffeic acid derivatized with tartaric acid) in basil leaves. Rosmarinic acid, chicoric acid and caftaric acid (in the order of most abundant to least; all derivatives of caffeic acid) were identified in fresh basil leaves. Rosmarinic acid was the main phenolic compound found in both leaves and stems. Chicoric acid was not detected in sweet basil stems, although a small amount was present in Thai basil stems. Other cinnamic acid monomers, dimers and trimers were also found in minor quantities in both stems and leaves. Basil polyphenolic contents were determined by blanched methanol extraction, followed by HPLC/DAD analysis. The characterization of the polyphenolics found in the basil extracts were performed by HPLC/DAD/ESI–MS/MS and co-chromatographed with purchased standard. The influence of inoculation with an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF), Glomus intraradices, on plant phenolic composition was studied on two basil cultivars,‘Genovese Italian’ and ‘Purple Petra’. Inoculation with AMF increased total anthocyanin concentration of ‘Purple Petra’ but did not alter polyphenolic content or profile of leaves and stems, of either cultivar, compared to non-inoculated plants. In the US diet, basil presents a more accessible source of chicoric acid than does Echinacea purpurea, in which it is the major phenolic compound.
Article
Diets high in flavonoids have long been associated with nutritional recommendations, a healthy lifestyle, and the prevention of chronic diseases. However, identification of specific beneficial effects from specific flavonoids and flavonoid-rich foods has been a challenging area, probably due to a nonessential or conditional role for flavonoids in human nutrition. Nonetheless, recent efforts in the area of high flavonoid-containing foods and cardiovascular disease have begun providing the first demonstrations of specific effects and mechanisms of action in well-controlled studies. The early studies have shown that flavonoids have several anti-atherosclerotic activities including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiproliferative, antiplatelet, and provessel function activities. Cholesterol-lowering and antihypertensive effects of flavonoids have been studied and appear minimal in humans. The studies also demonstrate several possible mechanisms and pleiotropic effects of flavonoids that may be active in reduction in the risk of cardiovascular disease. Several subclasses of flavonoids may contribute toward the apparent beneficial effects and include flavones, flavonols, flavanones, catechins isoflavones, proanthocyanidins, and anthocyanidins. Further studies are necessary for confirmation of the beneficial effects, identification of dose-response relationships, and identification the most bioactive flavonoids.
Article
In this work the endothelium-dependant vasorelaxant and anti-platelet aggregation activities of an aqueous extract from Ocimum basilicum were studied. The vasorelaxant effect was undertaken in thoracic aorta from three experimental groups of rats: one of them (NCG) fed with standard diet, the second (HCG) with hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) and the third (BTG) with hypercholesterolemic diet together with an intragastric administration of Ocimum basilicum extract at a dose of 0.5 g/kg body weight for a period of 10 weeks. The in vitro anti-platelet aggregation of Ocimum basilicum extract was studied using thrombin (0.5 U/ml) and ADP (5 microM) as agonists. The results show that the HCD statistically decreases vascular relaxation in HCG compared to NCG (p<0.001) and increases the vascular responses to phenylephrine (p<0.02). Ocimum basilicum extract exerts a significant vasorelaxant effect at 10(-5) M (p<0.01) and 10(-4) M carbachol (p=0.001). The plant extract also tends to suppress the elevated contractions induced by HCD (p=0.05). The extract inhibits ADP-induced platelet aggregation by 13%, 28.2%, 30.5%, 44.7% and 53% at a dose of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 g/l, respectively. Thrombin-induced platelet activation was also reduced by 15%, 23%, 40%, 38.4%, and 42% at the same doses of extract described above. The use of Ocimum basilicum as medicinal plant could be beneficial for cardiovascular system.
Article
We have previously reported the inhibitory activity of curcumin against human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1) integrase. In the present study, we have synthesized and tested analogs of curcumin to explore the structure-activity relationships and mechanism of action of this family of compounds in more detail. We found that two curcumin analogs, dicaffeoylmethane (6) and rosmarinic acid (9), inhibited both activities of integrase with IC50 values below 10 microM. We have previously demonstrated that lysine 136 may play a role in viral DNA binding. We demonstrated equivalent potencies of two curcumin analogs against both this integrase mutant and wild-type integrase, suggesting that the curcumin-binding site and the substrate-binding site may not overlap. Combining one curcumin analog with the recently described integrase inhibitor NSC 158393 resulted in integrase inhibition which was synergistic, reflective of drug-binding sites which may not overlap. We have also determined that these analogs can inhibit binding of the enzyme to the viral DNA but that this inhibition is independent of divalent metal ion. Furthermore, kinetic studies of these analogs suggest that they bind to the enzyme at a slow rate. These studies can provide mechanistic and structural information which may guide the future design of integrase inhibitors.
Article
The inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from 10 Indian plants were evaluated against five fungi. The plants used for extraction of essential oils were six species of the genus Eucalyptus and Ocimum basilicum, Prosopis cineraria and Derris indica. The fungi used in the experiments were Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, F. pallidoroseum, F. acuminatum and F. chlamydosporum. The susceptibility of the Fusarium species was tested by the paper disc method and the serial dilution technique. The results were compared with the inhibitory effects of miconazole on the fungi. The essential oils extracted from the Eucalyptus species markedly inhibited fungal growth. Prosopis cineraria did not show inhibiting properties. Among the fungi, F. oxysporum proved to be the most resistant species.
Article
Anti-oxidant bioassay-directed extraction of the fresh leaves and stems of Ocimum sanctum and purification of the extract yielded the following compounds; cirsilineol [1], cirsimaritin [2], isothymusin [3], isothymonin [4], apigenin [5], rosmarinic acid [6], and appreciable quantities of eugenol. The structures of compounds 1-6 were established using spectroscopic methods. Compounds 1 and 5 were isolated previously from O. sanctum whereas compounds 2 and 3 are here identified for the first time from O. sanctum. Eugenol, a major component of the volatile oil, and compounds 1, 3, 4, and 6 demonstrated good antioxidant activity at 10-microM concentrations. Anti-inflammatory activity or cyclooxygenase inhibitory activity of these compounds were observed. Eugenol demonstrated 97% cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitory activity when assayed at 1000-microM concentrations. Compounds 1, 2, and 4-6 displayed 37, 50, 37, 65, and 58% cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitory activity, respectively, when assayed at 1000-microM concentrations. Eugenol and compounds 1, 2, 5, and 6 demonstrated cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitory activity at slightly higher levels when assayed at 1000-microM concentrations. The activities of compounds 1-6 were comparable to ibuprofen, naproxen, and aspirin at 10-, 10-, and 1000-microM concentrations, respectively. These results support traditional uses of O. sanctum and identify the compounds responsible.
Article
Ocimum species are used in traditional Iranian medicine, as a culinary herb, and as a well-known source of flavoring principles. Horticultural characteristics, including quantitative and qualitative traits along with the chemical variation of phenolic acids, of 23 accessions of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) from Iran were studied. Morphological studies of accessions showed a high level of variability in recorded traits. Quantification of phenolic acids was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and showed drastic variations between accessions. Chemical studies revealed that rosmarinic acid is the predominant phenolic acid present in both flower and leaf tissues. Unusual basil accessions were identified that can serve as genetic sources of phenolic acids for crop improvement.
Article
Hyperlipidaemia, atherosclerosis and related diseases are becoming a major health problem in developing countries. Ocimum basilicum is one of the medicinal plants widely used in Morocco to reduce plasma cholesterol and to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis-related diseases. However, mechanisms underlying the reported hypolipidaemic effect of this plant have not been investigated. This study evaluates the lipid lowering effect of aqueous Ocimum basilicum extract in Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidaemic rats. Hyperlipidaemia was developed in animals by intraperitoneal injection of Triton (200 mg/kg). After injection of Triton the animals were divided into three treatment groups: hyperlipidaemic, hyperlipidaemic plus herb extract and hyperlipidaemic plus fenofibrate treated rats. At 7 h after the Triton injection, levels of plasma cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol in rats treated also with the Ocimum basilicum extract (0.5 g/100 g body weight) were, respectively, 50%, 83% and 79% lower than Triton-treated rats and HDL-cholesterol was 129% higher than in rats given Triton alone. At 24 h following Ocimum basilicum administration, total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol levels decreased by 56%, 63% and 68%, respectively, in comparison with the Triton treated group and HDL-cholesterol was not increased significantly. The hypolipidaemic effect exerted by Ocimum basilicum extract was markedly stronger than the effect induced by fenofibrate treatments. Further it was demonstrated that Ocimum basilicum aqueous extract displayed a very high antioxidant power. These results indicate that Ocimum basilicum extract may contain hypolipidaemic and antioxidant substances and its use as a therapeutic tool in hyperlipidaemic subjects may be of benefit and encourage further investigation in this field.
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