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Ideas at Work Using American Indian Legends to Teach Youths Financial Literacy: Innovative Approaches to Cultural Adaptation

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In this article, we report on pilot implementation of a financial education program for American Indian (AI) youths. Our purpose is to share our experience engaging AI youths in a culturally relevant experience in which they learn financial education concepts. Specifically, we incorporated Ojibwe legends into lesson content to connect Ojibwe culture to the information being taught. We report a combination of quantitative survey data and qualitative observational notes that overall suggest evidence of success regarding effectively engaging AI youths in financial education. Our approach may be of particular interest to Extension educators working with youths from culturally underserved audiences.
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February2019
Volume57
Number1
Article#1IAW5
IdeasatWork
UsingAmericanIndianLegendstoTeachYouthsFinancial
Literacy:InnovativeApproachestoCulturalAdaptation
Abstract
Inthisarticle,wereportonpilotimplementationofafinancialeducationprogramforAmericanIndian(AI)
youths.OurpurposeistoshareourexperienceengagingAIyouthsinaculturallyrelevantexperiencein
whichtheylearnfinancialeducationconcepts.Specifically,weincorporatedOjibwelegendsintolesson
contenttoconnectOjibweculturetotheinformationbeingtaught.Wereportacombinationof
quantitativesurveydataandqualitativeobservationalnotesthatoverallsuggestevidenceofsuccess
regardingeffectivelyengagingAIyouthsinfinancialeducation.Ourapproachmaybeofparticularinterest
toExtensioneducatorsworkingwithyouthsfromculturallyunderservedaudiences.
Keywords:financialliteracy,AmericanIndianculture,Ojibweyouths,youthdevelopment,culturaladaptation

Introduction
Inthisarticle,wedescribethestrengthsbasedapproachweusedtodevelopandconductpilottesting
onaseriesoffinancialeducationlessonsforAmericanIndian(AI)youthstoaddressthelackof
financialmanagementexperiencesandlimitedopportunitiesavailabletothem(Anderson,Brantmeier,
Jorgensen,&Lounsberg,2010).WithfundingfromtheNationalInstituteofFoodandAgriculture
(NIFA),welaunchedFosteringAchievementandConnectionstoEngageStudents,a5yearafterschool
initiativeaimedatreducingeducationaldisparitiesforracial/ethnicminorityyouthsinunderserved
Minnesotacommunities.BecausetwooftheprogramsitesaresituatedonorneartheFondduLac
Reservation,wheremanyOjibwelive,wedevelopedfourfinanciallessonsintegratingOjibwelegends
andlanguagewithengagingactivities.Wethenpilottestedthelessonswithmiddleschoolyouthsfrom
FondduLacOjibweSchoolandCarltonMiddleSchoolinnorthernMinnesota.Inthisreport,wedescribe
ourapproachandourpilottestresults.
WestartedwiththefundamentalassumptionthatcontemporaryAIlifeisrootedinhistoricaltrauma,
definedas"thecumulativeemotionalandpsychologicalwoundingoverone'slifetimefromgenerationto
generationfollowinglossoflives,land,andvitalaspectsofculture"(BraveHeart,2004,p.7).Because
JenniferGarbow
AssociateExtension
Professor
Universityof
MinnesotaExtension
Crookston,Minnesota
jgarbow@umn.edu
RebeccaHagen
Jokela
ExtensionEducator
andExtension
Professor
Universityof
MinnesotaExtension
Cloquet,Minnesota
hagen022@umn.edu
JessieRudi
ResearchAssociate
Universityof
Minnesota
TwinCities,Minnesota
conne262@umn.edu
@JessieRudi
JoyceSerido
AssociateProfessor
Universityof
Minnesota
TwinCities,Minnesota
jserido@umn.edu
@jserido3
healingandresiliencyinresponsetohistoricaltraumaarefoundinspiritualityorconnectiontoculture
andlanguage(Walters,1999;Walters,Simoni,&EvansCampbell,2002),weadoptedastorytelling
frameworkasaplatformforourlessons.
TheOjibweCultureandFinancialEducation
Familyfinancialmanagementinvolvesculturalnuancesthatmustbeconsideredwheneducationis
developedanddelivered(Danes,Garbow,&Jokela,2016;Meraz,Petersen,Marczak,Brown,&
Rajasekar,2013).InOjibweculture,storytellingisavitalpartoftheorallearningtraditionthat
"expressesvaluesandbeliefs,whatitmeanstobehuman,ourneedtoknowwhythingsaretheway
theyare,andhowtoconductourselvesinagoodway"(IndianLandTenureFoundation,n.d.,"Teacher
Background,"para.1).Tohonorculturalconnectionsandengageyouths,wedesignedfinanciallessons
basedonOjibwestoriesandlegends.Ourapproachwasnottobringculturebacktothepeople,but
rathertosimplyandhumblyincorporateculturalaspectsintopracticalskillbuildingtoolsforAIyouths.
Methods
TwoExtensioneducatorstaughtthelessonsattheCloquetForestryCenter.Wedescribetheprocesswe
usedtodeveloptheculturallyrelevantfinanciallessonsinTable1andprovideanoverviewofthefour
lessonsinTable2.
Table1.
CulturalAdaptationProcess
Step Description
1.Brainstormideas.
Onthebasisofpreviousyoutheducatorexperienceandresearchonculturally
relevantprogramming,weusedlegendsasadeviceformeaningfullyengaging
youthsinfinancialeducation.
WecontactedaSupplementalNutritionAssistanceProgrameducatortolearn
Ojibwevocabularywordsforeachlesson.
2.Identifycorelessons.
Weselectedfourfinancialconceptsthatwerebothrelevanttoeverydaychoicesof
AIyouthsandcoveredinmostfinancialeducationprograms(Kabaci&Cude,
2015).
3.Searchforrelevant
legends. Wesearchedforlegendsrelatedtotheselectedfinancialconcepts.We
intentionallyconveyedandsharedimportantculturalcustoms(e.g.,Ojibwe
legendscanbetoldonlyifthereissnowontheground[Treuer,2010]).
4.Developlessons
basedonlegends. Wesearchedforinteractiveactivitiesdrawnfromexistingmaterials(e.g.,Bizkid$
lessons)fortheapplication/selfdiscoverypartsofthelessons.
5.Pilottestlessons
Wetaughtfourlessons(twoinfall2016,twoinspring2017).Lessonsweretaught
Ideas at Work
Using American Indian Legends to Teach Youth Financial Literacy
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withyouths. approximatelyeveryothermonth.
Note.AI=AmericanIndian.
Table2.
OverviewofFinancialLessons
Lessonnumberandtitle Objective(s) Legend Activity
1:ValuesandGoals
Tolearntosetgoals
Tounderstandthatplanning
aheadisimportant
Whythe
Porcupine
HasQuills
Followupdiscussionusingflipchart/markers
2:NeedsandWants
Tolearnthedifference
betweenneedsandwants
Manabozho
andthe
Maple
Trees
WantsandNeedsCardSort—categorizationof
wantsandneedsthroughsortingitemswith
monetaryvalueintoeitherwantsorneeds(e.g.,
movies,medication)
3:DecisionMaking
Tounderstandeffective
decisionmakingprocesses
Tolearntheimportanceof
listeningtoelders
TheGiant
Pike
BizKid$BudgetingBasicsActivity#2—useofa
budgetmatrixtoprioritizewantsandneeds
(e.g.,urgent,noturgent)
4:BudgetsandSpending
Plans Toidentifytheimportanceof
familycommunicationand
workingtogetherfora
commongoal
TheThree
Sistersa
Budgetboardactivityusingbeansascurrency—
allocationofavailablecurrencyacrosscommon
householdexpenses(e.g.,food,shelter)
aWeusedalegendfromanothertribebecausetherewasnosnowonthegroundwhenthislessonwastaught.
Foreachlesson,thelegendwassharedorallyorreadindividually,andquestionswereaskedaboutthe
story.Financialactivitiesanddiscussionfollowedsharingofthelegend,allowingparticipantstomake
connectionsbetweenthelegendandtargetedfinancialconcepts.Forexample,Lesson3focusedonthe
importanceofknowinghowtomakegooduseofresources.WebeganwithreadingTheGiantPike
legendanddiscussedthemeaningofselectedOjibwewordsusedinthelegend.Theeducatorsengaged
theyouthsinadialogueaboutaccesstonaturalresources,suchasthroughfishing,thataddedtoAI
familyresources.Nexttheeducatorsledaninformationaldiscussion,explainingthatnaturalresources
(e.g.,fish,game,berries,wildrice,andmaplesyrup)areavailableonlyduringparticularseasons.
Educatorsthenledtheyouthsthroughareflectionontheresourcesavailableindifferentseasonsto
emphasizetheimportanceofplanningaheadandsavingnaturalresourcesforfutureuse.
Wecollectedquantitativesurveydatafromyouthsabouttheirfinancialchoicesbeforetheprogram
began(n=21,57%female,95%AI,averageage=13.3years)andagainattheendoftheprogram
Ideas at Work
Using American Indian Legends to Teach Youth Financial Literacy
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(n=10,60%female,90%AI,averageage=13.9years).Smallsamplesizessuchasoursare
commoninsurveydatafromtheAIpopulation(Dewees&Mottola,2017).Inthesurvey(see
appendix),weaskedyouthstoindicatehowoftentheyperformedbasicfinancialbehaviorsona5point
scalerangingfrom1(never)to5(allthetime)(TakeChargeAmericaInstituteforConsumerFinancial
EducationandResearch,2012).
EvidenceofSuccess
Wereportonthreelevelsofevidencesupportingthis"ideaatwork."
Thesurveydatadidnotindicateachangeinthefrequencyofperformingpositivefinancialbehaviors
fromyouths'reportsbeforeandattheendoftheprogram.Thisisnotsurprisinggiventhesmall
samplesize.
However,theyouthsofferedcommentsexpressinghighlevelsofinterestinthelegendsandactivities.
Intwoseparatelessons,thelegendwasfamiliartotheyouths(e.g.,"Weknowthatstory,ourgrandma
talkedtousaboutthis").AftertheNeedsandWantslesson,oneyouthcommented,"Iwanttotryto
save!"Inaddition,educatorsnotedthatseveralyouthsknewmanyoftheOjibwewords.Thisfamiliarity
iswhatseemedtomostengageyouthsinthelearningactivity.
Finally,aNIFArepresentativeattendedonesessionandmadethefollowingqualitativeobservationsin
herwrittenreport:
Thesitevisitwasinspiringandeducational...Theafterschoolprogrambeganwithatraditional
OjibweSmudgingceremonywhichismeanttocleansetheenvironmentofnegativeinfluences.
TheOjibweElderconductedthetraditionalceremonyandspokeontheconnectionbetweenthe
Ojibwepeopleandnature...Afterintroductions,theExtensioneducatorsledstudentsthrough
anactivityusingatraditionalOjibwelegendofayoungboygoingswimmingagainsthis
grandmother'swishesandbeingeatenbyapike(fish)toframethediscussion.TheOjibwe
languagewasintertwinedthroughouttheconversations.Therewasalotoflaughterandyouth
wereclearlyengagedwiththeconversation...Ilearnedsomuchaboutthecultureand
languageoftheOjibweTribalcommunity.
ImplicationsforReachingUnderservedYouths
ByweavingAIcultureintoeachlessonthroughhistoricstoriesandOjibwelanguage,wedelivered
lessonsthatincludedrelevantanchorsforunderstandingresourceplanningandsaving.Theuseof
activelearningstrategiesmaintainedtheyouths'interestandincreasedactiveengagement.Our
approachprovedtobeafunandmeaningfulwaytocreatefinancialawarenessamongAIyouthsand
maybeofparticularinteresttoExtensioneducatorsworkingwithyouthsfromculturallyunderserved
audiences.
Acknowledgments
WeacknowledgefundingfromNIFAthroughtheChildren,Youth,andFamiliesatRiskprogram.Award
#20154152023815.Title:FosteringAchievementandConnectionstoEngageStudents.Program
director:JoyceSerido,PhD.
Ideas at Work
Using American Indian Legends to Teach Youth Financial Literacy
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Using American Indian Legends to Teach Youth Financial Literacy
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Appendix
FinancialBehaviorsPre/PostSurveyforAmericanIndianYouths
HowoftendoI... Never Rarely Sometimes Often AlltheTime
Buysomethingwithoutthinkingaboutit 1 2 3 4 5
Payforthingswithcash 1 2 3 4 5
Putmoneyasideforabigpurchase(likeacaroreducation) 1 2 3 4 5
Savemoneyforemergencies 1 2 3 4 5
SaveupforsomethingIwantinayearortwo 1 2 3 4 5
Saveupformyeducationafterhighschool 1 2 3 4 5
ShoparoundforthebestdealbeforebuyingsomethingIwantorneed 1 2 3 4 5
SpendmoneyonthingsIdon'treallyneed(reversecoded) 1 2 3 4 5
Withoutpeeking,knowhowmuchmoneyIhaveinmywallet/purse 1 2 3 4 5
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educational or training activities. Inclusion of articles in other publications, electronic sources, or
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Ideas at Work
Using American Indian Legends to Teach Youth Financial Literacy
JOE 57(1)
©2019 Extension Journal Inc.
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... Three Peoplehood element search terms "Language"; "Dialect"; "Land"; "Territory"; "Place"; "Ancestral"; "History"; "Sacred history"; "Shared history"; "Ceremony"; "Ceremonial cycle"; "Calendar"; "Traditional calendar" Farella, Hauser, Parrott, Moore, Penrod, and Elliot-Engel of these did not focus on Indigenous identity as a core program factor, nor were specific mechanisms for assessment or programmatic success discussed (Alves, 1993;Fox & LaChenaye, 2015;Jones & Skogrand, 2015). The remaining two articles- Garbow et al. (2019) and Vettern and Flage (2018)-focused on Native culture as a primary program element. Garbow et al. (2019) have discussed using traditional stories to teach financial management skills to Ojibwe youths and families. ...
... The remaining two articles- Garbow et al. (2019) and Vettern and Flage (2018)-focused on Native culture as a primary program element. Garbow et al. (2019) have discussed using traditional stories to teach financial management skills to Ojibwe youths and families. The authors have written, "For each lesson, the legend was shared orally or read individually, and questions were asked about the story. ...
... Language, place, ceremony, and history were a central focus of the program, which hybridized responsible financial habits and significant Ojibwe stories and actions. Ritual, such as the Ojibwe Smudging Ceremony, was part of the program (Garbow et al., 2019). Vettern and Flage (2018) have discussed culturally engaging programs in which youths took leadership roles in community activities and businesses. ...
Article
Full-text available
A literature review was conducted using the key words relating to Native American Youth and 4-H to assess the current state of 4-H youth programming serving First Nation/ Indigenous populations to inform future Extension initiatives. A systematic and qualitative review determined what level of focus the conducted programming efforts placed on broadly accepted elements of cultural identity as noted in the Peoplehood Model. A very small number of articles (N=13) were found pertaining to 4-H and Indigenous Communities. Fewer demonstrated emphasis on the peoplehood elements of language, place, traditional ceremony or calendars, and history. This work investigates a continuing inequity in 4-H PYD-both in service and reporting-and suggests some next steps for creating a more inclusive 4-H program for Native American/First Nation/Indigenous youth.
... 52) was a potential contributor to the high rates Native American youth suicide rates. Given established links in the broader OST literature between well-designed programs, positive youth outcomes, and reductions in maladaptive behaviors, an examination of how and to what degree OST programs may benefit Native American youth offers a compelling opportunity for those interested in best serving these groups (Garbow, Hagen-Jokela, Rudi, & Serido, 2019;Jackson & Hodge, 2010). ...
... While some study limitations were suggested eariler, four warrant additional explanation. First, the study sample was relatively small (although studies of Native American youth are generally so; e.g., Froiland et al., 2016;Garbow et al., 2019), limiting the power to detect effects (Agans et al., 2014;Westland, 2010). However, the sample size was comparable to other OST studies examining residential camp outcomes among youth typically underrepresented in the literature (Allsop, Negley, & Sibthorp, 2013;, as well as those with Native American samples (Froiland et al., 2016;Garbow et al., 2019). ...
... First, the study sample was relatively small (although studies of Native American youth are generally so; e.g., Froiland et al., 2016;Garbow et al., 2019), limiting the power to detect effects (Agans et al., 2014;Westland, 2010). However, the sample size was comparable to other OST studies examining residential camp outcomes among youth typically underrepresented in the literature (Allsop, Negley, & Sibthorp, 2013;, as well as those with Native American samples (Froiland et al., 2016;Garbow et al., 2019). Second, the study's cross-sectional design limited conclusions which can be drawn regarding development associated with ongoing program participation. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined relations between participation quality and quantity and youth outcomes associated with Basic Psychological Needs Theory (i.e., autonomy, relatedness, and competence) among 116 Native American youth attending a one-week culturally-tailored summer camp. Participants were 60% female, on average 13.14 (SD = 2.02) years old and had an average of 2.98 (SD = 2.08) years of prior camp experience. Following their camp experience, participants completed measures of participation quality (i.e., the Tiffany-Eckenrode Program Participation Scale) and targeted program outcomes (i.e., the Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction and Frustration scale). The study findings indicated only one dimension of participation quality (personal development) positively predicted levels of autonomy, relatedness, and competence satisfaction. This study provides preliminary support for the potential utility of promoting (personal development) in a residential summer camp for Native American youth.
... The review also assessed the published program results to characterize cultural relevance, such as mentions of "language," "traditional calendar," "ancestral," "territory," or "ceremony." Only four peer-reviewed Extension publications discussed elements of Indigenous identity, and only two papers discussed implementing a program (Garbow et al., 2019;Vettern and Flage, 2018). In addition to a general lack of documentation of work in Indigenous communities, Farella, Hauser, et al. (2021) also noted a deficiency of a cohesive framework or philosophical basis within the literature. ...
... Programs highlighting Indigenous identities have seen success in localized events and case studies (e.g., Charging Home Stampede Fair; Garbow et al., 2019), and there are likely many more successful programs that have not been broadly shared. However, broad synthesis of success within Indigenous communities is not present within our field, and it is sorely needed. ...
Article
Full-text available
Indigenous youth are systemically underserved by 4-H and other positive youth development (PYD) organizations. Many underserved First Nation communities in the United States could greatly benefit from programs that foster youth thriving; however, these programs tend to be ineffective in creating culturally reflective spaces for Indigenous participants. In this article, we argue that the Peoplehood Model should serve as a unifying model for the inclusion of Indigenous identity in programming, and that cultural humility should be firmly integrated into program design and assessment. We also propose that, to support Indigenous youth thriving, PYD practitioners must intentionally create a "partial vacuum" that supports youth creating program context and thriving.
... Algunas investigaciones apuntan a otros factores distintos a la creatividad en relación con la educación financiera, a la hora de desarrollar una actividad económica (Garcia, 2013). Entre estos factores destacan aquellos trabajos que sugieren que el emprendimiento está relacionado con la frustración por no tener un empleo con un salario en una empresa, la empresa familiar, el ciclo económico en el que se inicia la actividad, el desarrollo del tejido empresarial de la ubicación del emprendedor (Garbow et al., 2019). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Perspectiva crítica sobre la configuración de la idea de universidad en Colombia es un capítulo de libro resultado de investigación vinculada al Grupo Giep de la Universidad de San Buenventura Cartagena, una visión, un recuento interpretativo, una propuesta de compresión sobre como se configuró una o tal vez, la primera idea de universidad en Colombia.
... Algunas investigaciones apuntan a otros factores distintos a la creatividad en relación con la educación financiera, a la hora de desarrollar una actividad económica (Garcia, 2013). Entre estos factores destacan aquellos trabajos que sugieren que el emprendimiento está relacionado con la frustración por no tener un empleo con un salario en una empresa, la empresa familiar, el ciclo económico en el que se inicia la actividad, el desarrollo del tejido empresarial de la ubicación del emprendedor (Garbow et al., 2019). ...
Chapter
El texto es resultado de una investigación adscrita a la universidad de San Buenaventura Catagena, al grupo de investigación GIEP.
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This article proposes a new stress-coping model for American Indians and Alaska Natives (AIs) that reflects a paradigmatic shift in the conceptualization of Native health. It reviews sociodemographic information on AIs, rates of substance abuse and related health outcomes, and the research supporting the model's pathways. Although health outcomes among AIs are improving, large disparities with other racial and ethnic groups in the United States remain. Many health-related problems are directly linked to high rates of substance use and abuse. Eurocentric paradigms focus on individual pathology. An "indigenist" perspective of health incorporates the devastating impact of historical trauma and ongoing oppression of AIs. The model emphasizes cultural strengths, such as the family and community, spirituality and traditional healing practices, and group identity attitudes.
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Study investigates distal and proximal contextual influences of the American Indian culture that affect financial decisions and behaviors. Primary household financial managers were interviewed. Study was grounded in Deacon and Firebaugh's Family Resource Management theory. Findings indicated that American Indians view many concepts differently than conventional disciplinary meanings. Most critical is that money is not the only currency used within the culture but relationships and nature are also used as other currencies. Further findings of note are (a) the cultural belief that resources must be shared with all family members is seen as an obligation and often creates major resource demands, (b) spirituality and nature are of major importance in resource decisions, and (c) the holistic, integrated view of health and well-being is essential to consider when working with American Indians on resource management. Three resource management patterns were discovered: mainstream, traditional, and hybrid. Expense and income worksheets were developed reflecting cultural nuances. © 2016 Association for Financial Counseling and Planning Education®.
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The long-term impact of a Latino financial literacy program was evaluated with a sample of relatively recent immigrant populations in southern Minnesota. Telephone and face-to-face interviews were conducted with participants 6 months post program completion. Results indicate that improvements in knowledge and skills were retained and that these learning were applied to make improvements in participants' financial situations. Participants acknowledged that more important than gaining knowledge was learning how to apply what they have learned. Implications for Extension are offered in terms of those factors that promoted the effectiveness of the financial literacy education.
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The purpose of this study was to gain consensus among researchers and college educators using the Delphi method about the personal finance knowledge, skills, and actions/behaviors that are important for all first-generation college students. A group of five experts who had knowledge of college students’ financial literacy needs participated as panelists. Three rounds of questionnaires elicited responses from the panelists to identify personal finance core concepts and competencies that are most crucial for first-generation college students. All 14 personal finance concepts and 234 competencies gained consensus. The mean rankings by importance of each personal finance concept and competency were identified.
Implicit in much of American Indian acculturation research is the erroneous assumption that acculturation is synonymous with identity and, as a result, can be used as a proxy for identity in survey research. This lack of distinction between the two means may partly explain some discrepant findings in American Indian wellness studies. To clarify the conceptual distinction, the current study examined the relationship between urban American Indian identity attitudes and acculturation styles. The findings indicate that although identity attitudes and acculturative behaviors are related they are separate constructs that should not be used as proxies for one another in survey research or mental health studies. Contrary to the assimilationist models, native peoples have survived by taking the best of both worlds, integrating them, maintaining and transforming native cultures, and, ultimately buffering against negative colonizing processes through the internalization of positive identity attitudes and the externalization of negative dominant group attitudes.
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Fifty-seven Ojibwe Indian tales collected from Anishinaabe elders, reproduced in Ojibwe and in English translation. A language carries a people's memories, whether they are recounted as individual reminiscences, as communal history, or as humorous tales. This collection of stories from Anishinaabe elders offers a history of a people at the same time that it seeks to preserve the language of that people. As fluent speakers of Ojibwe grow older, the community questions whether younger speakers know the language well enough to pass it on to the next generation. Young and old alike are making widespread efforts to preserve the Ojibwe language, and, as part of this campaign, Anton Treuer has collected stories from Anishinaabe elders living at Leech Lake, White Earth, Mille Lacs, Red Lake, and St. Croix reservations. Based on interviews Treuer conducted with ten elders--Archie Mosay, Jim Clark, Melvin Eagle, Joe Auginaush, Collins Oakgrove, Emma Fisher, Scott Headbird, Susan Jackson, Hartley White, and Porky White--this anthology presents the elders' stories transcribed in Ojibwe with English translation on facing pages. These stories contain a wealth of information, including oral histories of the Anishinaabe people and personal reminiscences, educational tales, and humorous anecdotes. Treuer's translations of these stories preserve the speakers' personalities, allowing their voices to emerge from the page. Treuer introduces each speaker, offering a brief biography and noting important details concerning dialect or themes; he then allows the stories to speak for themselves. This dual-language text will prove instructive for those interested in Ojibwe language and culture, while the stories themselves offer the gift of a living language and the history of a people. ANTON TREUER is a member of the Leech Lake band of Ojibwe and assistant professor of Ojibwe at Bemidji State University in Bemidji, Minnesota. He is editor of the only academic journal on the Ojibwe language, Oshkaabewis Native Journal, and author of Omaa Akiing, a collection of Ojibwe tales from Leech Lake elders. ---------------------------------------------------- Praise for Living Our Language: "A rich and varied collection of tales from the Ojibwe (Chippewa) tradition . . . Drawn from printed and oral sources, the stories are meticulously and sensitively translated and annotated, giving shape, form, and nuance to a fragile, almost extinct, civilization. This preservation project will be a vital addition to Native American lore." -- Library Journal "A major contribution to Anishinaabe studies. Treuer's collection is particularly welcome as it brings in new voices to speak of the varied experiences of the Anishinaabeg of recent generations." -- John D. Nichols, F.R.S.C., co-editor of A Concise Dictionary of Minnesota Ojibwe
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Historical trauma (HT) is cumulative emotional and psychological wounding over the lifespan and across generations, emanating from massive group trauma experiences; the historical trauma response (HTR) is the constellation of features in reaction to this trauma. The HTR often includes depression, self-destructive behavior, suicidal thoughts and gestures, anxiety, low self-esteem, anger, and difficulty recognizing and expressing emotions. It may include substance abuse, often an attempt to avoid painful feelings through self-medication. Historical unresolved grief is the associated affect that accompanies HTR; this grief may be considered fixated, impaired, delayed, and/or disenfranchised. This article will explain HT theory and the HTR, delineate the features of the HTR and its grounding in the literature, offer specific Native examples of HT and HTR, and will suggest ways to incorporate HT theory in treatment, research and evaluation. The article will conclude with implications for all massively traumatized populations.
Race and financial capability in America: Understanding the Native American experience. FINRA Investor Education Foundation Report
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Dewees, S., & Mottola, G. (2017). Race and financial capability in America: Understanding the Native American experience. FINRA Investor Education Foundation Report. Retrieved from http://www.usfinancialcapability.org/downloads/NativeAmericanExperienceFinCap.pdf
Financial education in South Dakota's high Nativeenrollment schools: Barriers and possibilities
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Anderson, W., Brantmeier, N., Jorgensen, M., & Lounsberg, A. (2010). Financial education in South Dakota's high Nativeenrollment schools: Barriers and possibilities. Longmont, CO: First Nations Oweesat Corporation.