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BUSINESS BEHAVIOR OF TARIQA FOLLOWERS IN INDONESIA: The Relation of Religion, Sufism, and Work Ethic

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Abstract

p> In Islam, people know a teaching and mystical practice called sufism. Its main objective is to purify oneself (tazkiyat al-nafs) to get closer to God. Time-wise, sufism can be mapped into orthodox and neo-sufism . Teaching substance-wise, it is classified into akhlâqî and falsafî sufism. So far, commoners and academician such as Max Weber believe that sufism followers behave asceticly, live an austere life, have no capitalistic spirit, and so forth. This false perception obviously needs a correction for people understand the behavior of tariqa followers as an organized sufism community among society. In Indonesia, tariqa followers include Sadziliyah and Shiddiqiyah. The basic question is if they live an austere life so they do not have to contribute to the economic life of nation. Result study shows that according to Sadziliyah people, wealth has spiritual, economic, and social meaning by centralizing business activities in houses and market. Meanwhile, Shiddiqiyah followers consider that wealth has spiritual, economic, social, cultural, and preached meaning in various efforts. Therefore, both tariqas teach a balance between spiritual (worship) and material obligations, ukhrâwiyah and dunyâwiyah obligations as taught by neo-sufism. In addition, it shows a relationship among religion, sufism, and work ethic. </p
Ulul Albab Volume 19, No.2 Tahun 2018
253
BUSINESS BEHAVIOR OF TARIQA FOLLOWERS IN
INDONESIA: The Relation of Religion, Sufism, and Work
Ethic
Muhammad Djakfar
Universitas Islam Negeri Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang
E-mail: mdjakfar@yahoo.co.id
Abstract
In Islam, people know a teaching and mystical practice called Sufism. Its
main objective is to purify oneself (tazkiyat al-nafs) to get closer to God.
Time-wise, Sufism can be mapped into orthodox and neo-Sufism. Teaching
substance-wise, it is classified into akhlâqî and falsafî Sufism. So far,
commoners and academician such as Max Weber believe that Sufism
followers behave asceticly, live an austere life, have no capitalistic spirit, and
so forth. This false perception obviously needs a correction for people
understand the behavior of tariqa followers as an organized Sufism
community among society. In Indonesia, tariqa followers include Sadziliyah
and Shiddiqiyah. The basic question is if they live an austere life so they do
not have to contribute to the economic life of nation. Result study shows
that according to Sadziliyah people, wealth has spiritual, economic, and
social meaning by centralizing business activities in houses and market.
Meanwhile, Shiddiqiyah followers consider that wealth has spiritual,
economic, social, cultural, and preached meaning in various efforts.
Therefore, both tariqas teach a balance between spiritual (worship) and
material obligations, ukhrâwiyah and dunyâwiyah obligations as taught by
neo-Sufism. In addition, it shows a relationship among religion, Sufism, and
work ethic.
DOI: 10.18860/ua.v19i2.5571
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Dalam Islam dikenal semacam ajaran dan praktik mistik bernama
Tasawuf. Tujuan utamanya adalah mensucikan diri (tazkiyah al-nafs) agar
dekat dengan Tuhan. Dari aspek waktu, tasawuf dipetakan dalam tasawuf
klasik (orthodoxs Sufism) dan model baru (neo-Sufism). Dari substansi
ajarannya, ia diklasifikasikan menjadi tasawuf akhlâqî dan falsafî. Selama
ini, masyarakat awam maupun akademisi seperti Max Weber mempunyai
persepsi bahwa penganut tasawuf berperilaku asketis, anti keduniawian,
tidak mempunyai semangat kapitalistik, dan sebagainya. Tentu tesis
menyesatkan itu perlu dicarikan antitesisnya dengan memahami perilaku
kaum tarekat sebagai komunitas tasawuf yang terorganisir di masyarakat.
Di Indonesia, kaum tarekat yang dimaksud di sini ialah Sadziliyah dan
Shiddiqiyah. Pertanyaan mendasar yang diungkap adalah apakah benar
mereka bersikap zuhud, sehingga tidak perlu memberi kontribusi pada
ekonomi bangsa? Hasil kajian menunjukkan, menurut kaum Sadziliyah,
harta mengandung makna spiritual, ekonomi, dan sosial dengan
menjadikan rumah dan pasar sebagai aktivitas bisnis. Sedangkan menurut
Shiddiqiyah, harta memiliki makna spiritual, ekonomi, sosial, budaya, dan
dakwah dengan berbagai jenis usaha. Dengan demikian, kedua tarekat
mengajarkan keseimbangan antara kewajiban spiritual (ibadah) dengan
material, kewajiban ukhrâwiyah dengan dunyâwiyah sebagaimana yang
diajarkan dalam neo-Sufism, sekaligus juga menunjukkan ada relasi antara
agama, tasawuf, dan etos kerja.
Keywords: business behavior; religion; Sufism; tariqa followers; work ethic
Received: September 14, 2018; Accepted: November 15, 2018
Introduction
The discourse tries to address the question of whether there is a
relation among religion, Sufism, and work ethic. The three terms are quite
popular among society, particularly academicians. However, it is not easy to
explain the relation scientifically since each term has autonomic meaning.
The term religion generically means God’s teaching in Islam known
as divine teaching in the form of Quran and sunna of the Prophet
Muhammad. Meanwhile, Sufism is often related to a teaching to purify
oneself in order to get close to Allah. In other words, it is a media and
process to prepare oneself to purify his/her soul and fix his/her heart by
totally implementing all things done by the prophet (Sayyid Nûr 2000, 11).
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He, the Holiest, therefore to get close to Him it has to be done with pure
soul in order to achieve an intense chemistry between the Creator and His
creatures. For example, by doing worship and praying (Q.S. al-Baqarah [2]:
186). Both terms are in transcendental spiritual domain oriented on
hereafter life (ukhrâwî).
Work ethic simply means a working spirit motivated by certain
factors to do an activity, for instance, business as one of sharia obligations
in Islam. Hence, the Quran has many ayahs encouraging people to work
and earn money (Ahmad 1995).
Related to the title of the discourse, to answer the question, it is not
enough to use only an abstract normative theoretical perspective. It also
needs the discussion based on applied practical perspective used by tariqa
followers becoming phenomena in society nowadays. They are the followers
of Sadziliyah Kudus and Shiddiqiyah Jombang who are developing and
being organized.
As both individual and social creature, human physically needs
clothes, food, and house. Furthermore, human mentally needs basic
spiritual energy. The needs have to be fulfilled equally and it is impossible
to ignore one’s need. Ignoring it means sacrificing human dignity. It denies
Islamic teaching which guides people to achieve a happy life physically and
mentally, in the world and hereafter.
The impact of advanced science and technology brings many
advantages and comforts to human life. However, it also has negative
impact in sharia perspective. Luxurious life and hedonism are the examples
of negative impact in the modern era which leads people into the boring
materialistic world and encourages them to commit suicide. It proves that
any material in the world cannot fulfill human basic need and thirst that is
spiritual values.
Furthermore, in the middle of the materialistic luxurious modern era,
people tend to worship materials and position. Nowadays, human success is
measured with their wealth and position. The cult on the materials and
position leads to permissive social relation and often leads to behavior
which less appreciate wisdom values. In the future, this bad behavior
unconsciously brings people to the hell (al-Ghazâlî n.d., 47).
In reality, some people do the opposite. They feel that they do not
need worldly materials or position which is universally alluring for most
people. The negative side of this extreme behavior is their intense
involvement with spiritual world leads them to ignore worldly social
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matters. They prefer having a good moral in order to achieve heaven
promised by God (al-Ghazâlî n.d., 47).
However, people should have a proportional balance between
profane worldly matters and transcendental hereafter matters. At the
beginning of Islam, Prophet Muhammad took care of the country and also
ran some businesses to earn living cost for his family. Then, his companions
and some people followed him. He is the role model that should be
followed by all Muslims.
In addition, the teaching of Sufism develops in the digital
revolution era. It can be seen from the development of tariqas around the
world and particularly in Indonesia, which is one of the biggest Muslim
countries in the world. It leads to a question of whether they only pursue
their hereafter and ignore their worldly matters. If that is the case, we
cannot blame the thesis of Max Weber stating that Islamic teaching is
ascetic and less competitive in the economic field. This concern has been
developing universally until now in the global era (Weber 2003).
The discussion about business behavior had also been viewed from
different perspectives. In gender area, business behavior and economic
development often became the hot issue. Some says that only men do
responsible for earning income for the family while the women stay home.
However, in Islam, there is no such a cliche statement. Islam has Moslems
work or do business instead of depending on others (Yaqin 2015, 273).
Previous study on business behavior in the perspective of Madurese
fruit traders was also conducted. The research shows that the traders are
divided into two groups. The first group tend to ignore the rules of trading.
They care only about profit that they do not think that ethics in trading is
important. Meanwhile, another group is the opposite. They abide by the
rules that trading must be done honestly. They state that trading is not
always about profit but also about gaining God’s merit (Djakfar 2007).
Recently some people change their paradigm. The tariqas are no
longer alienating themselves from social and worldly matters. They start to
think rationally and proportionally on the worldly and hereafter matters.
They tried to prove that sufi will not disappear in the modernize and
industrial era. The sufi scholars then reexamined the nature and the role of
Sufism in contemporary context (Kim 2008). Sufism people, through
number of tariqa, have been involved in so many areas of modernization.
They involve in politics, economic, and other “modern” things. This shows
how sufis are actually responsive toward the globalization of the world
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(Howell and Bruinessen 2007). In this article, the writer tries to discuss
some tariqas perspectives on business behavior and how they are different
in some aspects.
Religion and Sufism: Relation and Source Aspect
The big question is how the relationship between religion and
Sufism is? Religion universally becomes a source of teaching in life, both in
the world and hereafter, written in holy books. In Islam, the holy book is
called Quran given to the Prophet Muhammad through Jibril. Muslims
believe that Quran is a miracle which can be memorized and its authenticity
is guaranteed. Memorizing Quran has been done since the era of the
Prophet Muhammad by his companions to preserve Quran and also for
their formal worship needs (Watt 1999, 54).
Related to the fact, the main objective of Quran is to awake the high
and noble spiritual awareness in human, in their relation with God and
nature called by theosophists as a religious experience (Iqbal 1966, 158). It
justifies that Sufism in Islam is derived from divine teaching namely Quran.
In this matter, Sufism can be drawn as one of the implementations
of Islamic teachings emphasizing on spiritual purification to get closer to
God and to achieve the degree of insân kamîl. According to Seyyed Hossein
Nasr, the practice of Sufism is an emulation or effort to compete and follow
the life of the Prophet Muhammad in order to achieve marifah on the
message of Quran written in shahâdat, “No God (Ilâh) except Allah”
(Valiuddin 1997, 13). For Sufism followers, they always want to follow and
repeat the Prophet’s experience of being closer to God, based on their
capability (Madjid 2000, 262).
For them, Sufism is a method or approach by doing dhikr or
remembering Allah in order to get close to Him. Many ayahs in Quran
command human to always remember Allah (Q.S. al-Kahf [18]: 24; al-A‘râf
[7]: 201; al-Baqarah [2]: 152). The closeness to Allah for those who want to
get close to Allah is written in ayah, “And when My servants ask you, (O
Muhammad) concerning Me indeed I am near" (Q.S. al-Baqarah [2]: 186).
Another ayah states that "And He is with you wherever you are" (Q.S. al-
Hadid [57]: 4). Furthermore, the teaching of spiritual purification in Islamic
world develops into a tradition of an organized movement called tariqa
(Siregar 2002, 337).
Some opinions state that the twelfth century is considered as the
beginning of Sufism tariqa formation (Watt 1999, 151; Siregar 2002, 266),
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even though the foundation has been started since the life of the Prophet
Muhammad as reflected in his lifestyle (Siregar 2002, 46). In the period of
Makkah, for instance, Muhammad had developed his spiritual awareness
guided by Allah (Siregar 2002, 46).
In other words, actually, Muhammad already had a deep mystical
element even though the expression had not yet been developed (Watt
1999, 157). It is written in Quran surah al-Najm [53]: 11-13, al-Takwîr [81]:
22-23. Moreover, the sufi suggest surah al-Shams [91]: 8-9 and surah suf
[12]: 53 as the verses related to morality and asceticism, which are the basic
principles in Sufism (Siregar 2002, 48).
Those are some verses that play role as the sources of Sufism
teaching in Islam that takes Quran (revelation) as the main foundation
beside personal experience of the Prophet Muhammad and his close
companions. Thus, it is inappropriate to say that Sufism teaching is derived
from other than Islam, such as Persian, Hinduism, Nasrani, Greek’s
philosophy or others. It seems that this assumption is created merely by
seeing the typology’s similarities and the practice in certain things (Siregar
2002, 47).
Based on the explication above, we should be convinced that Islam
is related to Sufism in which the primary source is God’s revelation.
Basically, Sufism is a form of expression in realizing the teaching of God’s
revelation emphasizing on the sacred soul with taqarrub ilâ Allâh (keep
ourselves close to God by doing all the obligations required by the religion)
and marifat Allâh (understanding the God). Moreover, it is also essential to
grow the best moral value before Allah and human beings (Siregar 2001,
57).
With the moral (akhlâq), a sufi will recognize, obey, purify, and
always praise his God both in happiness and sadness (al-Qushay n.d., 285).
Since God is the Divine or the Most Sacred (al-Qard}âwî 1426 H), we should
also purify or cleanse ourselves to get closer to Him.
Thus, academically, this teaching can be mainly categorized into two
schools of Sufism namely sunnî and falsafî Sufism. Sunnî Sufism, also
known as akhlâqî Sufism, is a form of Sufism that keeps itself tightly
embraced by Quran and hadith. The figures of this Sufism are H{asan al-
Bas}rî, al-Muh}âsibî, al-Qushayrî, and al-Ghazâlî. Meanwhile, falsafî Sufism is
the one influenced by philosophy teaching. Some of the figures are Ibn
‘Arabî and Ibn Sab‘în (Anwar and Solihin 2004; Toriquddin 2007).
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In the next development, it is also categorized into orthodox Sufism
(classic) and neo-Sufism. Others call this second category social Sufism that
relates Sufism teaching to various social aspects (Syukur 2004). The one
proposed the term “neo-Sufism” was Fazlur Rahman in his well-known
book entitled Islam (Rahman 1979, 193; Azra 2013, 125). He said that neo-
Sufism is a refined type of Sufism that has been detached from the ecstatic
and metaphysics character, and it is already replaced with other constituents
from the inference or proof of Islamic orthodoxy (Azra 2013, 126).
In other words, neo-Sufism tries to emphasize and amend the
puritan original moral and self-control aspects in Sufism world by
eliminating the extreme characteristics of deviated popular Sufism (Azra
2013, 126). Thus, the emphasis of the new model of Sufism is the socio-
moral reconstruction from Muslim community unlike the former Sufism,
which emphasizes more on individual than social aspects (Azra 2013, 126).
It can also be a reform Sufism with the principles of orthodox Islam by
diverting the central attention to the socio-moral reconstruction of the
Muslim society (Siregar 2002, 314).
The main figure/notable of neo-Sufism in Indonesia is Hamka
whose book was entitled Tasawuf Modern (Hamka 1990). It seems that this
new model of Sufism has nowadays been followed by modern society in the
middle of moral crisis because of the decreasing spiritual values as the effect
of the development of sophisticated science and technology. Originally,
tasawuf is a school of ethic that its main discussion is about morality (Irham
and Basith 2018, 51). No wonder, some of neo-Sufism teaching
implementations can be understood from the attitude of tariqa followers in
fulfilling their daily needs that certainly require interaction with a wide
society.
Therefore, al-Qushayrî, a reformation of Sufism figure, suggests
Islamic followers cast away laziness and foolishness by making use of time
executing the function of Caliphate as an effort to fulfill physical and
spiritual needs very well. He also states that the real sufi is not the one
alienated from humans’ life activities, but they are still required to keep
active among the society to do Islamic preaching and keep the society’s
prosperity (Siregar 2001, 315-316).
Furthermore, neo-Sufism followers always try to accommodate the
inheritance of followers of Sufism that can be reconciled with orthodox
Islam, particularly moral and dhikr technique or murâqabah to get close to
Allah. This self-approach means to see and feel the presence of Allah
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through anwâr al-bas
}
îrah (eyes of the heart), direct encounter (wah
}
dat as-
shuhûd) and ittih
}
âd or manuggaling kawula gusti (the unification of human
being and God through mortality) (Siregar 2002, 63).
In contrary, orthodox Sufism is individual (ecstatical-metaphysical/
mystical-philosophical) that almost has no concern on social matters
(Siregar 2002, 314; Madjid 2000, 262). In a more open-minded way, it is
associated with uzlah (living in seclusion) to worship to God.
A Brief of Sufism Development in Indonesia
Indonesia is well-known as a country with the biggest majority of
Muslims in the world. In 2018, about 88 percent of an estimated 263
million people are Muslims. It leads to people’s consideration that
Indonesia is a Muslim Country. Among those Muslim population, most of
them are known as quite fanatic followers of Shâfi‘î madhhab (school of
thought in fiqh). In Sufism matter, they are the followers of al-Ghazâlî, as
associated with one of his monumental works, which is greatly famous in
this century, entitled Ih
}
yâ’ ‘Ulûm al-n (reviving religious science) (Madjid
1997, 79).
Before experiencing the life of a sufi, al-Ghazâlî states that humans
will be able to achieve their highest knowledge concerning God and other
essential knowledge by using their intelligence or reasoning called al-‘Aql al-
Mustafad that is Acquired Intellect (Nasution 1996, v-vi). With this intellect,
a human can have direct relationship with active intellect (angels) as the last
level of transcendental system and the source of all knowledge (Nasution
1996, vi).
However, al-Ghazâlî eventually realizes that intelligence or reasoning
will not be able to grab the abstract values but through al-dhawa (intuition).
Clearly, the ability of reasoning is solely confined in grabbing the
argumentative knowledge (al-‘ilm al-burhânî), while intuition is able to grab
the truly believed knowledge (al-‘ilm al-yaqînî) (Nasution 1996, vi). This is
the true reason why al-Ghazâlî eventually plays a part in Sufism rather than
philosophy that merely relies on the limited capability of reasoning.
Al-Ghazâlî’s thought has never been far from anyone trying to
understand Islam broadly and deeply (Madjid 1997, 79-80). It is because he
is acknowledged as H
{
ujjat al-Islâm, leader, and forerunner of Islam since his
thinking is broad and deep both in philosophy and Sufism world. In Fiqh,
for example, al-Ghazâlî believes in Shâfi‘î madhhab, thus the name of this
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Muhammad Djakfar
big thinker is inseparable from Islamic thinking and understanding in
Indonesia, which are also based on Shâfi‘î madhhab (Madjid 1997, 80).
Sufistic world is no exception.
Therefore, since Shâfi‘î madhhabs influence is becoming stronger,
the Sufism taught in Islamic boarding school is sunnî which is based on al-
Ghazâlî Sufism (Siregar 2002, 225). This is contrast with tariqa. The tariqas
developed in Indonesia such as Qadiriyah, Naqsyabandiyah, Sammaniyah,
Syattariyah, and Khalwitiyah acknowledge and teach al-fana concept
although not all of them are similar to the teaching of Abû Yazîd al-Bust}âmî
(Siregar 2002, 226). Besides, there are still a lot of things that need to be
identified, such as Khalidiyah and Rifaiyah (Siregar 2000, 269), Sadziliyah
(Mu’tasim and Mulkan 1998), Shiddiqiyah (Munir 2012), Wahidiyah
(Shofwan 2017), and Syahadatain (Rosyid 2018).
In line with the spiritual awareness of Islam followers, in reality,
tariqa movement in Indonesia is developed and has many followers based
on the culture of most Muslims in Indonesia. It is proven by the growing
number of ribât
}
(small fortification) spread in various parts of the country,
particularly in Muslim enclaves.
Sufism and Tariqa: The Relation of Murshid (Guide) and Students
toward Tazkiyat al-Nafs
The tradition of Sufism is derived from individual activity in
spiritual aspect aiming to reach the complete level of human being. In a
further development, this movement keeps growing and developing into an
organized movement known as tariqa. Hence, several followers of big
tariqas occurred such as Qadiriyyah, Naqsyabandiyyah, Chistiyyah
(Valiuddin 1997, 14) and others like Rifa’iyyah (howling dervishes).
The root word of tariqa is derived from Arabic language that is
t
}
arîqah; it means walk, way, method, school, ism/doctrine, and others.
Terminologically, tariqa is formulated as a system of mutual life in a
spiritual aspect to achieve marifat Allâh (knowing God). It is also as a
collective effort for tazkiyat al-nafs (soul purificastion) to get closer to God
called t
}
uruq al-s
}
ûfiyah (Siregar 2002, 263). Self-purification (nafs) can only be
achieved through self-restraint, hard work, and earnestness (mujâhadah) so
that eventually one’s soul can reach serenity (mut
}
mainnah) (Valiuddin 1997,
48). However, each embedded sufi solely emphasizes on one aspect without
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denying other aspects since sufi’s love (‘ishq) is understood by sufis as the
realization of gnosis aspect (marifah) (Valiuddin 1997, 14).
Sufism alteration as practical and personal science into tariqa as an
institution is seemly inseparable from Sufism teaching development itself.
Hence, the more it is known by a wide society, the bigger the number of
society interested in learning Sufism. They approach the Sufism authority
holder to guide them. This is the true first contact or initial guidance of a
teacher called murshid toward the students in tariqa tradition.
A teacher, furthermore, will responsible to formulate a system of
Sufism learning containing various elements which eventually will be a
distinct factor for tariqa teaching. Consequently, a variation of tariqa
system, developed with different method, is inseparable despite dissimilar
understanding and experience of each Sufism teacher as the pioneer of
tariqa (Siregar 2002, 266). In other words, tariqa is basically a form of
developed Sufism with certain variation under the specification given by a
teacher (spiritual guide) to the students or followers (Anwar and Solihin
2004, 166).
In tariqa, the authority of the spiritual guide toward the members
(followers) is dominant in building the characters. Hence, there must be
deep and restrained relational pattern in the organization of tariqa during
the journey of knowing God. In this case, preserving that relational pattern,
the followers must be loyal to their teacher (spiritual guide). They are not
allowed to argue even though they actually have different viewpoint (Siregar
2002, 270). Moreover, the followers have to save and govern the spiritual
guide's honor, in life or even after his death (Siregar 2002, 270).
In addition, the followers have some main duties: 1) maintaining
taqwâ; 2) performing spiritual practices to purify soul; 3) being wara
(abstinence); 4) being associated with pious people and scholars; 5) having
morals and ethics; 6) being efficient with time; 7) witnessing Allah in
everything (murâqabah); 8) working sincerely; and 9) building up sensibility
(qalb) and emptying heart from the ‘pollution’ of the world (Siregar 2002,
270).
Hence, the followers of tariqa have to attain the purity of heart by
maintaining morals and ethics such as being sincere, having good manners,
good relationship, and introspection. Through introspection, the purity of
soul will be controlled and attain closeness to Allah. This cannot be
separated from the guide from Shaykh to the followers.
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Business, Spirituality, and Work Ethics
Human as mono-dualistic creature involves both inner and outer-
self, body, and soul. Human’s body (jism) needs nutrition in the form of
food in order to grow and develop. They need clothes to protect them from
hot or cold. Besides, they also need a place to take rest and protect them
from various forms of interference that might occur at any time.
On the other hand, soul has different essentials. Basically, a human
is not only a manhood and spiritual creature, but a creature with mind,
heart, and lust. All potential devices need to be fostered and developed
according to Sharia rules. This spiritual coaching is implemented through
the path of Sufism by entering the world of tariqa, namely the spiritual
world that can bring people to approach their God as the Creator.
The word spiritual derived from Latin spiritus which means
something that gives life or vitality on the system. Spirituality here is
considered as the improvement of the quality of life in the world by
concerning the afterlife value. It is also essential to put us in a broader
framework of meaning and purpose (Zohar and Marshall 2005, 63).
In the other opinion, spirituality is derived from adjective word
spiritual. Its noun is spirit, derived from the Latin word spiritus which means
“respire.” Spirituality contains several meanings, such as living, having a
sacred status, profane, and the latter is related to God as causa prima life
(Hendrawan 2009, 18).
However, based on the research result, in relation to corporations in
America, the meaning of spirituality has been developed. 1) Spirituality is
personal, so that people do not have to be religious to become spiritual; 2)
Spirituality is the basic belief in the existence of the great power that
governs the universe; 3) Basically, humans live to do good manners; and 4)
Spirituality is related to caring, hope, kindness, love, and optimism
(Hendriawan 2009, 19).
The result of a research which is conducted by Mitroff and Denton
about meaning is in line with Zohar and Marshall. They stated that
corporation which has a concern about spiritual capital (SC) always has
target and strategy under broader context of meaning. In addition, it also
has introspection, guided by vision and mission, character, modest, and
devotion (Zohar and Marshall 2009, 63-66).
Based on the above explanation, spirituality is an ability of self-
management to increase inner vitality, as well as capability to actively
contribute for their wider surrounding. In Islam, spirituality cannot be
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separated from the afterlife. Even the world with everything on it will only
be meaningful if it is directed to the achievement of the final goal (Nasution
1996, 203). Otherwise, it will turn to be a barrier to achieve lasting
happiness that is ideal for every believer.
Islam emphasizes that the afterlife is far more important than the
temporary life in the world and is only fleeting (Q.S. al-D{uh}â [93]: 4). Life is
actually an investment or an instrument to build the afterlife. Both lives
must be balanced where one should not be ignored. Quran emphasizes that
there is a balance between the material and the spiritual, between the
afterlife and the world. This is what has been stated in Q.S. al-Jumuah [62]:
10-11 and al-Qas}as} [28]:77.
This balance pattern has also been exemplified by the Messenger of
Allah as mentioned in another part of this paper (Afzalurrahman 1997;
Antonio 2007; Djakfar 2012). Human needs property as a means to
worship and build an essential life in the hereafter, so the way to obtain it
must be clean and used as needed (Hamka 1994), therefore tazkiyat al-nafs
for a sufi is not tainted.
Meanwhile, according to Mochtar Buchori, work ethics are attitudes
and paradigm of work, work habits possessed by a person, and a group of
people or a nation (Buchori 2002, 6). Asy’ari states that work ethics is the
intention, character and quality of inner life, moral and aesthetic style, and
their inner condition. It is a fundamental characteristic of themselves and
their world which is reflected in the real world (Djakfar 2012, 96).
Hence, work ethics for a Muslim is motivated by that basic skill, as
well as the quality of Islamic life from the spirit of tawh
}
îd and expressed
through good manners. The spirit has been achieved since the ancient time
between human and God (Q.S. al-A‘râf [7]: 172). Therefore, working has a
value of worship that is not only glorious for the fellow human beings, but
also for God. Moreover, Islam promotes work at the level of religious
obligation (sharî) by mentioning that work is consistently 50 times
juxtaposed with the word faith.
Some verses of the Quran which emphasize the importance of work
can be understood from Q.S. al-Baqarah [2]: 62 and 198; Q.S. al-Nisâ[4]:
29 and 124; Q.S. al-An‘âm [6]: 132; QS. al-Kahf [18]: 30; Q.S. al-Mu’minûn
[23]:40; Q.S. Fât}ir [35]: 29; Q.S. Fus}s}ilat [41]: 46; Q.S. al-Najm [53]: 39-41;
Q.S. al-S{aff [61]: 10; Q.S. al-Jumuah [62]: 10-11; al-Zalzalah [99]: 7-8; Q.S.
al-Inshirâh} [110]: 6-7 (Ahmad 1995).
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Muhammad Djakfar
This is actually the theological basis of the work ethics in Islam that
is filled with spiritual values when doing business (work). A Muslim
businessman is not only motivated for the sake of worldly or dunyâwiyah,
but also simultaneously for an afterlife or ukhrâwiyah interests.
Business Behavior of Tariqa Members: Understanding Reality
As what has been stated that tariqa is an institutionalized method or
path to Sufism currently developed in modern society, such as Indonesia.
Therefore, before understanding the reality of tariqa business behavior, it is
necessary to state that the business behavior of tariqa discussed in this work
only focuses on Sadziliyah (Kudus, Central Java) and Shiddiqiyah (Jombang,
East Java) tariqa.
From these two schools of tariqa, the point of difference will be
found, which is in relation with how they interpret their property and
behavior in economics. Property is a necessity of life as a means to do good
manners to others and to worship God. For this reason, the property needs
to be sought legally, like doing business that is justified based on sharia.
Therefore, working is part of the obligations in Islam as illustrated in the
previous discussion.
In accordance with the Sadziliyahs followers, wealth is a tool or
medium to get closer to Allah (taqarrub ilâ Allâh), because it helps humans
to feel the pleasure that Allah has given in the world. In addition, there will
be many opportunities to practice His teaching more perfectly than those
who are not wealthy (Mu'tasim and Mulkan 1998; Djakfar 2015). For
someone being able to give alms, as a muzakki, and to perform Hajj, they
have to be rich. It is based on the statement of M. Syariq, the head of
Sadziliyah Kudus saying that it is not true that tariqa followers cannot be
rich, as long as they are generous due to their property, for instance, they
like giving charity (Mu'tasim and Mulkan 1998).
However, according to Sufism, humans should not be controlled by
their property to avoid being trapped into the so-called h
}
ubb al-dunyâ (love of
wealth) (Mu'tasim and Mulkan 1998). Loving wealth is believed to ruin
attitude and soul purity which are the goals for tariqa followers. A further
effect caused by the love of the world is closing the eyes of heart (qalb) or
marifat bi Allâh, which is actually counterproductive to the teachings of
Sufism universally. Therefore, based on the perspective of Sadziliyah
followers, the property has a spiritual meaning of worship. In addition to
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Business Behavior of Tariqa Followers In Indonesia...
the economic meaning which is to meet the needs of life for themselves and
their families by working hard and social meaning which is a lot of care for
others (Djakfar 2015).
It is a different with Shiddiqiyah followers who interpret the
property more broadly than Sadziliyah followers do. In Shiddiqiyah’s
perspective, the property has at least five meanings such as spiritual,
economic, social, cultural, and Islamic preaching (dawah) (Munir 2012;
Djakfar 2015). Thus, the difference between them is in the aspect of culture
and Islamic preach. Spiritual wise, Shiddiqiyah refers to it as an instrument
to maintain the value of monotheism/tawh
}
îd. Hence, anyone who
implements the meaning of the statement of tawh
}
îd (ilâha illa Allâh) will
feel motivated to fight in the path of Allah known as jihâd sabîl Alh
(Munir 2012; Djakfar 2015). It is impossible for struggling in the path of
Allah only by thinking, but somehow it must be supported by adequate
finance.
Economic wise, Shiddiqiyah followers are supposed to be financially
independent so they do not be a burden tp others, as well as to reflect the
work ethic in Islam as cited before. By emphasizing an independent
attitude, the tariqa followers are strictly prohibited for asking others in any
form (Munir 2012). It is considered as a taboo principle to be violated.
Social wise, Shiddiqiyah followers are encouraged to care for others
using wealth as implied in the teachings of united (manunggaling) faith and
humanity which is often revealed by the teacher (Islamic guide) and leaders
(khalîfah) (Munir 2012). This meaning seems similar to the meaning
believed by Syadziliyah's followers which is an expression of philanthropic
teachings in Islam.
Then, the meaning of culture in owning wealth is summarized in
the “S3”; silaturrahim (maintaining social relationship), santunan (donation),
and sedekah (charity). This culture, according to Kiai Mochtar, should not
be tainted. It is the motivation for Shiddiqiyah people to work hard not
only by pursuing fortune but also by giving charity, being tolerant and
strengthening relationships with each other as an expression of eastern
culture (Munir 2012; Djakfar 2015). While Islamic preach/dawah means
the assets owned can be used as a means to convey the truth of Islamic
Sharia to the wider community which has become the idealism of the
Shiddiqiyah tariqa since established.
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Muhammad Djakfar
Furthermore, how true is their economic behavior? By defining such
meaningful assets, the followers of the Sadziliyah tariqa consider either their
home or market as the most important place for economic activity. The
house is not just a resting place for family, but also a center of industrial
and spiritual (Mu'tasim and Mulkan 1998; Djakfar 2015). Hence, not only
does a house function as a trading place (muâmalah), but also as a praying
place.
Therefore, in business activities, they always strengthen spiritual
support by praying and worshipping Allah by using the mosque as the
center of their activities. Spiritual motivation is inseparable from the role of
Islamic guide (murshid), so they believe that it is a gratitude to tariqa that
they can succeed in running a business (Munir and Mulkan 1998). Thus,
for them, tariqa is used as the most appropriate means to deal with an
uncertain fate in the business world.
The Shiddiqiyah tariqa is considered unique compared to
Sadziliyah, because its followers pursue various businesses ranging from
hotels to small businesses, such as tea bags and honey. Their economic
behavior can be understood in the way they look for property that is
interpreted as a reflection of the fight in the path of Allah (jihâd) and
worship without ignoring supernatural powers of prayer, especially Islamic
guide/murshid prayer and parents (Munir 2012; Djakfar 2015).
Prayer is interpreted as a pillar of spiritual strength for humans so it
is a part of the teachings and practices that must be applied in everyday life.
In their point of view, work is practicing the teachings of the Sharia to
achieve the true God's blessing as written on His destiny (Munir 2012;
Djakfar 2015).
In the business context, in their opinion, S3 culture, in this case, is
believed to be a means to strengthen relations among related parties. While
charity is viewed to be able to bring blessed fortune (barakah), it refuses
problems and more importantly, it maintains business. Because of this, S3
culture seems to be considered very principle, so the followers of
Shiddiqiyah should not violate it.
That is the economic behavior of both tariqas in which the
followers have basically practiced the teachings of neo-Sufism because they
have balanced interests, world, and afterlife. This is the true Sharia which is
taught and exemplified by the Messenger of Allah and his companions.
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Business Behavior of Tariqa Followers In Indonesia...
Conclusion
Based on the description above, the tariqa opines that there is a
high worldly work ethic neither monastic nor ascetic (zuhud) as perceived by
some views as long as it is a worldly hate. This means as if there had been a
paradigm shift from the individual towards the social direction of society, or
from the classical Sufism practice (orthodox) to the new model Sufism (neo-
Sufism). It can also be explained in reality that they follow the school of
social Sufism.
The active involvement in the business world between both tariqas,
Sadziliyah Kudus and Shiddiqiyah Jombang, shows an open-minded
attitude to the outside world (the wider community), for example with
consumers, buyers, customers, fellow business parties, and other related
parties. This indicates that the tariqa life today is not only concerned with
the life of worship which only focuses on the transcendental afterlife/
ukhrâwiyah interests, but also at the same time it is a balance with the
interests of mortal life. It is the true teaching of Islam, as exemplified by the
Messenger of Allah and his companions.
They realistically begin to understand that wealth is not something
that must be hated and shunned, but it is a medium or means of
investment to pursue happiness towards the eternal life. This is the true
spirituality of energy as well as the ethos possessed by the tariqas which are
not owned by the secularists. Eternal life is believed to be a continuation of
temporary worldly life and consequently building the afterlife that needs to
be preceded by building a good worldly life in all aspects of life according to
the Sharia as well as in trade (muâmalah) as taught in Islam.
It is the relation of religion, Sufism, and work ethic which is
reflected in the business behavior of the Sadziliyah and Shiddiqiyah tariqa
in Indonesia as illustrated above. Religion which is the main source of
Sufism encourages people to work hard in the world as an investment field
to gain happiness in the hereafter.
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al-Qur’an adalah rujukan utama dan pertama setiap problematika yang dihadapi umat islam. kitab suci ini sebagai pedoman dan petunjuk hidup umat islam di sepanjang zaman. Searus dengan perubahan dan laju perkembangan zaman, terdapat berbagai persoalaan hukum, sosial, budaya dan sebagainya yang mengemuka di tengah-tengah kehidupan. Diantaranya adalah isu gender. Dalam al-Qur’an memuat nilai-nilai universal yang menjadi petunjuk bagi kehidupan manusia di sepanjang masa. Nilai-nilai yang senantiasa relevan diimplementasikan di setiap tempat, waktu dan zaman. Nilai-nilai tersebut antara lain; nilai kemanusiaan, keadilan, kemerdekaan, kesetaraan dan sebagainya. Berkaitan dengan nilai keadilan dan kesetaraan, al-Qur’an tidak pernah mentolerir adanya perbedaan dan perlakuan subdordinasi atau bahkan diskriminasi diantara umat manusia. al-Qur’an menerangkan antara laki-laki dan perempuan adalah sama atau setara. Oleh karena itu, mereka memiliki tugas dan tanggungjawab yang sama sebagai ‘abdullah dan khalifah di muka bumi. Kapasitas manusia sebagai khalifah di muka bumi berperan untuk melestarikan, mengelola dan memakmurkannya. Pemakmuran bumi dilakukan bertujuan mencapai pertumbuhan dan kemajuan di berbagai segi kehidupan, baik di bidang ekonomi, budaya, ilmu pengetahuan dan sebagainya.
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p> This article discusses about Shahadatayn tarîqah, one of lesser-known tarîqah in Indonesia. The writer explores it from a primary source written by Abah ‘Umar, the founder of this tarîqah and other supporting references. To be a member of Shahadatayn tarîqah, one is acknowledged through an inaugural ceremony (bay‘at), ḍ uhâ and tahajjud praying in fourty days, reciting ṣ alawât tunjînâ, wirid, Asmâ’ Nûr al-Îmân, and Asmâ’ al- Ḥ usnâ . Shahadatayn is known for its uniqueness such as implementing the meaning of shahâdat in daily life, wearing white attire and turban when performing prayer, chanting after the obligatory prayers, ḍ uhâ , tahajud, and other sunna prayers. Shahadatayn tarîqah is not as famous as the other tarîqah as it has not been listed in the JATMAN as mu‘tabar version. This is because there is no murshid transformation from the Prophet Muhammad and continues through the path of the ṣ âlih to the murshid. JATMAN version can not be an absolute reference for it is within the circle of NU and not all tarekat residents are NU members. Furthermore, the actual Shahadatayn has a murshid lineage, i.e. from Prophet Muhammad, Sharif Hidayatullah, and Abah ‘Umar who is now passed on by his descendants. Although it is realized that the genealogy is not as many other tarîqahs, but the content of his teachings is in line with the guidance of the Prophet Muhammad. </p
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