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The Role of Tongue Twisters on the Improvement of Fluency and Pronunciation of Iraqi EFL University Students

Ali Abdulilah Ghani
Dept. of English
College of Arts
University of Kufa
It has been noticed that pronunciation is one of the most significant
skills in English language teaching and learning . If speakers have very
bad pronunciation, their speech will not be reasonable and will be no
interchange in an effective communication. Raising learner's awareness
and building mutual intelligibility are crucial to improving overall
communicative competence. Tongue twisters are one of the fantastic
ways to practice and improve pronunciation and fluency.
Tongue twisters are defined as '' words difficult to articulate rapidly,
usually because of a succession of similar consonantal sounds''
(Morris,1975:305). They are phrases that require us to quickly change the
position of our tongue in order to accurately pronounce the words. They
may be short as two words phrase (toy boat) or as long phrase as '' The
sixth sick Sheik's sixth sheep is sick''. They may serve as a way of
activation and motivation of student's practice of accurate and fluent
performance of pronunciation.
The present study deals with the investigation of the role of using
tongue twisters in the improvement of Iraqi IFL fluency and
pronunciation in the Department of English Faculty of Arts University of
Kufa. The main function of implementing tongue twisters is to help
students gain awareness of their problems and build new mental frame of
vocabulary and speaking skills. The study attempts to answer the
following questions:
1) To what extent is the use of tongue twisters essential in enhancing
and motivating Iraqi EFL fluency and ability?
2) What is the difference between students who are unaware and
unfamiliar with the use of tongue twisters and those who are aware
of them as an effective way in pronunciation?
The sample of the test consists of two types of questions ( fill in the
blanks 'production and multiple choices 'recognition' ) and 50 students are
selected randomly at the mentioned department. The participants are
divided into two groups each group with 25 students. The first group who
are not aware of using tongue twisters to improve their pronunciation
skills constructed the pre-test exam. The second group with 25 students
done the post- test exam who are motivated and given an appropriate
chances to use and practice tongue twisters in their course of learning
pronunciation sounds.
The findings of the analysis have shown that students (pre-test) at the
level of production score and attain poorer achievements in consonants
with regard to vowels. Whereas at the level of recognition students are
highly cognitive to consonant speech sounds, where they score high ratio
and percentage. The post-test is concerned with those students who have
accessible to the use of tongue twister strategy in their ''phonetic and
phonology'' classes. It shows high rates of correct answers and
development in both consonants and vowels at the level of production
and recognition. This means that the use of tongue twister strategy is
mainly and effectively enriched and improved the recognition side of the
learning process of students in the skill of pronunciation.
Karin M. Cintron( 1999-20120) shows that ''tongue twisters are great
way to introduce alliteration and very important to increase the students
speaking ability''. Practicing tongue twisters allows people who are
learning English to increase their speech skills. The faster a person can
say the tongue twister without slipping up, the stronger their language
skill become. Alicia (2012) states that ''using tongue twisters is a
common EFL teaching technique because it helps students to learn
correct pronunciation of English words, to correctly use vowels and
consonants and to become familiar with common English words''.
Ball(2003:8) refers that ''using tongue twisters is particularly useful for
those who have unique pronunciation problems''. He gives examples such
as ''She sells see shells on the seashore'' , '' They thank that it is
Thursday's the thirtieth''. This process is good for building a vigorous
confidence in speaking fluently and correctly.
In the present study, the investigation of tongue twisters is carried out
and how learner's fluency can be developed and enhanced by the use of
tongue twisters. It is hypothesized that ''tongue twisters are phrases or
sentences which are used as enjoyable activity in facilitating and
improving EFL capabilities of pronunciation and communication''. The
procedures followed in this study are exploring tongue twisters and
identifying their types and functions in improving student's
pronunciation. Furthermore, a conducted two tests are involved to 50
students to show how students knowledge and skills of sounds
performance are improved and triggered by teaching tongue twisters.
It hoped that this study is a very useful and beneficial for the teachers of
English language and also for the students since it introduces new and
effective strategy that enables them to increase their knowledge and
ability of speaking correctly and fluently.
2. How to Attain a Good Pronunciation
One of the most vital element that should be managed by students is
pronunciation. It can be defined as ''the way sounds are produced and
perceived by the hearer. Burns and Clair(2003:5) state that
''pronunciation refers to the phonology of language or meaningful
perception or production of the sound of the language and how they
impact on the listener' 'Bad speech may lead to confusion,
misunderstanding and unintelligibility. Without learning correct
pronunciation other parts of English language like grammar, vocabulary
became useless. In order to improve pronunciation, learners may need to
build up unused muscles in their mouths and build the habit of making
sounds correctly. Tongue twisters in which different sounds are repeated
and contrasted can be used as one of the activities in pronunciation
practice ( Kelly,2002:12).
The problem of pronouncing sounds correctly can be solved by using
some exercises of tongue twisters. Students realize more confidence in
their speech when they are exposed to tongue twisters activities.
Therefore, tongue twister is used as a device not only to learn accurate
pronunciation of some words, but also to become aware and attentive of
their improvement(Dorynei,2010).
According to Souza(2005) the following points are necessary in
practicing pronunciation:
●Learners are able to practice pronunciation bub using songs, and tongue
twisters to imitate sounds. These tools can increase and trigger student's
motivation in pronunciation because motivation is very essential factor in
improving learner's pronunciation
●Learners make a list of used words that people find difficult to
pronounce and ask someone who speaks the language well to pronounce
●Learners record one's own voice and listen for pronunciation mistakes.
●The use of a mirror can be very useful in allowing students to shape
their mouths correctly and to see that their tongue is in the correct
position. Also it is helpful to draw a diagram of the organs of speech to
recognize the exact phoneme.
Finally , it is important to say that in order to get a good and correct
pronunciation, students should be indulged in meaningful and
communicative activities(tongue twisters is one of them) which are an
interesting and beneficial strategy in learning pronunciation.
3. Tongue Twisters: Identification and Significance
Carmen(2010:8) states that '' a tongue twister is a sequence of words
that is difficult to pronounce quickly and correctly''. It is hard to
pronounce tongue twister sentences because of the similar pattern of
sounds in its words. It is a challenging and interesting way of practicing
sounds . Schourup(1973,587:7-8) defines the tongue twister as '' a native
directed grammatical unit […] that is difficult to produce at certain
speeds by virtue of containing patterns of various sorts such that at least
one of them is incomplete or in some other way of periodic''.
According to Machackova(2012),tongue twisters are ''phrases or
sentences which are difficult to pronounce because similar sounds occur
but provide the students with enjoyable activities at pronunciation
practice''. Tongue twister is a great and fun way to help the students to try
and learn English better. It can make the students' speech skill stronger.
The faster a student can read the tongue twister without slipping up, the
stronger his language skill become. Tongue twister also stimulates the
brain into developing pronunciation skills. The treatment which students
go through when they recite tongue twister is not on the oral activity, but
on the brain which generally interacts a person's oral functions. Here is
the example of tongue twister:
Through three cheese trees three free fleas flew ,
While these fleas flew, freeze breeze blew.
Wilson(2011)confirms that tongue twisters are ''one of few types of
spoken word play that are fun to recite and are great tool to aid children's
language development. They usually rely on alliteration- the repetition of
the same phonetic sound repeated at the beginning of each word, for
several words. For example: ''Sally sang songs on Sunday's'' repeats the
''s'' sound many times. Most tongue twisters use rhyme and alliteration,
rhyme is an important aspect because it makes them easier to remember''.
Tongue twisters are not only a linguistic fun and game, but provide a
practical purpose for language and speech development. Practicing them
systematically will help students to strengthen their speech skills, and
improve their pronunciation. They are useful in pronunciation when
focusing on specific related phonemes, or sounds. A tongue twister
focuses on the minor changes in the mouth required to move between
these sounds . By changing back and forth a number of times to the
different sounds, students can improve their knowledge of the specific
physical movements required for the particular phoneme set. Another
benefit of using them to develop pronunciation skills is that students
practice vowel sounds as well as prefixes and suffixes. Listening and
speaking the words respectively are very effective and useful method to
master and attain any difficult sound(Underhill,2007).
From the explanation above, it is important to say that tongue twister is
a very interesting and necessary device to be used in order to develop and
facilitate students' proficiency in learning accurate pronunciation.
4. Different Types of Tongue Twisters:
While tongue twisters in general are extremely good for
pronunciation , you can use specific ones to work on specific weakness. If
students have problem with consonant combinations, for example, they
should use specific twists that encourage and motivate the correct
pronunciation. In order to improve production of sounds , learners may
need to build up unused muscles in their mouths and build the habit of
making correct sounds. Tongue twisters in which difficult sounds are
repeated or contrasted are the best physical practice of pronunciation(net
When you practice tongue twisters , you should choose the one which
practice the sounds you are working on. Focus on your articulation and
start repeating them three to five times daily .Start saying them slowly
and as your pronunciation improves, say them quickly. Here are some of
the most popular English tongue twisters which are divided according to
sounds into consonant and vowel sounds(net 1):
4.1 Tongue Twisters for Consonants
Practice with /p / and / b /
● ''Peter piper picked a peck of pickled peppers.
If Peter piper picked a peck of pickled peppers,
Where's the peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked?''(net1)
● ''Betty bit a bit of butter
But it was a bitter bite
But a bit of better butter
Betty never bit'' (net2)
Practice with / / , / ð/ (th)Ɵ
●Thirty thousand thirsty snakes thirstily drank three thousand lakes.
●Whether the weather is cold, or whether the weather is hot.
We'll be together whatever the weather, whether we like it or not(Ibid).
Practice with / r /, / l / , / n /
●Round and round the rugged rocks the raggedly rascal ran.
●Red lorry, yellow lorry
Little red riding hood
●I scream, you scream, we all scream for ice cream
●Little lucy likes to lick lemon-time lollypops.
Nice Nancy nibbles nervously on nuts (Ibid).
Practice with / s / , / z / , / Ѕ / , / /, / / , and / /ʧ ʤ ʝ
●Suzy sells seashells by the seashore where the sun shines on the shop
●Yellow Jell-O, cherry cheesecake, sweet sugar cookies and a chocolate
chip shake
●I saw a kitten eating chicken in the kitchen.
●I wish to wish my Irish wristwatch(net3)
Practice with / f / , / v / , / b / , / p /
●A fine field of wheat
A field of fine wheat
●Four fine fresh fish for you
●Frank found four frogs laughing on the flour
●Eleven benevolent elephants
●I'm very bad at volleyball, but very fine at basketball.
●There's a ban on vans at the curb by the curve.
Practice with / v / , / w /
●We are very weary of wearing white woven wool.
We wish to wear vivid violet velvet vintage vests. ( Hancock,2003)
4.2 Tongue Twisters for Vowels
Practice with /i: / , / / ɪ
''The sheep on the ship slipped on the sheet of sleet.
The keen king kissed the quick on her green ring'' (net4)
Practice with diphthongs / a / , /ɪ ɔɪ / , / au /
''Quite nice white mice
How now brown cow
The spoiled boy foiled the coy boy's joy by purloining his toy''(net5)
Practice with / u / ǝ
''Joe told a joke he wrote on his own.
I know that's not the note that Noel wrote.
The coat from the coast cost more than most''(Ibid).
Practice with / u:/
''There was a rude dude in the mood for food.
Whenever he chewed we all viewed his food.
The better the food, the more he chewed,
So I served crude food to this rude dude''(net2)
Practice with / u /
''How much wood could a woodchuck could chuck wood? If a
woodchuck could chuck wood in a truck, would a woodchuck cluck
while the wood was chucked?''(Ibid)
Practice with long and short vowels
●put the bad bat back in the bag.
●It didn't faze the thief to thieve in my face.
●He let himself be led to the place for the plays.
●The man in the cap had a hat and a cap. (net6)
5. Analysis of Data
5.1 Data Description and Method of Analysis
The sample of the test consists of 50 randomly selected students out of
the population of 100 learners studying English as a foreign language at
the Department of English, College of Arts, University of Kufa. The
subject of pronunciation sounds( vowels and consonants) is exposed and
taught to students through new strategy by using exercises of tongue
twisters to distinguish and recognize sounds. In classroom context,
learners can get immediate guidance and feedback from the teacher. Also
they can practice some of the dialogues and other activities in pairs. The
test took 90 minutes for both (pre- and post- examinations). The
participants are divided into two groups, each with 25 students. The first
group is constructed to (pre-test examination) who are taught the normal
and traditional course of pronunciation ( the same dull routine with no
enjoyable and interesting activities such as tongue twisters as a trigger for
improving sound skills). The second group is given instruction and
exposure of sounds by applying an appropriate type of tongue twister
according to the specific sound being taught. Before doing the post-test ,
sounds are repeated and practiced by giving examples of tongue twisters
of their vowels and consonants. Also students asked to hear and say
sentences over and over so they could fix the correct pronunciation of the
selected sound. Students are given chance to practice saying tongue
twisters in pairs and asked to memorize and say them loudly in front of
the class or individually. The materials of the two tests are two types of
questions( fill in the blanks and multiple choices) to test students' abilities
in production and recognition . Each group have two questions each
question consists of ten items of English consonants and vowels
sound( for more detail see Appendix 1 and 2 ).
5.2 Results and Discussion
According to the analysis, table (1) shows the learners' achievement at
the production level in the pre-test where they did not have access to the
tongue twisters strategy in teaching phonetics and phonology. It is
indicated that, in this regard, their achievement in consonants production
is poorer than their achievement with regard to vowels. More specifically,
their production scores the highest level in the use of long and short
vowels (40%) in (i:, )and (u, u: ), while ,regarding consonants, theǝ
highest range is scored by plosive consonants especially ( k ) (35%) and
fricative ones ( v , f ) (22%) . This is caused by the similarity between
these English speech sounds with their Arabic nature ones, especially u:,
i:, u ,f , and k ). As such, they have been seen to be poor with other
speech sound that are different from their native ones or have some
similarity such as ( , , , v and others). ɔɪ ǝ ɪ
On the contrary , the picture is reversed at the recognition level. As
such, Table(2) indicates that students, who have no access to the tongue
twister strategy are found to be highly cognitive to consonant speech
sounds , where they score high ratio and percentage ( e.g. / / (45/%), /m /ʃ
(62/%) , / p / (35% ) ). However, they score the least percentages with
vowels ( e. g. e (25/% ), u (15/%) , : ( 10/% ) ) ɪ ǝ ɑ
To discuss such results it can be reported that students have ability to
recognize consonants rather than vowels since their general similarity
with their Arabic counterparts, and because of their own usuality with
such consonants.
In the post –test results, Table ( 3 ) shows that there is a noticeable
development in the production achievement in those students who have
been accessible to the use of the tongue twisters strategy in their
'phonetics and phonology' classes. It is seen that their phonological
conduction has been of similar value in both consonants and vowels.
Interestingly, they show more correct answers and higher percentage rates
in vowels: e.g. (u: (30%), a (29) , and ( 20%) . Consonants also areɪ ɔɪ
scored with high percentage : t , d (21% ), ( 23% ) and s, ( 17% ) . ʧ ʃ
At the recognition level, it is interesting again that they score higher
percentages even than those that are resulted from the production
analysis. This means that the tongue twister strategy mainly and
effectively enriched the recognitive side of the learning process in
students. Vowels are also scored with high percentages again: e.g. (aɪ
(37% ), ( 35% ) , (31%) and i: ( 28%). While consonants are scoredɒ ɪ
with higher rates than vowels. This means that students make use of the
tongue twister strategy more in recognizing consonants . This is also due
to the impact of the mother tongue phonological system of Arabic, e. g. ʧ
( 39%), ð (37% ), g (32%) and w ( 31%). ( see Table (4) below).
From the discussion above, it is clearly seen that the use of tongue
twister activities can create an effective and enjoyable motivation in
activating student's improvement and capabilities in pronunciation
proficiency. Their achievement of consonants and vowels will be
increased simultaneously with the accessible of tongue twister strategy.
Types of Sounds Symbols for
Frequency of
Correct Answers
1 Long and short vowels i: , ǝ49 40%
2 Diphthongs , auɔɪ 35 30%
3 Long and short vowel : , ɔ ɪ 40 32%
4 Short and long vowels u , u: 62 60%
5 Short and long vowels , , :ǝ ɒ ɑ 30 20%
6 Fricative consonants z , s 25 15%
7 Fricative consonants v , f 30 22%
8 Plosive consonant k 40 35%
9 Plosive consonants d , t 22 15%
10 Nasal consonants n , m 20 12%
Total 100%
Pre –Test Examination
Table (1) Rates of Correct Answers at the Production Level in Question1
Table (2) Rates of Correct Answers at the Recognition Level in Question 2
Types of Sounds Symbols for
Frequency of
Correct Answers
1 Long vowel eɪ33 25%
2Diphthongs uǝ20 15%
3 Long vowel :ɑ10 5%
4 Diphthongs ɔɪ 15 10%
5Short vowel æ 20 15%
6 Plosive consonant p 40 35%
7 Fricative consonant s 35 30%
8 Fricative consonant ʃ55 45%
9 Nasal consonant m 73 62%
10 Affricate consonant ʤ35 25%
Total 100%
Post–Test Examination
Table (3) Rates of Correct Answers at the Production Level in Question 1
Types of Sounds Symbols for
Frequency of
1 Short vowel u 33 30%
2 Diphthongs ɔɪ 22 20%
3 Long and short vowels i: , ɪ20 18%
4 Diphthongs eɪ21 17%
5 Diphthongs aɪ32 29%
6Plosive consonantst , d 24 21%
7 Affricate consonant ʧ26 23%
8Lateral and nasal consonants l , n 23 21%
9Fricative consonantss , ʃ20 17%
10 Plosive+fricative consonants b , v 19 16%
Total 100%
Table (4) Rates of Correct Answers at the Recognition Level in Question 4
Types of Sounds Symbols for
Frequency of
Correct Answers
1 Short vowel ɪ35 31%
2 Long vowel i: 32 28%
3 Diphthongs ɪǝ 37 27%
4 Short vowel ɒ40 35%
5 Diphthong vowel aɪ42 37%
6 Fricative consonant f 34 31%
7 Plosive consonant g 38 32%
8 Fricative consonant ð 40 37%
9 Approximant consonant w 36 31%
10 Affricate consonant ʧ42 39%
Total 100%
6. Conclusions and Recommendations
In reference of what has been discussed earlier, the following findings
can be drawn:
● In English language teaching attention should be given to
pronunciation because it is very essential skill in language learning and
acquisition. Tongue twister is one of the amazing ways to improve
student's vocabulary and fluency of speaking ability
●Tongue twisters are phrases or sentences which are difficult to
pronounce because similar sounds can be occurred but provide students
with enjoyable and effective device in class activity practice of sounds.
● The findings of the analysis have shown that students (pre-test) at the
level of production score and attain poorer achievements in consonants
with regard to vowels. Whereas at the level of recognition students are
highly cognitive to consonant speech sounds, where they score high
ratio and percentage. The post-test is concerned with those students who
have accessible to the use of tongue twister strategy in their ''phonetic
and phonology'' classes. It shows high rates of correct answers and
development in both consonants and vowels at the level of production
and recognition. This means that the use of tongue twister strategy is
mainly and effectively enriched and improved the recognition side of the
learning process of students in the skill of pronunciation.
●Based on the findings, it is necessary to expose students to different
classroom exercises especially those who have pronunciation problems
and lack of confidence in speaking fluently. To practice such famous
tongue twister ''She sells seashells by the seashore'' is a good mouth
exercise of sounds and can motivate and encourage them to speak and
engage in different communicative approaches.
●It is advisable to teachers to apply tongue twisters as a strategy in EFL
teaching of pronunciation because it help students stimulate and be
aware of learning accurate pronunciation of English sounds. It is a funny
and enjoyable way during teaching pronunciation so that learners enjoy
every moment while learning and practicing spontaneously in class
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Carmen, R.(2010). Spoken English. India: Abhishek Publication.
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D' Souza, A . (2005). 10 Tips to Improve the way you Speak English.
Retrieved from http:// www. / get ahead/ 2016/sep/
13 accent.htm.
Hancock, Mark. 2003 English Pronunciation in Use. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.
Karin, M. Cintron, (1999,20120). Thesis –draft of Effectiveness of Tongue
Twister Game. Retrieved from http://,cz/ffcfcdf4
Kelly, Gerald. How to Teach Pronunciation . Harlow: Longman.
Machackova, B.E. (2010). Teaching English Pronunciation to Secondary
School Students with Focus on ''the'' Consonants. A Diploma Thesis
Of Department of English Language and Literature. Masaryk University
Bino: Unpublished.
Morris, W. (ed) . 1975. The American Heritage of the English Language.
Boston: American Heritage Publishing Co. Inc.
Shourup , L . (1973). '' Unique New York Unique New York''.
clsq. CLS 587-96.
Underhill, A. (2007). Introduction to Teaching Pronunciation Workshop,
Retrieved from .com/watch? V=lkAPHyHd7Lo
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From http://
Web Sources
1) http:// American / folklore/ tongue twisters
 your-accent-tongue twister/
3) http:// www- els - / tongue twisters
4) http:// tongue twisters Resources
5) htt:// International Collection of
Tongue Twisters 2004 by Michael Reck.
 http:// Au/kids. Activities and games/ tongue twisters+
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Q2/ Listen and choose the appropriate word you hear from the
following pairs of sounds:
1.There are bugs in this………………….( hay / hair).
2. What an ugly ……………….( tone / town).
3. She put her hand on her ……………..( heart/ hat ).
4. He got a …………for his birth day. ( toy / tie)
5. There's a …………..on the arm of the sofa. ( cut / cat )
6. He had the ……………to himself. ( beach / peach)
7. I got a good …………..for the painting. ( price / prize)
8. You'll have to …………..the baby .( watch / wash)
9. She had a ……… the garden. ( swing / swim)
10. You'll find ………… you've never seen. ( riches / ridges)
)% ) , (% ) , (% ) ,( '%
 , (
)&%) , (&% ) , ( % ) , ( '%
)%) ,( '%'.(
1 .!!
4 .!-!!!.…………………
5 ."!&
6 .$!$!.
7 ."!?.……………
8 ..!/+
9 .-!!
10 .!&!..…………
Q2/ Listen and choose the appropriate word you hear from the
following pairs of sounds:
2 .-&12!.
3 .)12.
4 .12
6 .12&#!!.
7 .3!1&2&.
8 ..12
9 .12&&.
10 .$1,
)*+,- . /01*,- 23456 78 )*+,- /9:;,- <=>,- ?.@
23=A:B=,- 2330-C:,- /9A*A,
D39+E- /FAG /HI3AJKL- /FA,
: 456 789: ;<= 4>= ?@A<8: BC:
: ;=ADE FAGC: 4H>I8: JK>8:
. LQRS>OT]: LU>8: BS>I^_ `Qa;^ 4M LHbH8: c:aAbH8: dE ef58: \: g@N8
AENbhE \NOQ d8 BbiAf@ \AM LQAU>8 j4C efT BbQ;8 \Nk;lGH8: \AZ :F:
. jA5i_ B>IGH8: 4=_ mXAQn \: cAEN>IH8: [KT 4M WaAK^ oA5p \NOQ d8_
. [Hq8: r<GI^ LS>s:NG8: mjAhO8: dSDlG8 \ASCAC: \:rE: tXA<GH8: 4=N8:
LVuf8:_ ef58: dSDl^_ LCaAHH8 LIv:r8: wrf8: dE m;@:_ ef58: L<Is
x8F_ L=rDi ef58: L<Is cAH>Z AbT: y>= ef58: L<Is [Hq8: zrI^
, ). {aNE L>kAHGH8: LlSl|8: c:Ns9: }iAG^ J<Di1975:305 .(c:aA<= 4bM
. ;V_ LV;i cAH>O8: efT [P: dE L=rDi \AD>8: }~NE rSU^ A5E J>fG^
( ) 4M AHZ L>QN• maA<= _: WaAK8: L<I8 maA<= 4M AHZ mrS|V cAH>Z \NO^
.( )[SIh^ L>SC_ \NO^ ;V_ €QrE {XAD8: •S‚8: ƒrH>8 LCXAD8: „A569:
ef58: 4M J8Af8: j:X: 4M RShl^_.
dSDl^ 4M ef58: L<Is [HP „:;…GC: a_X LS8Al8: LC:a;8: t_A5G^
, LS>Z LQRS>OT9: LU>8: BDV 4M LQRS>OT9: LU>8: dSH>IGH8 ef58:_ LVuf8:
. ,L<Is [Hq8: tAHIGC: LSDSvr8: LHbH8: [†HG^_ LMNO8: 7IEAP W:XY:
4>K= aA•: jA5i_ Bb>ZA‚Hi 4=N8: WADGZ: y>= Wuf8: m;=ADH8 ef58:
. y>= WAP9: LC:a;8: z;b^_ c;lG8: c:aAbE_ c:XrhH8: dE ;Q;P
LS8AG8: L>‡C9::
1) RShl^_ RQRI^ 4M ASCAC: ef58: L<Is [HP „:;…GC: r<GIQ ˆ;E ‰: y8:
LS<5P: LU>Z LQRS>OT9: LU>8: B>I^ y>= ma;K8:_ LVuf8:.
2) [HP „:;…GC9 dSMN8ŠH8: rS6_ dSZa;H8: rS6 Wuf8: dSi wrh8: Np AE
ef58: 4M 78AIM L>SCNZ AbTNZa;Q dQ‹8: x‡8_:_ ef58: L<Is.
" " ) ŒAGT: cA6:rh8: juE: L>‡C9: dE dSG=NHqE dE aA<G•9: L5S= \NOG^
.(" " aASG•: B^_ o:aX: mX;IGE c:aAS•_50 BDK8: 4M ASv:N‚= A<8A•
.dE \NOG^ L=NHqE [Z dSG=NHqE y8: dSZaA‚H8: BDV aNZ‹H8:25
.L<Is cAH>O8: tAHIGC: LShSZ \NZa;Q 9 dQ‹8: y8_9: L=NHqH8: A<8A•
. AE: t_9: \AlGE9: :N5<^ ;V_ Bbi LsA…8: ef58: c:aAbE dSDlG8 ef58:
dE LTNOGH8: LSTA†8: L=NHqH8:25 y>= Bp_ 4TA†8: \AlGH8: :N5<^ ;KM A<8A•
Bb^:aAbE B>I^_ RShlG8 L>SCNZ ef58: L<Is [HP „:;…GCAi LQ:aX_ B>=
c:Ns9: efT 4M.
ŒAGT9: ˆNGDE y>= t_9: \AlGE9: Wu• \: [S>lG8: ŽvAGT crb•: ;V_
. AE• L>I8: c:NsŠi AGTaAKE L5ZAD8: c:Ns9: 4M LhSI~ c:nAqT: :N>qC
c:Ns‘ LMrIH8: dE LS8A= LPaX y>= Wuf8: \NOQ o:aX9: ˆNGDE y>=
. e>IGQ ‰‹8: 4TA†8: aA<G•9: AE• LS8A= LQN‡E L<DT :N>qC ?S@ L5ZAD8:
ef58: L<Is cAH>Z „:;…GC: 4M tNsN8: LSTAOE: BbQ;8 dQ‹8: Wuf8Ai
4M aNfG8:_ LlSl|8: cAiAP9: dE LS8A= c9;IE ŽvAG58: crb•: ;KM
. y>= LC:a;8: t;^ o:aX9:_ ŒAGT9: ˆNGDE y>=_ L>I8:_ L5ZAD8: c:Ns9:
tAIM [O‚i dDlQ_ ‰r†Q ef58: L<Is [Hq8: LSqS^:rGC: „:;…GC: \:
ef58: c:aAbE tAqE 4M Wuf>8 B>IG8: LS>HI8 4MrIH8: JTAq8: rkNE_.
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