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Evaluating elbow osteoarthritis within the prehistoric Tiwanaku state using generalized estimating equations (GEE)

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... Consequently, scholars use any one or a combination of these bone changes to identify the prevalence of this condition in studies of archaeological human remains (see Schrader, 2019 for a comprehensive review). Researchers also suggest multiple techniques to evaluate OA data points collected, and how to analyze these in ways that can be interpreted effectively (see Anderson and Loeser, 2010;Baker and Pearson, 2006;Becker, 2019a;Domett et al., 2017;Klaus et al., 2009;Weiss and Jurmain, 2007, and others). However, interpretation remains in question within paleopathological literature considering OA's multifactorial etiology, and particularly concerning any biomechanical influences. ...
... However, interpretation remains in question within paleopathological literature considering OA's multifactorial etiology, and particularly concerning any biomechanical influences. As adjustments, osteologists suggest using methods oriented toward well-contextualized interpretations, population-level comparisons, and strong statistical methods (Becker, 2013(Becker, , 2017(Becker, , 2019a(Becker, , 2019bDomett et al., 2017;Jurmain et al., 2012;Nikita, 2014;Pearson and Buikstra, 2006;Schrader, 2019;Weiss and Jurmain, 2007). In addition, as Ortner (2011Ortner ( , 2012 suggested, a localized small data approach describing type(s) of bone abnormalities and lesion pattern may provide more accurate knowledge of the incidence, prevalence, and pathology of OA in ancient human skeletal remains. ...
... In southern Peru and highland Bolivia, Becker and colleagues (Becker, 2013(Becker, , 2016(Becker, , 2017(Becker, , 2019a(Becker, , 2019bBecker and Goldstein, 2017;Blom et al., 2016) have studied the state-level Tiwanaku culture (AD 500-1100) using entheseal changes and OA. This research used a large sample (approximately 2500 individuals) with good skeletal preservation from the high-altitude core (Fig. 3, area D) and near-perfect bone preservation from colony sites near Moquegua, Peru in the Atacama Desert (Fig. 3, area E) (Becker, 2013). ...
Article
Akin to approaches encouraged by Verano (1997) in the Andes, and Ortner (2011, 2012) for general paleopathological studies, this article focuses on accurate descriptions and definitions of osteoarthritis, entheses, and long bone cross-sectional geometry. By evaluating these conditions as part of biological responses to abnormal skeletal changes and biomechanical stress, the pathogenesis of each condition is discussed. Further, this article emphasizes a "small data" approach to evaluating these conditions in ancient culturally and biologically related human populations, where the study samples must have good skeletal preservation, where estimates of age and sex need to be included as major factors, and where abnormalities need to be described and evaluated. This article also discusses global clinical and osteological research on ways scholars are currently trying to establish industry-wide methods to evaluate osteoarthritis, entheses, and long bone cross-sectional geometry. Recent studies have focused on rigorous evaluation of methodological techniques, recording protocols, and inter-and intra-observer error problems. Additionally, scholars have focused on physical intensity of movement using biomechanics, evaluated burials of known occupation, and used complex statistical methods to help interpret skeletal changes associated with these conditions. This article also narrows to focus on these conditions within "small data" areas throughout the Andes. Finally, this research concludes with describing future directions to understand skeletal changes, such as more multidisciplinary studies between osteologists and pathologists, working with living people to collect CT, x-rays, or computer-aided motion capture, and a stronger focus on how these conditions correlate with intense biomechanical changes in younger individuals.
... The generalized estimating equation (GEE) statistical method, an extension of generalized linear models, was chosen. While more popular in epidemiological research, GEE is appropriate for use in bioarchaeology, as these two fields share similar datacollection problems, small sample sizes, randomly missing or unobservable variables, and non-normal population distributions (Becker 2012(Becker , 2013(Becker , 2019; Gagnon and Wiesen 2013; Ghislatta and Spini 2004;Nikita 2014). GEE, a population-averaged method accounting for correlation among measures within subjects, can address these issues, as it assesses the simultaneous impact of multiple factors and their effects, such as multiple OA surfaces within one joint by sex (Agresti 2007;Ghislatta and Spini 2004;Liang and Zeger 1986). ...
... The generalized estimating equation (GEE) statistical method, an extension of generalized linear models, was chosen. While more popular in epidemiological research, GEE is appropriate for use in bioarchaeology, as these two fields share similar datacollection problems, small sample sizes, randomly missing or unobservable variables, and non-normal population distributions (Becker 2012(Becker , 2013(Becker , 2019; Gagnon and Wiesen 2013; Ghislatta and Spini 2004;Nikita 2014). GEE, a population-averaged method accounting for correlation among measures within subjects, can address these issues, as it assesses the simultaneous impact of multiple factors and their effects, such as multiple OA surfaces within one joint by sex (Agresti 2007;Ghislatta and Spini 2004;Liang and Zeger 1986). ...
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Within the prehistoric Tiwanaku state (AD 500-1100) of Bolivia and Peru, labor was divided by elevation, environment, and local identity across its colonies and heartland, and especially within Tiwanaku City's multiethnic neighborhoods. Constructed spaces of human activity and the individuals who embody the labors within these spaces can be described as agents who perform tasks within a taskscape (Ingold 1993; 2000). While this taskscape approach has been used in archaeological research, it has not been widely applied to describe the skeletal remains of the actual people who performed these vocations and labors. Evaluating taskscapes from a multiscalar bioarchaeological perspective, this article discusses physical changes from osteoarthritis embodied in the wrists, hands, ankles, feet, and spines of Tiwanaku people associated with varied task and subsistence-based lifeways. While it is not possible to link specific activities with each individual, locating occupational or gendered spaces is conceivable. Many osteoarthritis variances found in this study can be explained as tasks performed differently between these various groupings. In addition, a lack of significant task and taskscape differences within heartland populations may also suggest evidence of reciprocal and heterarchical labor when a wider context is applied. By using the bodies and bones of ancient laborers, this article goes beyond archaeological understandings of taskscape, making members of the Tiwanaku state active agents in understanding prehistoric labor.
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In this introduction to the special issue, Adaptive Tools for Resilient Bones: Biostatistical Approaches to Past Physical Activity in Osteoarchaeology, we discuss the outcome of the workshop held in Leiden (The Netherlands; November 18‐19, 2021). We review statistical approaches to entheseal changes and present a series of new contributions to this field. These research, commentary, and review articles present different statistical approaches to entheseal changes and reflect the current state of research in the field.
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The Tiwanaku (AD 500-1100) colonized ecologically diverse, lower elevation areas to produce goods not easily grown in the high altitude heartland (3800 m a.s.l.). One colony near present day Moquegua, Peru (900-1500 m a.s.l.) was comprised of multiple Tiwanaku settlements. Colonists farmed products like maize and coca, and transported goods via llama caravan between the colony and heartland. Two subsistence groups emerged in terms of settlement, those of “Chen Chen-style” affiliation associated with an agrarian lifestyle, and those of “Omo-style” representing more of a pastoralist lifeway. Considering Tiwanaku people likely began light chores around 5 years of age (e.g., babysitting siblings), with heavier labor beginning at approximately 8 years, we questioned if these social and occupational differences translated into skeletal changes associated with osteoarthritis (i.e., porosity, lipping, osteophyte formation, and/or eburnation). Individuals from five sites, two which represent the Omo-style (M16 and M70) and three which are in the Chen Chen-style (M1, M10, and M43) were evaluated for osteoarthritis while controlling for age-at-death and sex using 25 total joint surfaces in the shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee, ankle and sacroiliac. Overall, our comparisons show no combined significant differences between the Omo-style and Chen Chen-style groups. Instead, distinctions in osteoarthritis evidence by age-at-death and sex emerged, reflecting the likelihood of specific age or sex-related tasks. Arthropathy evidence among children in elbow and ankle joints also supported the cultural legacy in the Andes that work begins at a relatively young age and would show up in patterns of adult osteoarthritis.
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Understanding how work was managed and who participated in state-level societies can help elucidate daily activities as well as community development within an emerging complex society. Tiwanaku, with multiethnic neighborhoods in the Titicaca Basin, Bolivia and colonies near present-day Moquegua, Peru, provides a comparison of labor between groups. Specific skeletal evidence of activity (i.e., musculoskeletal stress markers and osteoarthritis) was evaluated to infer how habitual activity varied within this state. Labor rates show that laborers did not work at the behest of elites and results suggest instead, that people worked as reciprocal laborers in a guild-like system.
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This research investigates the prevalence of human osteoarthritis at Yinxu, the last capital of the Late Shang dynasty (ca. 1250±1046 B.C.), to gain insights about lifeways of early urban populations in ancient China. A total of 167 skeletal remains from two sites (Xiaomintun and Xin'anzhuang) were analyzed to examine osteoarthritis at eight appendicular joints and through three spinal osseous indicators. High osteoarthritis frequencies were found in the remains with males showing significantly higher osteoarthritis on the upper body (compared to that of the females). This distinctive pattern becomes more obvious for males from Xiaomintun. Furthermore, Xiaomintun people showed significantly higher osteoarthritis in both sexes than those from Xin'anzhuang. Higher upper body osteoarthritis is speculated to be caused by repetitive lifting and carrying heavy-weight objects, disproportionately adding more stress and thus more osseous changes to the upper than the lower body. Such liftingcarrying could be derived from intensified physical activities in general and specialized occupations in particular. Higher osteoarthritis in males may reveal a gendered division of labour, with higher osteoarthritis in Xiaomintun strongly indicating an occupational difference between the two sites. The latter speculation can be supported by the recovery of substantially more bronze-casting artifacts in Xiaomintun. It is also intriguing that relatively higher osteoarthritis was noticed in Xiaomintun females, which seems to suggest that those women might have also participated in bronze-casting activities as a ªfamily business.º Such a family-involved occupation, if it existed, may have contributed to establishment of occupation-oriented neighborhoods as proposed by many Shang archaeologists.
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Introduction: This case-control study compares patients with healthy elbows to a group of symptomatic patients with cartilage damage/osteoarthritis. Materials and methods: The control group (n = 126) was recruited during routine medical examinations of patients (general medical offices). Included in the case group were a total of 92 patients who were undergoing arthroscopy as a result of chronic elbow discomfort. All patients were questioned with regard to occupational stress and athletic stress. Results: A significantly increased risk of cartilage damage/osteoarthritis was found with subjectively perceived increased stress in occupational settings: OR = 3.8 (95% CI 2.1-6.7); p < 0.001; for the individual stresses of the elbow joint in occupational settings, the following severities in effects were found: Exposure to heavy work OR = 3.9 (95% CI 2.2-6.8); Force OR = 3.7 (95% CI 2.1-6.5); Vibration OR = 4.6 (95% CI 2.5-8.5); Repetition OR = 9.2 (95% CI 3.6-23.3); p < 0.001. Elbow-stressing sport types represent a potential risk factor for the development of cartilage damage/osteoarthritis of the elbow joint: OR = 2.5 (95% CI 1.3-4.7); p = 0.003. Conclusions: Cartilage damage/radiographic osteoarthritis of the elbow joint are rare with respect to the overall prevalence of osteoarthritis. In the large number of patients with cartilage damage/radiographic osteoarthritis of the elbow joint, occupational or athletic stress factors and injuries sustained, in addition to other causes (rheumatism, gout), can prove as possible causes of these as secondary to symptomatic forms of osteoarthritis.
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There is growing interest in the role of bone in knee osteoarthritis. Bone is a dynamic organ, tightly regulated by a multitude of homeostatic controls, including genetic and environmental factors. One such key environmental regulator of periarticular bone is mechanical stimulation, which, according to Wolff's law, is a key determinant of bone properties. Wolff's law theorizes that repetitive loading of bone will cause adaptive responses enabling the bone to better cope with these loads. Despite being an adaptive response of bone, the remodeling process may inadvertently trigger maladaptive responses in other articular structures. Accumulating evidence at the knee suggests that expanding articular bone surface area is driven by mechanical stimulation and is a strong predictor of articular cartilage loss. Similarly, fractal analysis of bone architecture provides further clues that bone adaptation may have untoward consequences for joint health. This review hypothesizes that adaptations of periarticular bone in response to mechanical stimulation cause maladaptive responses in other articular structures that mediate the development of knee osteoarthritis. A potential disease paradigm to account for such a hypothesis is also proposed, and novel therapeutic targets that may have a bone-modifying effect, and therefore potentially a disease-modifying effect, are also explored.
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Gender and other facets of social identity play important roles in the organization of complex societies. This study reconstructs dietary practices within the Middle Horizon (AD 500-1000) Tiwanaku colonies in southern Peru to increase our knowledge of gendered patterns of consumption within this early expansive state. We use stable isotope analysis of 43 human bone samples representing 14 females, 20 males, 8 juveniles, and 1 indeterminate individual recovered from burial excavations at the sites of Rio Muerto and Omo in the Moquegua Valley. Data are contextualized by comparisons with previously published Tiwanaku isotope data from the period. Our results find mean values of δ(13) Capatite = -7.3 ± 1.6% (N = 36, 1SD), δ(13) Ccollagen = -12.3 ± 1.5% (N = 43, 1SD), and δ(15) Ncollagen = 8.4 ± 1.6% (N = 43, 1SD). Between the sexes, Mann-Whitney U tests demonstrate significant differences in δ(13) Ccollagen (U = 74, P = 0.021), but no differences in δ(13) Capatite (U = 58, P = 0.095) or δ(15) Ncollagen (U = 116, P = 0.755) values. These data indicate relatively high C4 plant consumption among the Tiwanaku colonies, and support paleobotanical and archaeological evidence that maize (Zea mays) was the staple crop. Dietary values are similar overall between the sexes, but significantly higher δ(13) Ccollagen values in males is consistent with a model of gendered norms of consumption similar to that of the later Inca (AD 1438-1533), where males consumed more maize than females, often in the form of beer (chicha). Results provide new insights on social dynamics within the Tiwanaku colonies and suggest the increased importance maize consumption for males during the Tiwanaku expansion. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Thesis
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This dissertation focused on understanding labor during the development of Tiwanaku AD 500-1100, one of the earliest Andean states. Prior archaeological research Kolata 1991, 1993a, b; Stanish 1994, 2003 argued that Tiwanaku labor was centralized under a corvée mit'a system. Labor was controlled and distributed by elites living within the city of Tiwanaku under a hierarchical political organization Kolata 2003a. Other research e.g. Albarracín-Jordán 2003; Erickson 2006 argued that local and decentralized control of labor, with workforce cooperation and collaboration under a heterarchical political system, was an important factor to the state's emergence, formation, and expansion. The author interpreted bioarchaeological research on Tiwanaku skeletal remains in order to answer questions about the Tiwanaku workforce, possible agriculture or craft-based activities performed, workload levels, gendered division of labor, as well as the political structure of the state.
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This study introduces a new method for analyzing oral health indicators and thus reconstructing diet. To this end, we examined the dental remains of 173 individuals recovered from the site of Cerro Oreja in the Moche Valley of Perú, who lived during the Salinar (400–1 BC) or Gallinazo (AD 1–200) phases. The infectious and degenerative conditions analyzed include: dental caries, dental wear, dental abscess, antemortem tooth loss and dental calculus, all of which have been used to track dietary and thus subsistence‐related economic and sociopolitical changes. Data were analyzed using generalized estimating equations, an extension of generalized linear models. Significant changes in the frequency of occurrence of most dental conditions suggest that during the period of study, there was an increase in the consumption of agricultural products. However, these changes in oral health did not equally affect females and males. By the end of the Gallinazo phase, significant sex differences developed, with females more often affected by dental caries and males displaying greater mean molar wear scores. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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The first objective of this study is to reconstruct levels and types of physical activity and associated sexual and social differences using human skeletal remains from the predominately nineteenth century Dutch cemetery of Middenbeemster. For most individuals, life in the Beemster centered around dairy farming and was heavily based on manual labor, with a purported higher class of wealthier individuals performing less manual labor. Two skeletal markers of activity are examined in the upper limb of late young adult and middle-aged adults of both sexes (26-49 years, n = 69): osteoarthritis (OA) and entheseal changes (EC). Results support the hypothesis that the majority of the population engaged in high levels of physical activity, however a group with a clearly lower or different pattern of activity, possibly representing a higher, less active class, was not discernible. This may be due to a low number of less active individuals in the analyzed sample and/or the heterogeneity of occupations and activities. A gendered division of labor was evident in the EC data with males having more pronounced muscle attachments in almost all sites, especially the biceps brachii, used primarily in lifting. Females had more pronounced triceps brachii, which may be due to activities that required pushing or pulling with the elbow in a flexed position. The prevalence and severity of OA did not differ between the sexes. While this could be interpreted to indicate men and women engaged in a similar level of strenuous activity, hormonal and anatomical differences limit the strength of the comparison. The second objective of this study is to evaluate the concordance of OA and EC as activity markers. The correlation between OA and EC is very low, illustrating their variable and complex etiologies. Etiological factors need further research for OA and EC to become more reliable activity markers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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The present paper compares different statistical tests on presence/absence (dichotomous) data for degenerative joint disease (DJD) and degenerative disc disease (DDD) from Late Holocene North African populations. The aim is to assess the most efficient statistical model for such analyses. Our results suggest that generalized linear models (GLM) give practically identical results to the conventional Chi-square tests, Fisher's Exact tests and Cochran–Mantel–Haenszel partial correlations. Moreover, GLM allow for the examination of the impact of several predictors on the outcome variable, namely age, sex, population and body mass, as well as the interaction of these predictors on DJD/DDD expression. GLM additionally offer insights as to whether each factor correlates positively or negatively with the outcome variable and permit the modeling of the experimental data. As a result, we argue that GLM should be preferentially used in place of conventional tests. Moreover, both binary and linear GLM give convergant results despite the outcome variable DJD/DDD being dichotomous. Therefore, considering that the binary models occasionally present computational problems and the simplicity of the linear models, the linear form may be preferred.
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IntroductionHistory of Activity StudiesMethodological ConsiderationsProspects for Future ResearchReferences
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The experiences of Susquehannock Indians during the early period of European colonialism (1575 to 1675) included changes in subsistence, health, and violence, creating stressors that affected their lived experience. To begin to understand the embodied effects of these pressures, the skeletal remains of a number of Susquehannocks, recovered from sites in Pennsylvania and Maryland, were examined for evidence of oral health (dental caries, antemortem tooth loss, and dental abscess), skeletal trauma, growth disruption and anemia. Our approach, informed by the Osteological Paradox, finds a trend of improvement in Susquehannock living conditions during that correlates well with the signing of a “Treaty of Friendship” with the colonial Maryland government in 1652. This treaty created an alliance and a southern “safe zone” for food procurement, and helped limit warfare to one front with the Iroquois to the north. This reprieve was short lived as colonial relationships deteriorated by 1675, and Susquehannocks fled after the siege of their fort, which helped to trigger Bacon’s Rebellion in colonial Virginia.
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Osteoarthritis has a multifactorial aetiology. Despite this, and the incomplete understanding of the exact pathogenesis of osteoarthritis, many bioarchaeologists continue to attempt to link the prevalence of osteoarthritis with past behaviour and activity. This study aims to investigate the true impact of osteoarthritis on the people of prehistoric Ban Non Wat, northeast Thailand (1750 BCE to 500 CE). Through the analysis of the prevalence of osteoarthritis in each major joint and some individual case studies, the impact of this disease is detailed with reference to their social and physical environment. Two hundred and twenty nine adult individuals (45 Neolithic, 141 Bronze Age and 43 Iron Age) from Ban Non Wat with one or more major joint observeable were assessed for the presence and extent of osteophyte development, subchondral porosity and eburnation. The results showed no significant differences in prevalence across time or sex across the 2250 years represented by these skeletons. Although not significant, osteoarthritis was consistently high in elbows and knees across the Neolithic and Bronze Age phases, with the Iron Age not providing robust data. Four individuals with the most severe polyarticular osteoarthritis are detailed, indicating the varied nature of the disease and its potentially disabling effects on quality of life. This study reviews the most up to date clinical science to highlight that the study of osteoarthritis in past populations can be used to investigate disability and quality of life.
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This article evaluates rates of osteoarthritis of the lower limb in human remains from Deir el‐Medina in order to compare the health of the residents of Deir el‐Medina with previous studies on other ancient Egyptian and Nubian populations. This study focuses on osteological observations from the commingled New Kingdom human remains documented during the 2012–2014 field seasons of the Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale. This is the first publication of osteoarthritis for the human remains at Deir el‐Medina, a dataset which complements comparable populations at sites such as Amarna, Giza, and Tombos. It demonstrates that men in the village of Deir el‐Medina experienced significantly higher rates of osteoarthritis in the ankle and knee in comparison to women at Deir el‐Medina. Rates of osteoarthritis in the lower limb at Deir el‐Medina generally fall between workers' cemeteries and middle‐class or elite cemeteries. This study also includes data from Deir el‐Medina's detailed textual record and intact landscape in order to determine how occupation influenced these higher rates of osteoarthritis. The duration, intensity, and frequency of the workmen's hikes are reconstructed based on the surrounding landscape and 42 texts recording work days. This study compares rates of osteoarthritis with these datasets in order to document how the strain, duration, and frequency of the workmen's hikes may have impacted overall rates of osteoarthritis. Consequently, data from the texts and landscape surrounding Deir el‐Medina not only corroborate osteoarthritis patterns, but offer detailed daily life activity which can be used as a comparison for broader studies on osteoarthritis in ancient and modern populations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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The Tiwanaku state was the political and cultural center of ancient Andean civilization for almost 700 years. Identity and Power is the result of ten years of research that has revealed significant new data. Janusek explores the origins, development, and collapse of this ancient state through the lenses of social identities--gender, ethnicity, occupation, for example--and power relations. He combines recent developments in social theory with the archaeological record to create a fascinating and theoretically informed exploration of the history of this important civilization.
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Although the presence of Tiwanaku-style material culture throughout southern Peru, northern Chile, and western Bolivia is well documented, the nature of Tiwanaku influence during the Middle horizon (A.D. 500-1100) is variously attributed to imperial expansion or economic and/or religious relationships. Strontium isotope data from archaeological human remains from Tiwanaku-affiliated sites identified first-generation immigrants from the Lake Titicaca basin outside of the Tiwanaku heartland at the Peruvian site of Chen Chen. These data provide an important component to studies that demonstrated close biological relationships during the Middle horizon but could not demonstrate the direction of population movement. However, no immigrants from the Lake Titicaca basin were identified at the San Pedro de Atacama cemeteries of Coyo Oriental, Coyo-3, and Solcor-3. At the sites of Tiwanaku, Tilata, Iwawe, and Kirawi, strontium isotope ratios were also variable, and demonstrate movement within the Lake Titicaca basin. This demonstrates that Tiwanaku influence involved direct colonization in the Moquegua Valley but that in other regions, like San Pedro de Atacama, local inhabitants adopted Tiwanaku-style material culture. This elucidates the complex and highly variable relationships between the Tiwanaku heartland and peripheral sites during the Middle horizon.
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Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis, affecting millions of people in the United States. It is a complex disease whose etiology bridges biomechanics and biochemistry. Evidence is growing for the role of systemic factors (such as genetics, dietary intake, estrogen use, and bone density) and of local biomechanical factors (such as muscle weakness, obesity, and joint laxity). These risk factors are particularly important in weightbearing joints, and modifying them may present opportunities for prevention of osteoarthritis-related pain and disability. Major advances in management to reduce pain and disability are yielding a panoply of available treatments ranging from nutriceuticals to chondrocyte transplantation, new oral anti-inflammatory medications, and health education. This article is part 1 of a two-part summary of a National Institutes of Health conference. The conference brought together experts on osteoarthritis from diverse backgrounds and provided a multidisciplinary and comprehensive summary of recent advances in the prevention of osteoarthritis onset, progression, and disability. Part 1 focuses on a new understanding of what osteoarthritis is and on risk factors that predispose to disease occurrence. It concludes with a discussion of the impact of osteoarthritis on disability. Ann Intern Med. 2000;133:635-646. www.annals.org For author affiliations and current addresses, see end of text.
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Analyses of entheseal changes (EC) in identified skeletal samples employ a common research strategy based on the comparison between occupations grouped on the basis of shared biomechanical and/or social characteristics. Results from this approach are often ambiguous, with some studies that point to differences in EC between occupational samples and others failing to provide evidence of behavioral effects on EC. Here we investigate patterns of EC among documented occupations by means of a multivariate analysis of robusticity scores in nine postcranial entheses from a large (N = 372) contemporary skeletal sample including specimens from one Italian and two Portuguese identified collections. Data on entheseal robusticity, analyzed by pooled sides as well by separated sides and levels of asymmetry, are converted in binary scores and then analyzed through nonlinear principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. Results of these analyses are then used for the classification of occupations. Differences between occupational classes are tested by MANOVA and pairwise Hotelling's test. Results evidence three classes which separate occupations related to farming, physically demanding but generalized occupation, and physically undemanding occupations, with the more consistent differences between the first and the last classes. Our results are consistent with differences in biomechanical behavior between the occupations included in each class, and point to the physical and social specificity of farming activities. On the other hand, our study exemplifies the usefulness of alternative analytical protocols for the investigation of EC, and the value of research designs devoid of a priori assumptions for the test of biocultural hypotheses.
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This book takes a new and provocative approach to ancient state expansion, looking at the role and dynamics of colonization in pre-Columbian Andean states. Paul Goldstein argues that the influential Tiwanaku culture in the Bolivian highlands, which existed in the 7th through 11th centuries A.D., was at its core a civilization of peoples of distinctive ethnic and political affiliations who shared some common identities. He maintains that Tiwanaku expansion came about because of a complex web of economic and cultural exchanges that linked regions into a pluralistic confederation, a demographic process he calls "ethnicity in motion." Goldstein takes issue with earlier notions of ancient state expansion that argue for a coercive centralized political body under charismatic warlords and powerful ruling elites. He asserts that "globalist" interpretations of expansive states, whether they focus on imperial conquest or hegemonic "world systems," all share a similarly limited centrist perspective. In contrast, his reassessment of state structure emphasizes identity, process, and dynamics from the bottom up. Noting that the Tiwanaku civilization was far more pluralistic than is commonly believed, he contends that early states in the Andes, and perhaps throughout the ancient world, were segmentary in nature and that they remained so even as they grew into larger empires. After introducing the role of diasporas in early state growth, Goldstein synthesizes recent research on the Tiwanaku civilization of highland Bolivia, Chile, and Peru. He presents the results of his own extensive archaeological field research in Azapa, Chile, and Moquegua, Peru, showing how settlement, household, mortuary, and monumental archaeology bear on the colonization of lowland agricultural valleys.
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Paleomobility has been a key element in the study of the expansion of ancient states and empires, including the Tiwanaku polity of the South Central Andes (AD 500–1000). We present radiogenic strontium and oxygen isotope data from human burials from three cemeteries in the Tiwanaku-affiliated Middle Horizon archaeological site complex of Rio Muerto in the Moquegua Valley of southern Peru. At Rio Muerto, archaeological human enamel and bone values range from 87Sr/86Sr = 0.70657–0.72018, with a mean of 87Sr/86Sr = 0.70804 ± 0.00207 (1σ, n = 55). For the subset of samples analyzed for oxygen isotope values (n = 48), the data ranges from δ18Ocarbonate(VSMOW) = +18.1 to +27.0‰. When contextualized with other lines of archaeological evidence, we interpret these data as evidence for an archaeological population in which the majority of individuals had “local” origins, and were likely second-generation, or more, immigrants from the Tiwanaku heartland in the altiplano. Based on detailed life history data, we argue a smaller number of individuals came at different ages from various regions within the Tiwanaku polity. We consider whether these individuals with isotopic values consistent with “nonlocal” geographic origins could represent first-generation migrants, marriage exchange partners, or occupationally mobile herders, traders or other travelers. By combining isotopic life history studies with mortuary treatment data, we use a person-centered migration history approach to state integration and expansion. Isotopic analyses of paleomobility at the Rio Muerto site complex contribute to the role of diversity in ancient states by demonstrating the range of geographic origins rather than simply colonists from the Lake Titicaca Basin. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Post-traumatic osteoarthritis of the elbow is an uncommon condition in which the clinical manifestations are often at variance with the radiological findings. In symptomatic forms, pain and stiffness are variably combined. When non-operative management fails, the decision to perform surgery is taken on a case-by-case basis depending on age, activity level, patient discomfort, and osteoarthritis location and severity as assessed by CT scan arthrography. Elbow instability or subluxation should be sought. Post-traumatic elbow osteoarthritis raises difficult therapeutic problems in young patients. The goal of treatment is to obtain a low level of pain with sufficient motion range to ensure good function, while preserving future surgical options and delaying elbow arthroplasty to the extent possible.
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The current article explores whether the application of generalized linear models (GLM) and generalized estimating equations (GEE) can be used in place of conventional statistical analyses in the study of ordinal data that code an underlying continuous variable, like entheseal changes. The analysis of artificial data and ordinal data expressing entheseal changes in archaeological North African populations gave the following results. Parametric and nonparametric tests give convergent results particularly for P values <0.1, irrespective of whether the underlying variable is normally distributed or not under the condition that the samples involved in the tests exhibit approximately equal sizes. If this prerequisite is valid and provided that the samples are of equal variances, analysis of covariance may be adopted. GLM are not subject to constraints and give results that converge to those obtained from all nonparametric tests. Therefore, they can be used instead of traditional tests as they give the same amount of information as them, but with the advantage of allowing the study of the simultaneous impact of multiple predictors and their interactions and the modeling of the experimental data. However, GLM should be replaced by GEE for the study of bilateral asymmetry and in general when paired samples are tested, because GEE are appropriate for correlated data. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Over the past two decades, many articles have been published on entheseal changes (usually called “Musculoskeletal Stress Markers”) as activity markers in past societies. Over-simplified methods and over-interpretation of past activities have generated strong critiques of research results in this area of enquiry. While some significant improvements regarding the recording systems for entheseal changes have been applied more recently, many bioarchaeologists appear not yet to be fully aware of the multi-factorial aetiology of these alterations. In this article, we review the anatomical and clinical literature to discuss some of the difficulties associated with the recording of entheseal changes and the multiple factors leading to their appearance in the human skeleton. Thus far fibrocartilaginous entheses appear to hold more promise for activity-related reconstruction than do fibrous ones, but these relationships remain an area of active research interest. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Paleodemography and paleopathology presuppose that direct relationships exist between statistics calculated from archaeological skeletal series (e.g., skeletal lesion frequencies and mean age at death) and the health status of the past populations that gave rise to the series. However, three fundamental conceptual problems confound the interpretation of such statistics: demographic non-stationarity, selective mortality, and unmeasured, individual-level heterogeneity in the risks of disease and death. Using simple models of the relationship between individual "frailty" and the hazard of death at each age, this paper explores the implications of these problems for archaeological interpretation. One conclusion is that the skeletal evidence pertaining to the transition from hunting-and-gathering to settled agriculture is equally consistent with an improvement in health and a deterioration in health resulting from the transition.
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This paper proposes an extension of generalized linear models to the analysis of longitudinal data. We introduce a class of estimating equations that give consistent estimates of the regression parameters and of their variance under mild assumptions about the time dependence. The estimating equations are derived without specifying the joint distribution of a subject's observations yet they reduce to the score equations for niultivariate Gaussian outcomes. Asymptotic theory is presented for the general class of estimators. Specific cases in which we assume independence, m-dependence and exchangeable correlation structures from each subject are discussed. Efficiency of the pioposecl estimators in two simple situations is considered. The approach is closely related to quasi-likelihood.