Article

Burmese (Myanmar) amber checklist and bibliography 2018

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

A list of all known taxa described or recorded from Burmese amber from the published literature up to the end of 2018 is given, along with a comprehensive bibliography. The history of the study of inclusions is summarised, and demonstrates that the number of species has risen exponentially over the past two decades. The first three species were named in 1916 and by the end of 1920 a total of 42 species had been named by T.D.A. Cockerell. Only three more species were named by 1999 though by the end of 2018 the total had risen to an incredible 1,192 species, of which over half were named in the past three years. Some 320 species were named in 2018, the highest number described from one type of amber in any one year in the entire history of amber studies.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... Crowson (1959Crowson ( , 1960 first proposed a relationship between Jacobsoniidae and the superfamily Staphylinoidea although it was provisionally placed in the superfamily Dermestoidea together with Derodontidae, Nosodendridae, and Dermestidae. Subsequently, different authors proposed different classifications and Jacobsoniidae was placed within Cucujiformia (Sen Gupta 1979), Bostrichiformia (Lawrence & Newton 1995;Philips et al. 2002), and finally Derodontiformia (Lawrence & Leschen 2010;Bouchard et al. 2011). The most recent morphological and molecular phylogenetic studies support a close affinity of the family with Staphylinoidea (Lawrence et al. 2011;McKenna et al. 2015bMcKenna et al. , 2019Toussaint et al. 2017;Zhang et al. 2018), which resulted in removing Jacobsoniidae from Derodontiformia and the family was treated as taxon incertae sedis within Polyphaga (Lawrence 2016), then formally placed in Staphylinoidea (Cai et al. 2021). ...
... systematic position of D. capDoliensis n. sp. The new fossil species can be placed into the family Jacobsoniidae on the basis of its minute size, narrowly elongate body, elongate prothorax, absence of a visible scutellum, concealed antennal insertions, and a distinctly elongate metaventrite (Philips et al. 2002;Lawrence & Leschen 2010). It can be placed into the extant genus Derolathrus based on its exceptionally small body size (incomplete length of 0.76 mm), 3-3-3 tarsal formula, 11-segmented antennae with a compact two-segmented apical club, and aciculate apical maxillary palpomeres (Sen Gupta 1979;Löbl & Burckhardt 1988;Philips et al. 2002;Peck 2010;Lawrence & Ślipiński 2013). ...
... The new fossil species can be placed into the family Jacobsoniidae on the basis of its minute size, narrowly elongate body, elongate prothorax, absence of a visible scutellum, concealed antennal insertions, and a distinctly elongate metaventrite (Philips et al. 2002;Lawrence & Leschen 2010). It can be placed into the extant genus Derolathrus based on its exceptionally small body size (incomplete length of 0.76 mm), 3-3-3 tarsal formula, 11-segmented antennae with a compact two-segmented apical club, and aciculate apical maxillary palpomeres (Sen Gupta 1979;Löbl & Burckhardt 1988;Philips et al. 2002;Peck 2010;Lawrence & Ślipiński 2013). In terms of its gross morphology, D. capdoliensis n. sp. ...
Article
Full-text available
Jacobsoniidae is a species-poor family of minute polyphagan beetles distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Both extant representatives of the family as well as fossils are rare. Here we describe a new fossil species, Derolathrus capdoliensis n. sp., from latest Albian-earliest Cenomanian Charentese amber from the Cadeuil deposit, Charente-Maritime department in south-western France. The new species is defined by several unusual characters, most notably the co-joined but not fully fused two apical antennomeres. Derolathrus capdoliensis n. sp. is approximately contemporaneous with Kachin amber (burmite), filling an important geographical gap in the Mesozoic distribution of the family. The widespread distribution of jacobsoniid beetles in the Cretaceous, encompassing the Tethyan and Austral realms, indicates a more widespread distribution of the family during this time than in the present day and suggests that the current biogeographical range of Jacobsoniidae may be a result of extinction in northern regions. The new species shows remarkable similarity to extant members of the genus and provides further evidence of prolonged morphological, and probably also ecological, stasis in Jacobsoniidae since at least the Cretaceous.
... Since the turn of the century, scientists have become increasingly aware of the outstanding potential of Burmese amber to advance palaeontological research. Burmese amber has provided a rare insight into mid-Cretaceous terrestrial forest environments that were creeping, crawling and slithering with insects, arachnids, myriapods, crustaceans, nematodes, annelids, snails, amphibians and reptiles (Ross, 2019). Particularly over the last decade, the excavation of exceptional fossils has attracted researchers worldwide and sparked a major wave of species discoveries (Ross, 2019). ...
... Burmese amber has provided a rare insight into mid-Cretaceous terrestrial forest environments that were creeping, crawling and slithering with insects, arachnids, myriapods, crustaceans, nematodes, annelids, snails, amphibians and reptiles (Ross, 2019). Particularly over the last decade, the excavation of exceptional fossils has attracted researchers worldwide and sparked a major wave of species discoveries (Ross, 2019). Approximately 1200 species of animal and plants have been described and many more are awaiting description (Ross, 2019;Sokol, 2019). ...
... Particularly over the last decade, the excavation of exceptional fossils has attracted researchers worldwide and sparked a major wave of species discoveries (Ross, 2019). Approximately 1200 species of animal and plants have been described and many more are awaiting description (Ross, 2019;Sokol, 2019). In addition, a number of marine animals have been recorded trapped in the treacherous resin (Smith & Ross, 2018;Xing et al. 2018a;Yu et al. 2019). ...
Article
Burmese amber continues to provide unique insights into the terrestrial biota inhabiting tropical equatorial forests during mid-Cretaceous time. In contrast to the large amount and great diversity of terrestrial species retrieved so far, aquatic biota constitute rare inclusions. Here we describe the first freshwater snail ever preserved in amber. The new species Galba prima sp. nov. belongs in the family Lymnaeidae, today a diverse and near globally distributed family. Its inclusion in terrestrial amber is probably a result of the amphibious lifestyle typical of modern representatives of the genus. The finding of a freshwater snail on the Burma Terrane, back then an island situated at some 1500 km from mainland Asia, has implications for the dispersal mechanisms of Mesozoic lymnaeids. The Cenomanian species precedes the evolution of waterfowl, which are today considered a main vector for long-distance dispersal. In their absence, we discuss several hypotheses to explain the disjunct occurrence of the new species.
... The genus Burmacader Heiss and Guilbert, 2013 has been found only in Kachin amber, with three species (Heiss and Guilbert, 2013, 2018: B. grandis Heiss and Guilbert, 2021, B. lativentris Heiss and Guilbert, 2018, and B. multivenosus Heiss and Guilbert, 2013. The genus shares several distinct characters, including the areolate pronotum and hemelytron and the well-developed scutellum, with the subfamilies Vianaidinae, Tinginae, and Cantacaderinae (Heiss and Guilbert, 2013, 2018. ...
... The genus Burmacader Heiss and Guilbert, 2013 has been found only in Kachin amber, with three species (Heiss and Guilbert, 2013, 2018: B. grandis Heiss and Guilbert, 2021, B. lativentris Heiss and Guilbert, 2018, and B. multivenosus Heiss and Guilbert, 2013. The genus shares several distinct characters, including the areolate pronotum and hemelytron and the well-developed scutellum, with the subfamilies Vianaidinae, Tinginae, and Cantacaderinae (Heiss and Guilbert, 2013, 2018. Recently, Guilbert and Heiss (2019) showed a phylogenetic tree based on 50 morphological characters, and Burmacader was recovered as a sister group with the megadiverse Tinginae þ Cantacaderinae clade. ...
... nov. are described based on only a single specimen (Heiss and Guilbert, 2013, 2018. Therefore, handling a large number of specimens may reveal that if these differences among the related species are due to sexual dimorphism or infraspecific variation. ...
Article
The fossil lace bug genus Burmacader Heiss & Guilbert, 2013 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Tingidae) is known solely from mid-Cretaceous Kachin amber from northern Myanmar. Its phylogenetic position may represent an extinct lineage sister to the megadiverse Tinginae + Cantacaderinae clade. Here, a new species of Burmacader is described under the name B. bicoloripennis sp. nov. as the fourth member of the genus from the same amber deposit. This new species is readily distinguished from the other three Burmacader species by the smaller body and the structures of the pronotum and hemelytron. The male genitalia of a fossil lace bug were observed for the first time in the new species. Furthermore, the segmental oligomery of the antenna in the fossil lace bug is reported for the first time. An identification key for all described species of Burmacader is provided. Our new finding sheds light on the structural similarity of the male genitalia between fossil and extant lace bugs and the hidden paleodiversity of this genus in the Late Mesozoic, indicating that Burmacader had already diversified by the mid-Cretaceous.
... This fossil resin is characterized by an exceptional species diversity, including a large number and broad taxonomic diversity of insects preserved as inclusions. So far, representatives of over 290 families of invertebrates, mainly insects, arachnids, crustaceans and other arthropods, have been described from inclusions in Burmese amber (Ross 2020). The amber contains inclusions of flies from the family Culicidae Meigen 1818 along with representatives of many other insect groups, including species from the orders Embioidea Hagen, 1862, Strepsiptera Kirby, 1813, Zoraptera Silvestri, 1913, Archeognatha Börner, 1904, Zygnetoma Börner, 1904, Hemiptera Linnaeus, 1758and Lepidoptera Linnaeus, 1758(Engel & Grimaldi 2002, 2006Borkent & Grimaldi 2004;Grimaldi et al. 2005;Ross 2020). ...
... So far, representatives of over 290 families of invertebrates, mainly insects, arachnids, crustaceans and other arthropods, have been described from inclusions in Burmese amber (Ross 2020). The amber contains inclusions of flies from the family Culicidae Meigen 1818 along with representatives of many other insect groups, including species from the orders Embioidea Hagen, 1862, Strepsiptera Kirby, 1813, Zoraptera Silvestri, 1913, Archeognatha Börner, 1904, Zygnetoma Börner, 1904, Hemiptera Linnaeus, 1758and Lepidoptera Linnaeus, 1758(Engel & Grimaldi 2002, 2006Borkent & Grimaldi 2004;Grimaldi et al. 2005;Ross 2020). However, the Diptera are one of the most numerous in terms of the number of species and specimens, as well as the one of the best known groups of insects represented in Burmese amber. ...
... To date only one species has been described from the Cretaceous, based on inclusion in Cenomanian Burmese amber, this is Rhabdomastix jarzembowskii Krzemiński, 2004, the oldest representative of the genus. Despite Diptera being among the most numerous insects represented in Burmese amber, to date, only 13 species within 11 genera of Limoniidae have been described from inclusions in Burmese amber and only the one species of Rhabdomastix (Table I) (Ross 2020). ...
Article
A new subgenus Myanmamastix subgen. n. and four new species of Rhabdomastix from Cenomanian Burmese amber were described: Rhabdomastix (Myanmamastix) asiatica subgen. and sp. n., Rhabdomastix (Myanmamastix) cretacica subgen. and sp. n., Rhabdomastix (Myanmamastix) krzeminskae subgen. and sp. n., Rhabdomastix (Myanmamastix) myanmae subgen. and sp. n. The species Rhabdomastix jarzembowskii known from Burmese amber was reclassified to the new subgenus Myanmamastix subgen. n. An analysis of the morphological structures and taxonomical differences between the representatives of Cretaceous Rhabdomastix was carried out. The manuscript presents results of original research, including the first 3D reconstruction of a Dipteran preserved as an inclusion in Burmese amber using computer microtomography.http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:79C82852-2502-4A2F-B684-CCCE10D6C525
... It also included angiosperms, ferns, and mosses. Among Cretaceous amber deposits, amber from Myanmar has yielded the most diverse fauna and flora (e.g., Grimaldi et al., 2002;Cruickshank and Ko, 2003;Bell and York, 2007;Ross et al., 2010;Shi et al., 2012;Schneider et al., 2016;Ross, 2019;Schmidt et al., 2020) and represents one of the most important sources of information on the terrestrial diversity during the radiation of angiosperms. The diverse arthropod fauna (Ross, 2019) indicates the presence of a variety of niches and the high number of liverwort fossils belonging to Porellales suggest an extensive epiphyte flora (Heinrichs et al., 2018a). ...
... Among Cretaceous amber deposits, amber from Myanmar has yielded the most diverse fauna and flora (e.g., Grimaldi et al., 2002;Cruickshank and Ko, 2003;Bell and York, 2007;Ross et al., 2010;Shi et al., 2012;Schneider et al., 2016;Ross, 2019;Schmidt et al., 2020) and represents one of the most important sources of information on the terrestrial diversity during the radiation of angiosperms. The diverse arthropod fauna (Ross, 2019) indicates the presence of a variety of niches and the high number of liverwort fossils belonging to Porellales suggest an extensive epiphyte flora (Heinrichs et al., 2018a). Additional evidence of an epiphytic growth of the leafy liverwort species in Kachin amber is provided by bark fragments attached to the rhizoid bundles of many specimens Li et al., 2021). ...
Article
DNA-based analyses as well as the fossil record indicate that liverworts date back to the early Paleozoic, but diverse specimens of lifelike three-dimensional fossils only occur as amber inclusions from the mid-Cretaceous onwards. Some Albian–Cenomanian ambers preserve elements of a diverse biota that existed during the rise of angiosperms, a time of fundamental change in terrestrial ecosystems that likely affected epiphytic taxa. Recent analyses have provided important insight into the phylogenetic diversification and morphological evolution of liverworts. They suggest that the mid- to Late Cretaceous was a transitional time with a significant species turnover. Here, we review all currently recognized leafy liverwort species from Cretaceous ambers based on the examination of previously described fossil specimens as well as newly discovered amber inclusions. Our survey includes a determination key. The study of 26 new fossils from Kachin amber, including fertile material, enabled us to emend descriptions for Frullania cretacea, F. baerlocheri, and Protofrullania cornigera. Mid-Cretaceous Frullaniaceae often possess some characters and character combinations that are absent in extant representatives, substantiating the assumption of a lineage turnover in the Cretaceous. Among the new fossils is Radula heinrichsii sp. nov., which expands the number of Cretaceous, amber-preserved liverwort species to eight.
... In the Lower Cretaceous, four species have been recorded from France, Mongolia, and Russia [6][7][8][9]. A total of 14 species from seven genera have been identified from the mid-Cretaceous Burmese (Kachin) amber from northern Myanmar to date [10][11][12][13][14][15]. ...
Article
Full-text available
A total of 14 species in seven tingid genera have been described from the mid-Cretaceous Burmese (Kachin) amber from northern Myanmar, with very distinct paleofauna. Here, a new species of a new genus, Burmavianaida anomalocapitata gen. et sp. nov., is described from Kachin amber. This new species can be readily distinguished from the other described tingid taxa by the apparently smaller body and the structures of the pronotum and hemelytron. Burmavianaida gen. nov. shares the diagnostic characters with two clades composed of three extant subfamilies (Cantacaderinae + Tinginae) and Vianaidinae and may represent an extinct clade distinct from them. To the best of our knowledge, B. anomalocapitata sp. nov. is the smallest species of Tingidae among over 2600 described species. Our new finding supports the hypothesis of the miniaturization phenomenon of insects in Kachin amber, as suggested by previous studies.
... On the basis of UePb dating of zircon crystals, the age of the rock yielding Kachin amber was determined to be 98.79 ± 0.62 Ma (earliest Cenomanian) (Shi et al., 2012); its precise age, however, may be older (close to the boundary between the Albian and Cenomanian or even the late Albian) since the amber displays of traces of redeposition (Mao et al., 2018;Yu et al., 2019). True bugs are abundant and highly diverse among Kachin amber inclusions, amongst 1478 described insect species, with more than 45 species in more than 10 families belong to the Heteroptera (Ross, 2019(Ross, , 2020. ...
Article
A new representative of the extant family Yuripopovidae (Heteroptera: Coreoidea), Pseusocaulisoculus longicornis gen et sp. nov, is described. This new monotypic genus is morphologically closely related to genus Caulisoculus Zhang & Chen 2020 from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber. We discuss its relationship to other yuripopovinids, provide an updated key to known representatives of Yuripopovinidae and illustrate all the species of the family known from Kachin amber.
... The growing interest in the study of insects in Burmese amber leads to considerably increase the number of known psocid fossil species (e.g., Ross, 2019;2021;Yoshizawa and Lienhard, 2020), with representatives of the families yArchaeatropidae, Compsocidae, yCormopsocidae, Liposcelididae, Manicapsocidae, Pachytroctidae, Prionoglarididae, Psyllipsocidae, Sphaeropsocidae, and Trogiidae. ...
Article
Palaeosiamoglaris hkamtiensis sp. nov. of the family Prionoglarididae is described from Hkamti amber (ca. 110 Ma), together with Psyllipsocus myanmarensis sp. nov., the third fossil psyllipsocid species described from Noije Bum Hill (ca. 98 Ma). Based on the current observations of Palaeosiamoglaris hkamtiensis sp. nov., we discuss the synapomorphic characters proposed to define the tribe Siamoglaridini. Palaeosiamoglaris hkamtiensis sp. nov. is, inter alia, characterized by the maxillary palpomere 3 ca. 0.66 times as long as maxillary palpomere 4, the second anal vein concavity turned toward posterior wing margin in forewing, Sc reaching R1 nearly at middle of radial cell. The new species Psyllipsocus myanmarensis sp. nov. is, inter alia, characterized by antennae with 11 segments, the radial cell closed and six-angled, and the quadrangular pterostigma.
... The tropical forest of the mid-Cretaceous in what is now Myanmar, was humid and hostile, looming with hungry predators, parasites and competitors scavenging for their next meal. These predators have been widely recorded in Burmese amber deposits dating from the early Cenomanian, including dinosaurs, birds, reptiles, arachnids, insects and millipedes (Xia et al., 2015;Xing et al., 2016aXing et al., , 2016bXing et al., , 2018Grimaldi and Ross, 2017;Ross, 2019;Stoev et al., 2019;Koubová and Mlynský , 2020). For the inconspicuous cyclophorid snails, life was probably spent hunkered down and camouflaged on the constantly humid forest floor, eating dead and decaying leaves and non-living vegetation much like their extant relatives (Little, 1990;Neubauer et al., 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
When seldom life history events serendipitously get documented by exceptional preservation in the fossil record, a unique telescopic opportunity arises for interpreting fossils within their paleoenvironment as well as for understanding ancestral relationships of current life forms. We present a rare glimpse of live birth by a terrestrial mother snail, incidentally, engulfed by amber as she released her young in a tropical forest during the mid-Cretaceous (early Cenomanian). The exceptional finding featuring the preservation of a snail’s 99-million-year-old soft-body together with five neonate shells represents the earliest known fossilized incidence of viviparity in a terrestrial snail. Based on high-resolution photographs and µCT scans, we describe the mother snail as a new species of cyclophoroid, Cretatortulosa gignens sp. nov. Our finding provides remarkable perspectives for interpreting gastropod evolution 80 million years earlier than the fossil record has known up to now. It shows that viviparity was already a relevant reproductive strategy in the Cretaceous, probably increasing the offspring’s survival chance in a predator-lurking tropical forest.
... Indigenous people working in IDP camps are directly involved in the scientific process, playing the important role of finding and sorting amber inclusions. These findings are the basis for over 700 important discoveries that have been published in scientific publications (Ross 2019). The bulk of these material have been found prior to 2017 by amber cutters in IDP camps, adjacent cities, and towns, which generated income for their families, and more importantly under humanitarian and non-conflict conditions (Peretti 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
Recent publications have been actively recommending strong embargos on Burmese amber trade and research. Although the motivation of these actions seeks to prevent armed groups from obtaining capital via amber trade, which in the views of the authors helps further fueling the armed conflict, here, I demonstrate that this claim is not accurate. In this analysis, I prove that these preventative actions undertaken by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology and echoed by others do not resolve the situation in Burma, but on the contrary, aggravate the problem by negatively affecting the Burmese miners. My analysis is congruent with other independent analyses of the Burmese Amber trade. In line with the recommendation of the United Nations, and as an alternative approach, it is possible to support the amber economy that is in opposition to the Burmese military and help the Burmese scientific community to increase their capability and knowledge to engage in a niche market that is largely not accessible to unethical players. This would lead to a sourcing of research material that fulfills the demand of the international scientific community for ethical standards.
... To date, there are eight genera with 16 species of Tingidae from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber [8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24]. But the placement of six Cretaceous genera is still uncertain; they exhibit a combination of characters of the subfamilies or tribes [8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17]. ...
Article
Full-text available
A new genus and species, Latidorsum carinbifarium Wang, Tang & Yao gen. et sp. nov., is assigned to Phatnomatini (Tinginae), which is described from the mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber. A parsimonious analysis based on 50 morphological characters with 26 terminals clarifies the phylogenetic status of the new fossils and examined relationships among the presently analysed genera of the family Tingidae. The resulting cladogram supporting Tingidae are reconfirmed as monophyletic and divided into four main clades, with relationships as follows: (Vianaidinae + ((Burmacader multivenosus + Burmavianaida anomalocapitata) + (Sinaldocader rasnitsyni + (Gyaclavator kohlsi + Tinginae + Cantacaderinae)))). Anterior length of bucculae distinctly projecting in front of head, sometimes in contact is not a synapomorphic character for Cantacaderinae, which evolves in parallel in Tinginae and Cantacaderinae.
... Our present understanding of the Burmese amber forest is that of a tropical forest environment rich in habitat diversity that thrived on an island in the Tethys and included estuarine environments, although the amber forest extended further inland, similar to tropical rainforests today (see, e.g. Ross, 2019Ross, , 2020Grimaldi et al., 2002 for plant diversity in Burmese amber; Smith & Ross, 2017;Westerweel et al., 2019;Yu et al., 2019). The presence of subterranean habitats, perhaps coastal limestone caves or lava tubes, is also indicated by troglobitic nocticolid cockroaches in Burmese amber (Sendi et al., 2020). ...
Article
Short-tailed whipscorpions are a small arachnid order with 379 described species from (sub)tropical regions of the world. The order has a fragmentary fossil record but has left a rich, albeit hitherto undocumented, fossil legacy in mid-Cretaceous amber from Myanmar, also called Burmese amber or Burmite. Here, we review a large series of schizomids from this type of amber and propose four new genera for seven new species. In addition, we include a short revision of all schizomid genera based on 14 morphological characters. Although none of the fossils can be assigned to Recent genera, they resemble the modern fauna in general morphology and highlight relative morphological stasis in this arachnid order. The fossils show a general trend towards eye reduction, but some of the specimens retain corneate eyes. Comparative data suggest affinities of the fossils with the Recent Old World fauna rather than American relatives. Furthermore, the fossils provide evidence for a Gondwanan origin of the Burma Terrane. Overall, the data suggest a high diversity at both species and genus levels for Burmese amber schizomids. We discuss potential reasons for this richness that will probably necessitate the description of additional genera and species in future studies.
... The Burmese amber specimens studied herein originated from amber mines near Noije Bum, Hukawng Valley, Kachin State, northern Myanmar. Burmese amber is one of the most important of the fossiliferous resins from the Mesozoic, with its paleobiotic diversity reviewed by Ross et al. [19][20][21], and is renowned for yielding rich and exquisitely preserved fauna including well-preserved insects [22][23][24][25]. The age of the amber deposits is considered to be mid-Cretaceous based on U-Pb zircon dating [26,27]. ...
Article
Full-text available
A new genus and species of the cleroid family Lophocateridae are described and illustrated from the mid-Cretaceous amber of northern Myanmar. Gracilenticrus burmiticus Yu, Kolibáč & Ślipiński gen. et sp. nov. is unique among Lophocateridae in the tiny body size, frontoclypeal suture and antennal grooves absent, symmetrical antennal clubs, protrochantin reduced, tarsal claws small and widened at base. A key to the species of Mesozoic Lophocateridae is also provided. Morphological characters of the newly discovered Gracilenticrus were analyzed together with representatives of 43 extant genera of Cleroidea (broadly defined Trogossitidae) in a matrix of 91 characters. Gracilenticrus burmiticus was resolved as a member of Lophocateridae. The discovery of a diverse fauna of Lophocateridae in the mid-Cretaceous sheds a new light on the early evolution of superfamily Cleroidea.
... Burmese amber originates from several localities at Tanai in the Hukuang Valley, Kachin State (Kachin amber), the Hti Lin (Tilin amber) in the Magwe region, and the Pat-tar bum southeast of Khamti (Hkamti Amber), Sagain Region (Grimaldi et al., 2002;Kania et al., 2015;Zheng et al., 2018;Xing and Qiu, 2020;Nyunt et al., 2021). No plant fossils have been reported to date from Hkamti amber (109.7 ± 0.4 Ma) and Tilin amber (uppermost Campanian~72.1 Ma) (Zheng et al., 2018;Xing and Qiu, 2020), whereas Kachin amber contains diverse plant fossils (Ross, 2019(Ross, , 2021. The presently widely accepted age of Kachin amber is late Albianeearly Cenomanian which is supported by the evidences from the index fossil of ammonite genus Puzosia (Yu et al., 2019) and palynomorphs (Davies, 2001). ...
Article
A unique case of liverwort mimesis in lacewing larvae of Phyllochrysa huangi has been reported from the mid-Cretaceous Kachin amber, Myanmar. However, we caution to take this interpretation for granted because of the still incomplete assessment of the plant diversity preserved in the Kachin amber inclusions. Our re-examination of the plant fossils regarded as models for Phyllochrysa huangi received evidence for a new species of the lycophyte genus Selaginella, namely S. cretacea sp. nov., and two species indeterminate of Selaginella, besides four species of the leafy liverwort family Frullaniaceae, including Frullania baerlocheri, F. kachinensis, F. partita, and Protofrullania cornigera. Careful morphological comparison recovered that the flat larvae of Phyllochrysa huangi closely match the dorsiventrally complanate strobili of Selaginella subgenus Stachygynandrum (lycophytes) represented by S. cretacea sp. nov. In turn, the larval morphology did not show obvious similarities with the shoots of the leafy liverworts. In the context of the improved taxonomic survey of the plant inclusions, it is evident that the so-called liverwort mimesis in Cretaceous lacewing larvae was actually lycophyte mimesis. The larvae of Phyllochrysa huangi provided the earliest evidence of a putative extinct Phyllochrysa-Selaginella mimetic system.
... N, 96 • 43 11.88" E; palaeolatitude 5.0 ± 4.7 • S) [15,16]. Over the last 100 years, and particularly in the past two decades, Kachin amber has received worldwide scientific interest; more than 600 families of invertebrates, vertebrates, protists, plants, and fungi have been reported [17][18][19][20]. The Burma Terrane, in which the amber occurs, was part of a Trans-Tethyan island arc at a near-equatorial more-southern latitude at about 95 million years ago, suggesting island endemism for the Kachin amber biota [15]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The fossil record of adult planthoppers is comparatively rich, but nymphs are rare and not well studied. Here, we describe a bizarre armoured planthopper nymph, Spinonympha shcherbakovi gen. et sp. nov., in mid-Cretaceous Kachin amber. The new genus is characterized by its large size, body armed with spines and tubercles, extremely long rostrum reaching well beyond the apex of the abdomen; profemur and mesofemur subcylindrical, covered with setae; protibia and mesotibia subquadrangular, densely covered with setae; protarsus and mesotarsus with two segments, tarsomere II longer and wider than I; metatrochanter swollen, metafemur subcylindrical, covered with short setae; metatibia subquadrangular, densely covered with short setae, without lateral spine and pectens without setae; metatarsus with three segments, and metatarsomere III extremely small. The fossil nymph cannot be attributed to any known planthopper family, but can be excluded from many families due to its large size and leg structure. The armoured body was probably developed for defence, and the extremely long rostrum indicates that, in the past, feeding on trees with thick and rough bark was more widespread than today. These features indicate that the new specimen represents a new armoured morphotype of planthopper nymph from the fossil record.
... Burmese amber originates from several localities at Tanai in the Hukuang Valley, Kachin State (Kachin amber) (Grimaldi et al., 2002;Kania et al., 2015), the Hti Lin (Tilin amber, uppermost Campaniañ 72.1 Ma) in the Magwe region (Zheng et al., 2018), and the Pat-tar bum southeast of Khamti (Hkamti Amber, 109.7 ± 0.4 Ma), Sagain Region (Xing and Qiu, 2020;Nyunt et al., 2021). Kachin amber contains diverse plant and animal fossils (Ross, 2019), while no plant fossils have been reported from Hkamti amber and Tilin amber (Zheng et al., 2018;Xing and Qiu, 2020). The widely accepted age of Kachin amber is late Albian-early Cenomanian which is supported by the evidences from the index fossil of ammonite genus Puzosia (Yu et al., 2019) and palynomorphs (Davies, 2001). ...
Article
Molecular phylogenetic analyses indicate that during the Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution (KTR) around 125–80 Ma, the rapid rise and radiation of angiosperms probably triggered the diversification of mosses and substantial changes of their lineage composition. However, moss fossils which could substantiate these findings are generally rare in the Cretaceous. In this study, we investigate several sterile gametophyte fragments of mosses preserved in mid-Cretaceous Kachin amber from Myanmar. We describe a new sterile shoot as Vetiplanaxis obtusus sp. nov. (Hypnodendrales), make an emended description of V. pyrrhobryoides N.E.Bell based on additional fossil materials, and identify a linear-lanceolate leaf as V. cf. longiacuminatus Hedenäs et al. We confirm again the presence of geminate teeth in leaf margin of the above three species studied here, and report the presence of hair-like rhizoids in stem. The phyllotaxis in the species of Vetiplanaxis with complanate shoot is explained as pseudo-tetrastichous, really octostichous, formed by two right-handed Fibonacci spirals. Our findings provide new insights into the circumscription of the Cretaceous moss genus Vetiplanaxis, and add new evidence to indicate that there was a diverse pleurocarpous moss flora in the mid-Cretaceous Kachin amber forest of Myanmar.
... The amber from Myanmar is one of the most intensively studied objects amongst Cretaceous fossiliferous resins and contains a remarkably diverse flora and fauna (Grimaldi et al. 2002). It is remarkable that the palaeodiversity of Berothidae is extraordinarily rich from the mid-Cretaceous of Myanmar, being one of the major Neuropteran lineages in this deposit (Ross 2019), with 13 genera and 19 species described, based on the Myanmar amber specimens (Engel and Grimaldi 2008;Yuan et al. 2016;Huang et al. 2018;Makarkin 2018;Yang et al. 2019;Yang et al. 2020). These Myanmar amber berothids show diverse morphological characters and are probably the members, or as the stem-groups of different subfamilies (Huang et al. 2018). ...
Article
A new species of Berothidae, Jersiberothamusivum sp. nov., is described and illustrated from mid-Cretaceous (lowest Cenomanian) Myanmar amber. It is easily distinguished from other species of Berothidae by the configuration of the wing venation including: forewing with distinct areas of infuscation surrounding cross-veins and vein forks, all cross-veins simple prior to ScP-RA fusion, presence of two cross-veins ra-rp; absence of inner or outer graduate series of cross-veins; RP with three branches; and absence of ma-mp cross-veins and cua-cup cross-veins; while hind wing has cross-vein 1r-m absent. The previous diagnoses of Iceloberotha Grimaldi, 2000 and Jersiberotha Grimaldi, 2000 are quite unclear because some characters occur mosaically in both genera. In order to solve this problem and distinguish J.musivum from other species in the family, a new key to species of Berothidae from Myanmar amber has been provided and the diagnoses of Iceloberotha and Jersiberotha have been revised.
Article
The heteropteran monotypic genus Leptosaldinea from mid-Cretaceous Kachin amber was originally ascribed into leptopodomorphan Leptopodidae: Leptosaldinae. In the present paper, we report Leptosaldinea zhengmingi Chen and Zhuo, sp. nov. from the same amber biota. The new species distinctly differs from its congener by some critical body structure traits. This genus herein is proposed to be transferred from Leptopodomorpha (shore bugs) to Dipsocoromorpha (minute litter bugs) based upon a series of morphological traits displayed in its type species as well as our new taxon, which are discriminative characteristics for dipsocoromorphans but are absent amongst fossil and living leptopodomorphans. This genus is further proposed to be assigned into the ancient schizopterid subfamily Hypselosomatinae. Our new find not only clarifies the systematic position of Leptosaldinea, but also adds the biodiversity and disparity of ancient minute litter bugs in the late Mesozoic.
Article
Burmoxyela lii gen. et sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on a male collected from mid-Cretaceous Kachin (Burmese) amber. Pinguixyela gen. nov. is described for Syspastoxyela pinguis Wang, Shih, Ren & Gao, 2019, and Syspastoxyela. simpla Wang, Shih, Ren & Gao, 2019 is transferred to the genus Striaexyela Zheng, 2019 as Striaexyela simpla (Wang, Shih, Ren & Gao, 2019). comb. nov., both from Kachin amber. This results in 5 genera and 6 species comprising the family thus far. A key to genera and species of Syspastoxyelidae is provided. The family is consideded as the most basal branch of Hymenoptera sister to Xyelidae. Biologically Syspastoxyelidae are hypothesized to develop within male cones of conifer trees and to feed on pollen grains both as adult and immature. Our discovery supports the hypothesis that the mid-Cretaceous biota in West Burma plate was highly endemic.
Article
Full-text available
Here we provide evidence for the presence of non-biting midges of the subfamily Chironominae in the Mesozoic, based on descriptions of exceptionally rare amber inclusions. The subfamily has already been reported, but based on a single and unspecified record from Late Cretaceous Taimyr amber (~84 Mya). That record is here revised and confirmed. Moreover, a new find in Burmese amber locates the temporal boundary of the subfamily back to the mid-Cretaceous (probably ~100 Mya). We describe two new genera assigned to the tribe Pseudochironomini: Mesoacentron gen. nov. with the species Mesoacentron kaluginae sp. nov. (Taimyr amber) and Palaeocentron gen. nov. with the species Palaeocentron krzeminskii sp. nov. (Burmese amber), the oldest known representative of the subfamily. The systematic position of the new taxa is discussed, and a key to the identification of adult males of extinct and extant Pseudochironomini genera is presented. Insights in the phylogeny and diversification tempo of the Chironominae and Pseudochironomini in the past are also provided.
Article
A new species, Dorytocus jiaxiaoae Song, Szwedo & Bourgoin sp. nov., from the mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber is described and illustrated. This species represents the first record of the adult of the extinct family Dorytocidae. The supplementary description for the fourth-instar nymph of Dorytocus ornithorhynchus Emeljanov & Shcherbakov is provided. The morphological peculiarities of the new fossil species are briefly discussed, and family diagnosis is now based on the combination of both adult and nymph characters.
Book
Full-text available
SYNTHESIS OF PARTS 11-20 OF THE ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS TO LIENHARD & SMITHERS, 2002: "PSOCOPTERA (INSECTA) – WORLD CATALOGUE AND BIBLIOGRAPHY". Since the volume Psocoptera (Insecta) – World Catalogue and Bibliography was published by the Geneva Natural History Museum in 2002, twenty supplementary papers of additions and corrections have appeared in Psocid News. All available literature on Psocoptera was treated in the same style as the Catalogue (listed taxonomically, faunistically and thematically). For ease of use a synthesis of the first ten supplements was published as Special Issue 3 of Psocid News. The present compilation offers a synthesis of the supplements 11 to 20 (published annually between 2012 and 2021 in Psocid News No. 14-23) and it contains a complement to the Subject Bibliography published in Psocid News Special Issue 2, i. e. a synthesis of the annual subject bibliographies published in Psocid News No. 19-23. See: http://hdl.handle.net/2115/35519
Article
A rare archostematan beetle, Lepidomma beuteli sp. nov. (Insecta: Coleoptera: Archostemata), is described based on a well-preserved specimen from mid-Cretaceous Kachin amber. It is the fourth species of the genus from the same locality that can be distinguished from the other three congeners by its elongated scape, exposed neck and, especially, ridged pronotum. The new species was probably adapted to a surficial, arboreal, diurnal lifestyle from its external appearance. The specialization of scaly elytra also helps to reveal the importance of scale development in mid-Cretaceous Kachin beetles.
Article
Full-text available
Polycentropodidae constitute 55.6% of Taimyr amber caddisfly species with known males, and only 4.8% of caddisfly species with known males in Kachin amber. Micro-caddisflies obviously dominate in Taimyr amber (Archaeopolycentra, Polycentropodidae), Kachin amber (Palerasnitsynus, Psychomyiidae) and New Jersey amber (Hydroptilidae); both Psychomyiidae and Hydroptilidae are absent in Taimyr amber, Polycentropodidae are absent in New Jersey amber and rare in Kachin amber. The domination of Polycentropodidae was proposed as a new characteristics of Baeomorpha Realm, their rarity or absence proposed as a new characteristics of Isoptera Realm.
Article
Dryinus carsteni sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea: Dryinidae) is described from mid-Cretaceous Kachin (Burmese) amber. The new species is close to D. taron Martynova, Zhang, Olmi, Müller, Perkovsky, 2020, but it can be distinguished for the shorter body (about 2 mm), antennomere 3 about 5 × as long as broad and protarsomere 2 produced into hook (in D. taron, the body is longer more than 5 mm, antennomere 3 is about 20 × as long as broad and protarsomere 3 is produced into hook).
Article
Full-text available
Confocal laser scanning microscopy is an essential analytical tool in biological, biomedical, and material sciences, integrating microscope manufacturing technology, optical-electronic technology, and computer technology. In the last decade, confocal laser scanning microscopy has been successfully applied to the study of amber bioinclusions. Enhanced signal to noise ratios, resolution power, capability of optical sectioning, three-dimensional reconstruction, and better performance when imaging thicker samples provide a great deal of valuable and detailed morphological information about amber fossils. We briefly discuss the practical applications of CLSM in amber studies and compare it with other imaging methods commonly used in the field, including bright-field microscopy, wide-field fluorescence microscopy, and micro-computed tomography. A general procedure for imaging amber inclusions with CLSM is provided, with a focus on pretreatments and image processing.
Article
The sooty mould beetles (Cyclaxyridae) are a small and relictual family of cucujoid beetles with only two extant species restricted to New Zealand. The systematic position of the family within Cucujoidea is unresolved, with morphological and molecular studies yielding a range of incongruent topologies. Here we describe a new cyclaxyrid genus and species, Pacyclaxyra azari gen. et sp. nov., from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber mined in northern Myanmar (ca. 99 Ma). The new genus is separated from all other cyclaxyrids by its unusually large body size, dorsally concealed antennal insertions, narrowly separated procoxae, narrow prosternal process not expanded at apex, and presence of a distinct discrimen on metaventrite. Together with Electroxyra cretacea described from the same deposit, Pacyclaxyra gen. nov. represents the earliest sooty mould beetle in the fossil record. Considering the potentially plesiomorphic characters possessed by Pacyclaxyra azari gen. et sp. nov., the implications for understanding the systematic position of Cyclaxyridae are discussed.
Article
Cormopsocus neli Hakim, Azar & Huang sp. nov., a new cormopsocid species from the mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber is characterized, described, and illustrated. Its taxonomic position is discussed. This is the second species of the Cormopsocidae, the most recently discovered trogiomorphan family in the Burmese amber.
Article
Full-text available
Artematopodid fossils from the mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber are reported for the first time, represented by three species in two genera. Bipogonia Li, Kundrata & Cai gen. nov. with two species, B. trivialis Li, Kundrata & Cai sp. nov. and B. fortis Li, Kundrata & Cai sp. nov., is mainly characterized by the distinctly serrate antennae, mandibles with both apical and subapical teeth, and prosternum without paired longitudinal ridges. Carinibipogonia xiai Li, Kundrata & Cai gen. et sp. nov. shares with Bipogonia the distinctly serrate antennae and mandibles with both apical and subapical teeth but differs mainly in the prosternum with short paired longitudinal ridges. Based on their morphology, the two new genera might be related to the extant Allopogonia; however, this needs to be tested in the future with a phylogenetic framework.
Article
With some 3,700 described species, Dryopoidea are a moderately diverse superfamily of beetles whose position within basal Polyphaga has been historically difficult to elucidate. Members of most extant dryopoid families are set apart from the majority of other polyphagans by their association with aquatic habitats, but little is known about the origin of these derived life habits and the phylogeny of the superfamily. Here we describe Mastigocoleidae Tihelka, Jäch, Kundrata & Cai fam. nov., a new family of Mesozoic dryopoids represented by fossils from the Cretaceous Yixian Formation in northeastern China (undescribed species; ~125 Ma), Crato Formation in northeastern Brazil (Mastigocoleus rhinoceros Tihelka & Cai gen. et sp. nov.; ~113 Ma), and amber from northern Myanmar (Mastigocoleus resinicola Tihelka & Cai gen. et sp. nov. and Cretaceocoleus saetosus Tihelka, Kundrata & Cai gen. et sp. nov.; ~99 Ma). Integrating the findings of recent molecular and morphological phylogenetic analyses, we recover Mastigocoleidae as an early-diverging dryopoid clade sister to the families Lutrochidae and Dryopidae, or less likely as a group of putative stem-dryopoids. Mastigocoleidae are most distinctly separated from all other dryopoid families by their whip-like antennae, with 11 antennomeres, reaching to the pronotal base, and with the scape broadest and longest, a short pedicel, and antennomeres II–XI more or less distinctively gradually tapering toward the apex. Mastigocoleidae indicate that the last common ancestor of Dryopoidea was likely terrestrial in the adult stage, and document character acquisitions associated with a specialization for aquatic life.
Article
Here we describe and illustrate a new genus and species of the extinct froghopper family Sinoalidae, Cretomultinervis burmensis gen. et sp. nov. from Burmese (Myanmar) amber. The new genus can be recognized from all sinoalids by the combination of hind tibia armed with five interlaced lateral spines, leaf-shaped tegmen with very broad postcostal cell, basal cell extremely long, hindwing with costal margin armed with 5 micro-spines basally, cross vein mp-cua apparently basad of stem CuA fork. This peculiar combination of primitive and derived characters suggests that Cretomultinervis likely represents an early-diverging lineage of Sinoalidae, increasing our knowledge on the morphological disparity of this extinct family during the late Mesozoic.
Article
A B S T R A C T A new species of a new genus, Burminella artiukhini from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber (ca. 99 Ma), is described in the family Pupinidae. This land snail possesses intermediate characters between the latter group and some other families of Cyclophoroidea. The shell of B. artiukhini is relatively high and has 8.5 whorls, which places it more closely to known genera of Pupinidae. But it differs from all other genera of the family by the oblique aperture and relatively wide conical shell, the characters common in many Cyclophoridae, Neocyclotidae and Alycaeidae. It means that B. artiukhini is possibly representing a morphological group that was ancestral to all other Pupinidae and, therefore, was transitional between this family and other Cyclophoroidea.
Article
Full-text available
Lophocateridae is a small family of cleroid beetles with more than one hundred species in 14 genera (Crowson, 1970; Kolibáč, 2013; Kolibáč & Peris, 2021). While the group was previously treated as a subfamily or tribe of Trogossitidae (e.g., Crowson, 1964; Barron, 1971; Ślipiński, 1992; Kolibáč, 2006), molecular phylogenetic analyses have not support the monophyly of Trogossitidae sensu lato (Bocak et al., 2014; Hunt et al., 2007; McKenna et al., 2015; Zhang et al., 2018; Kolibáč et al., 2021). In the most comprehensive analysis of Cleroidea performed to date by Gimmel et al. (2019), Lophocateridae was recovered as sister to Chaetosomatidae and Trogossitidae sensu stricto and elevated to family level. Extant Lophocateridae are cosmopolitan and display diverse modes of life, including fungivorous, herbivorous and predatory species, all of which are mostly associated with saproxylic habitats (Kolibáč, 2013).
Article
One new genus and two new species (Gnethoda putshkovi sp. nov. and Parasorellembia groehni gen. et sp. nov.) of webspinners (Embiodea) are described from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber (ca. 99 Ma). Detailed morphological descriptions of the new taxa are given. The diagnoses of the subfamily Gnethodinae, the genus Gnethoda and subfamily Sorellembiinae are specified. Gnethoda putchkovi sp. nov. is characterized by plesiomorphic characters such as the postocular carinae, absence of gula and probably developed ocelli. Parasorellembia groehni gen. et sp. nov. is characterized by a specialized abdominal apex, in addition to such a plesiomorphic character as the presence of ocelli. Some aspects of morphology and origin of gula in webspinners are briefly discussed. Seven of the nine Burmese amber webspinner species are very small; we hypothesize that this was likely related to the abundance and dominance of enantiornithine birds in the Burmese amber forest.
Article
Full-text available
We describe a new psocid genus and species, †Burmesopsocus lienhardi Yoshizawa, based on a fossil specimen embedded in mid-Cretaceous Burmese (Kachin) amber. Phylogenetic analysis based on the morphological data strongly suggest that the species is a member of the suborder Psocomorpha and may belong to the infraorder Homilopsocidea. However, its familial placement could not be determined. Therefore, this species is treated here as incertae sedis within Homilopsocidea without assigning it to any known family. This is the oldest fossil record of Psocomorpha and represents the first occurrence of the suborder from Kachin amber. The present discovery of a mid-Cretaceous homilopsocid species will contribute greatly to calibrating the time tree of Psocodea.
Article
Full-text available
Fossil bioinclusions in amber are invaluable source of information on the past evolution and diversity of various organisms, as well as on the paleoecosystems in general. The click-beetles, Elateridae, which originated and greatly diversified during the Mesozoic, are mostly known from the adpression-like fossils, and their diversity in the Cretaceous ambers is only poorly documented. In this study, we describe a new click-beetle based on an incomplete inclusion in ajkaite, an Upper Cretaceous (Santonian) amber from the Ajka Coal Formation from Hungary. We used X-ray micro-computed tomography scanning to reconstruct its morphology because it is deposited in an opaque piece of amber. Our results suggest that the newly described Ajkaelater merkli gen. et sp. nov. belongs to subfamily Elaterinae. It represents the first Mesozoic beetle reported from Hungary, and the first Mesozoic Elateridae formally described from mainland Europe. Our discovery supports an Eurasian distribution and diversification of Elaterinae already in the Cretaceous. The paleoenvironment of the Ajka Coal Formation agrees well with the presumed habitat preference of the new fossil taxon. The discovery of a presumably saproxylic click-beetle shed further light on the yet poorly known paleoecosystem of the Santonian present-day western Hungary.
Article
Aleyrodomorpha, known as whiteflies, is an extremely specialized infraorder of tiny hemipteran insects, with relative scarcity of fossil records in the Mesozoic Lagerstätten. We herein describe and illustrate a new aleurodicine whitefly, Burmodicus monlyae Chen et Zhuo, sp. nov., based upon a fossil trapped in mid-Cretaceous Kachin amber, northern Myanmar. The new species can be easily discriminated from its congener by possessing a series of fore- and hind wing characters, e.g., fore wing with costal area and clavus with tip almost at same level, R branching distinctly basad of CuP ending, RP not ending at wing tip and almost at same level of CuA ending, and hind wing with RP just lightly longer than RA. Our find further adds new knowledge on the palaeo-biodiversity of early Aleyrodomorpha.
Article
True hoppers, consisting of Fulgoromorpha and Cicadomorpha, are plant feeders with very high species-level diversity. A large amount of true hopper fossils have been reported from eastern Asia, especially from the Middle to Late Jurassic Yanliao Biota, the Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota and mid-Cretaceous Kachin amber in the last two decades. Herein, true hoppers from the Jurassic and Cretaceous of eastern Asia are reviewed, and combining palaeontological data from other regions of the world and recent advances of molecular studies, the evolutionary history of true hoppers in the mid-late Mesozoic is discussed. Permocicada beipiaoensis Wang, 1987 and Archijassus plurinervis Zhang, 1985 are here excluded from Prosboloidea and Archijassidae respectively. To the end of 2020, a total of 203 species with definite systematic position have been documented in the Jurassic and Cretaceous of eastern Asia (China, Myanmar, Siberia, Mongolia, Japan and Korea), and were attributed to 116 genera in 22 families and 7 superfamilies. Available fossil data suggest that true hopper components strongly changed in the Cretaceous: primitive groups reduced and went extinct successively, and the origin and/or early diversification of most lineages (family or subfamily level) occurred, likely owing to the displacement of host-plants in the angiosperm floristic revolution.
Article
Two new genera, Burserphites and Mesoserphites, belonging to the subfamily Serphitinae (Serphitidae, Hymenoptera) are described from Burmese mid-Cretaceous amber. Two new species are erected within Buserphites n. gen.: B. applanatus, and B. myanmarensis, and five new species are established within Mesoserphites n. gen.: M. annulus, M. giganteus, M. engeli, M. scutatus, and M. viraneacapitis. These taxa show that the family Serphitidae was highly diverse in Burmese amber, adding substantially to recent discoveries within the endemic subfamily Supraserphitinae Rasnitsyn and Ölm-Kühnle. The presence of multiple serphitid genera in Burmese amber that are unknown from other amber deposits adds support to the idea that the Western Burma Block supported a fauna with multiple endemic groups as it approached contact with mainland Asia in the latest Albian or earliest Cenomanian. Despite the growing number of species recognized from Burmese amber, most of the newly described taxa are represented by very few specimens, suggesting that we are still within the early stages of documenting the fauna, or that the collections from this region represent a broader range of time and habitats than originally thought.
Article
Full-text available
Amber fossils provide snapshots of the anatomy, biology, and ecology of extinct organisms that are otherwise inaccessible. The best-known fossils in amber are terrestrial arthropods—principally insects—whereas aquatic organisms are rarely represented. Here we present the first record of true crabs (Brachyura) in amber—from the Cretaceous of Myanmar (~100–99 Ma). The new fossil preserves large compound eyes, delicate mouthparts, and even gills. This modern-looking crab is nested within crown Eubrachyura, or ‘higher’ true crabs, which includes the majority of brachyuran species living today. The fossil appears to have been trapped in a brackish or freshwater setting near a coastal to fluvio-estuarine environment, bridging the gap between the predicted molecular divergence of non-marine crabs (~130 Ma) and their younger fossil record (latest Cretaceous and Paleogene, ~75 to 50 Ma) while providing a reliable calibration point for molecular divergence time estimates for ‘higher’ crown eubrachyurans.
Article
Trichophyinae is one of the smallest subfamilies of the megadiverse rove-beetle family Staphylinidae, with only 18 species in the single extant genus Trichophya Mannerheim. Here we describe the first fossil representative of Trichophyinae in mid-Cretaceous amber from Kachin, northern Myanmar. †Trichophya minor sp. nov. is unusual in having non-filiform thick antennae, similar to T. antennalis Cameron, 1932 from India, but this new species can readily be distinguished from the latter by having much smaller and smoother body. Our finding indicates that the subfamily had been originated by the Albian–Cenomanian boundary, also showing a potential Gondwanan distribution at that time. We also briefly discuss a miniaturization trend in the Burmese amber beetles.
Article
Full-text available
Mesozoic fossils provide invaluable information about the origin and evolutionary history of scorpions. However, well-preserved scorpions in amber are comparatively rare, greatly limiting our understanding of early scorpion morphological diversity and disparity. Here we describe a new species of the extinct family Palaeoburmesebuthidae, Betaburmesebuthus spinipedis sp. nov., based on a complete female juvenile from the mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber from the Hukawng Valley in northern Myanmar. As some critical characters are hard to interpret, we tentatively place the species in the genus Betaburmesebuthus. We also document, for the first time in a fossil scorpion, five pairs of lateral ocelli on the carapace. Our discovery provides new evidence for the relationship between Palaeoburmesebuthidae and the Recent family Buthidae.
Article
Pseudoscorpions have a sparse fossil record although they are among the oldest terrestrial lineages with origins that go back to the Devonian (ca. 385 Ma). Amongst the 25 extant families of pseudoscorpions, only 14 are known from fossils, most of which are preserved in European ambers from the Eocene. Burmese amber from the Cenomanian (mid-Cretaceous) of northern Myanmar is an important source of Mesozoic pseudoscorpion fossils but only six species have been described from this amber to date. In this paper, we establish the first fossil record for the pseudoscorpion family Ideoroncidae Chamberlin, 1930, which is coequally the oldest record of the pseudoscorpion superfamily Neobisioidea. The new genus Proalbiorix is established for the two species P. gracilis sp. nov. and P. compactus sp. nov. which already show all diagnostic features of members belonging to this family to date. Interestingly, Proalbiorix shows morphological features that align the fossils with present-day fauna from the Americas and Africa rather than Asia, which has biogeographical implications. Overall, the description provides another example of relative morphological stasis of pseudoscorpions compared to other arachnid lineages such as spiders, and that all major clades of pseudoscorpions were established long before the Cretaceous.
Article
A new genus, Longiglabellus Wang, Li & Yao gen. nov. with two new species, L. edentatus Wang, Li & Yao gen. et sp. nov. and L. pedhyalinus Wang, Li & Yao gen. et sp. nov. are assigned to the †Cormopsocidae (Trogiomorpha). Based on female ovipositor characteristics, ventral and dorsal valves well developed may be autapomorphy in Cormopsocidae. The strong development of the hind wing Sc is stable in Cormopsocidae.
Article
Few animals have experienced such jarring taxonomic whiplash as has Oculudentavis, a tiny tetrapod preserved in amber. A new specimen of this perplexing lineage now shows that it is a lizard unlike any ever discovered.
Article
Three new genera and species of Cenomanian Cixiidae from Kachin amber (Myanmar) are described: Acrotiara Bourgoin & Luo gen. nov., type species A. multigranulata Luo & Bourgoin sp. nov., Delphitiara Bourgoin & Luo gen. nov., type species D. tibiocoronata Luo & Bourgoin sp. nov., and Pentacarinus Bourgoin & Luo gen. nov., type species P. kachinensis Luo & Bourgoin sp. nov. A key to identification of these new genera is provided. These cixiids with a pentacarinated mesonotum belong to a new tribe Acrotiarini Bourgoin & Luo trib. nov., type genus Acrotiara Bourgoin & Luo gen. nov., which is characterized by a specific set of characters, some being unique in the family Cixiidae such as the paired sublaterofrontal carinae and the arched RA on the tegmina. This new taxon prompts discussion of the current classification and phylogeny of the family, which remains widely unexplored, and evaluation of the placement of two older cixiid fossils currently known, Karebodopoides aptianus (Fennah, 1987) and Cixius petrinus Fennah, 1961. A new genus, Barremixius Bourgoin & Szwedo gen. nov., is proposed for the latter, resulting in the new combination Barremixius petrinus (Fennah, 1987). Karebodopoides Szwedo, 2001 and Barremixius gen. nov. are provisionally recognized as the oldest representatives of the oecleinian lineage (including Bothriocerini trib. stat. nov.) and the cixiinian lineage. Acrotiarini trib. nov. belongs to the pentastirinian lineage (including Borysthenini stat. nov.). All these fossils depict that the first main division that occurred in Cixiidae, occurred much earlier during the Cretaceous.
Article
As a famous fossil Lagerstätte, the mid-Cretaceous (ca. 100 Ma) amber from Kachin, northern Myanmar, harbors one of the most diverse Mesozoic palaeobiotas yet discovered. Over the past few years, reports of organisms trapped in Kachin amber have increased exponentially. Ostracods, as fully aquatic animals, are so far represented in Kachin amber by two records of specimens without soft parts (1 valve and two carapaces) as well as an exceptional assemblage with well-preserved soft parts comprising 39 specimens of three species assigned to the families Candonidae and Loxoconchidae. Since the last-mentioned focused on the exceptional preservation of giant sperm and reproductive organs in only one species, we here present in-depth morphological descriptions of all three species including a new genus: Myanmarcypris hui Wang et al., 2020, Electrocypria burmitei gen. et sp. nov., and Sanyuania sp. We further describe taphonomic traits indicating that the studied ostracods were quickly surrounded by resin and instantly immobilized. The palaeoenvironment is considered to be a vegetated brackish (mesohaline-oligohaline) lagoon.
Article
Full-text available
Burmese amber represents the world’s most diverse biota in the Mesozoic. Previous studies have focused on the biodiversity of its inclusions, as well as pholadid borings. Here we report a variety of marine animals symbiotic with or adhere to Burmese amber or the amber deposits, including crinoid columns, corals and oysters. We propose that there is no distinct evidence indicating the secondary transportation of Burmese amber over long distances. The ancient sedimentary environment was likely located in the coastal area. The hardening time of the resin was not long after secretion. The resin has been mixed with fragments of marine organisms in the ancient sediments, and has been deposited for a long time. The zircon age in the sediments surrounding amber approximately represents the age of Burmese amber, but due to limits of the method, the current zircon U-Pb SIMS age may be younger. Therefore, as far as the situation is concerned, the age of Burmese amber may be close to the boundary between the Albian and Cenomanian, or even late Albian. We suggest that it is plausible to generally refer to the age of Burmese amber as mid-Cretaceous, and a precise age requires further biostratigraphic and chronological studies.
Article
Full-text available
Among insects, 236 families in 18 of 44 orders independently invaded water. We report living amphibiotic cockroaches from tropical streams of UNESCO BR Sumaco, Ecuador. We also describe the first fossil aquatic roach larvae (6 spp.; n = 44, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1) from the most diverse tropical Mesozoic sediments (Middle Jurassic Bakhar Fm in Mongolia, Kimmeridgian Karabastau Fm in Kazakhstan; Aptian Crato Fm in Brazil), and the Barremian Lebanese and Cenomanian Myanmar ambers. Tropic-limited occurrences are trophic- (biomass/litter-fall), structural- (diversity) and also abiotic-factor-dependent (high temperatures). Diverse Paleozoic aquatic eoblattids are here (re)described from the lower Permian sediments of Elmo, U.S.A. and Chekarda, Russia. They competed with true cockroaches to reach water prior to the Mesozoic. Due to different evolutionary rates or periodical changes in water characteristics, non-adapted terrestrial insects repeatedly invaded the aquatic realm with well adapted hydrobionts. Obscurely, most aquatic lineages still survive. In contrast with Crustacea, aquatic-terrestrial reversal is absent. A single principal lineage, namely of moths, ancestral to butterflies (origination of modern insects from ephemerans and dragonflies is questioned), possibly evolved from insects with aquatic immature stages, and none from aquatic adults. The rest of the orders are terrestrial-derived. The proposed reason for the lack of land return is the character of numerous aquatic adaptations related to reductions, which are unlikely to be resuppressed. The aquatic insect family/terrestrial insect family ratio over time reveals a sharp rise from the Late Carboniferous to Late Triassic followed by lasting stability. Diversification of aquatic insects seems consistent with a 62.05 ± 0.02 Ma periodicity.
Article
Full-text available
An inventory of the Myriapoda (Diplopoda, Chilopoda, Symphyla) from Cretaceous Burmese amber, Myanmar, is presented, including the oldest and/or first fossil record for numerous orders. For millipedes (Diplopoda) 527 records, including 460 new specimens determined by us, belonging to 13 of 16 recent orders are listed: Polyxenida, Glomeri­desmida, Glomerida, Siphonophorida, Polyzoniida, Platydesmida, Siphoniulida, Chordeumatida, Polydesmida, Stemmiulida, Callipodida, Spirostreptida and Spirobolida. For centipedes, 33 records for 4 of the 5 recent orders are listed: Scutigero­morpha, Lithobiomorpha, Scolopendromorpha and Geophilomorpha. For Symphyla, three records for both families, Scutigerellidae and Scolopendrellidae, are listed. The majority of Diplopoda records (30.5%) are Polydesmida. The record of the Polyzoniida includes first instar octopod juveniles. The checklist includes the first fossil representatives known of the Platydesmida, as well as the oldest known fossils of the Polyxenida, Glomeridesmida, Glomerida, Siphono­phorida, Polyzoniida, Siphoniulida, Spirostreptida, as well as both Symphyla families. Misidentifications by Zhang (2017) are corrected; while most Chilopoda in that list are correct, almost all Diplopoda are misidentified.
Article
Full-text available
Over the last 20 years, compression fossils of feathers surrounding dinosaurs have greatly expanded our understanding of the origin and evolution of feathers. One of the most peculiar feather morphotypes discovered to date are rachis dominated feathers (RDFs), which have also been referred to as proximally ribbon-like pennaceous feathers (PRPFs). These elongate feathers are only found in the tail plumage, typically occurring in pairs with both streamer (not proximally ribbon-like) and racket-plume morphologies recognized. Here we describe a large sample set of isolated and paired RDFs from Upper Cretaceous Burmese amber (~ 99 Ma). Amber preserves the finest details of these fragile structures in three dimensions, demonstrating that RDFs form a distinct feather morphotype with a ventrally open rachis, and with significant variability in pigmentation, microstructure, and symmetry.
Article
Full-text available
Macalpinomyia jiewenae gen. et sp.n. is described from themid-Cretaceous (∼99 Ma) amber of Myanmar. Macalpinomyia jiewenae is the first Oriental representative of the enigmatic family Ironomyiidae (Diptera: Phoroidea), currently known from a single extant genus restricted to southeastern Australia, plus a monotypic genus from Canadian amber and three controversial genera based on impression fossils from China, Mongolia and Russia. A phylogenetic analysis of all Phoroidea families, including all ironomyiid extant and extinct genera, corroborates the monophyly of Ironomyiidae, and Macalpinomyia gen.n. is assigned to the subfamily Sinolestinae. Cretonomyiinae subfam. n., is erected to accommodate the basal lineage of Ironomyiidae. Lebambromyia acrai Grimaldi & Cumming, previously placed in Ironomyiidae, is supported as an early branching lineage of Platypezidae. Our topology proposes that Ironomyiidae is sister to the remaining Phoroidea. The phylogenetic results, in combination with the fossil ages and relevant molecular divergence time analysis, suggests that Ironomyiidae probably originated at least in the Berriasian of the Early Cretaceous (∼140 Ma).
Article
Full-text available
Fossil limnichids are very rare, and were known from the Cenozoic so far. Here we describe and illustrate the first definitive Mesozoic representative of the family Limnichidae, Erichia cretacea sp. Nov., based on a well-preserved adult from the Upper Cretaceous Burmese amber. This taxon is firmly placed in the extant Cephalobyrrhinae based on multiple characteristics, such as body elongate and oval, base of pronotum and elytra incised and metacoxae transverse. The discovery of a Mesozoic fossil species classified in the recent genus suggests that Limnichidae and Cephalobyrrhinae are ancient groups, that experienced long evolutionary stasis.
Article
Full-text available
Two flowers embedded in a single block of amber from Myanmar are here proposed as a second species of the previously described fossil genus Lachnociona. The mid-Cretaceous age of the fossils was earlier established through paleontological and U-Pb isotope dating methods. Because they lie within millimeters of each other in the amber, the flowers are assumed to have come from the same parent plant. One flower is hermaphrodite while the other is functionally pistillate. They differ by the number of styles-4 in the perfect flower and 5 in the unisexual one-and most notably by the presence, in the perfect flower, of 10 conspicuous nectar glands forming a disc above the whorl of stamens. The pistillate f lower has no such glands. In the new species, the arched styles are widely divergent and the ovary is fully inferior, while in the earlier-described Lachnociona terriae, the flower is functionally pistillate, with styles that are erect and connivent or connate. It could not be determined whether the ovary is superior or half-inferior. The best-preserved anther in the perfect flower of L. camptostylus resembles, in its dorsal filament attachment and hooked filament tip, a vestigial anther present in the flower of L. terriae. Pollen of the new species is tri-or tetracolpate. As proposed in the previous paper, the genus may have participated in the early diversification of the rosid clade of eudicots.
Article
Full-text available
A single staminate flower preserved in mid-Cretaceous Myanmar amber is described as Setitheca lativalva gen. Et sp. Nov. The fossil's affinities appear to be with Monimiaceae and allied families of order Laurales. The perianth is composed of ca. 12 spirally arranged tepals of varying size and shape. A single whorl of 10 stamens is attached to the margin of a flat central disc. There is no gynoecium. In some of the stamens, the bilocular anthers are held upright, but in the others, the filaments are arched abaxially and the anthers are reflexed. Dehiscence is extrorse via 2 lateral, dorsally-hinged valves, as also occurs in some members of Hernandiaceae. The spherical pollen appears to be inaperturate. Such features as the unisexual flowers, valvate anthers, and a perianth of numerous, spirally arranged tepals are consistent with assignment of the fossil to this order of angiosperms.
Article
Full-text available
The ant-like stone beetle tribe Glandulariini harbours approximately 3700 species, representing more than 70% of the extant diversity of the subfamily Scydmaeninae. Fossil records of this large tribe are rare, and are mostly confined to Eocene to Miocene amber, whereas only four genera were known from Mesozoic deposits. Here we report a new Mesozoic taxon, Pangusyndicus excavatus Yin, Zhou & Cai gen. et sp. nov., from Cenomanian Burmese amber. For the first time the ventral cephalic structures of an extinct Glandulariini are observable, a character system usually difficult to discern, especially in fossil scydmaenines. Pangusyndicus clearly lacks lateral sulci on the submentum, a critical character state that justifies the placement of Pangusyndicus in one of the two assumedly ‘natural groups’ of Glandulariini. Pangusyndicus displays strongly reduced antennomeres XI, similar to those found only in the extant Australo-Oriental genus Syndicus Motschulsky. To test the phylogenetic position of Pangusyndicus, cladistic analyses were performed based on morphological data. Both parsimonious and maximum likelihood cladograms recovered a close relationship between Pangusyndicus, Syndicus and Loeblites Franz, indicating the unique reduction of apical antennomeres in this group may have originated once, and by the mid-Cretaceous at the latest. More strikingly, Pangusyndicus possesses a large cavity on the mediobasal surface of the pronotal disc, a feature previously unknown among all scydmaenines. We interpret this as a specialized glandular structure, although its function remains uncertain. The presence of such a cavity in Pangusyndicus represents the earliest known presumably glandular structure in Staphylinidae. Moreover, Pangusyndicus and several recently described mid-Cretaceous scydmaenines belonging to various tribes exhibit notably longer legs than their extant relatives, indicating shifts in habitat and prey preferences may have occurred during the evolution of these groups.http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:11529A5C-DAF3-4AD9-A074-10E937CE75CF
Article
Full-text available
Twisted winged insects (Strepsiptera) are a highly specialized small order of parasitic insects. Whether parasitism developed at an early or late stage in the evolution of the group was unknown. Here we record and describe the first definite Mesozoic strepsipteran primary larva embedded in Burmese amber (∼99 million years ago). This extends the origin of parasitism back by at least ∼50 million years, and reveals that this specialized life style has evolved in the Mesozoic or even earlier in the group. The extremely small first instar displays all diagnostic characters of strepsipteran immatures of this stage and is nearly identical with those of Mengenillidae, one of the most ''ancestral'' extant strepsipteran taxa. This demonstrates a remarkable evolutionary stasis over 100 million years. The new finding strongly weakens the case of small larvae embedded in Cretaceous amber interpreted as strepsipteran immatures. They differ in many structural features from extant strepsipteran primary larvae and are very likely parasitic beetle larvae.
Article
Full-text available
The present work reviews the topic of ancient vertebrate pathogens that have been discovered associated with arthropods in Tertiary and Cretaceous amber. The great majority of these pathogens have been recorded inside the alimentary tract or body cavity of their vectors. Microorganisms resembling those that cause malaria, Lyme disease and plague, as well as many other diseases, provide evidence of the antiquity of pathogens that infect us today.
Article
Full-text available
The new genus †Burmasphex is proposed for two fossil species, †Burmasphex sulcatus sp. nov. and†Burmasphex pilosus sp. nov., described from Myanmar Cretaceous amber. It exhibits many plesiomor-phic features in relation to the extant Apoidea and is here provisionally allocated in the extinct family†Angarosphecidae.
Article
Full-text available
An ambrosia beetle described as Palaeotylus femoralis n. gen et sp. belonging to a new subfamily (Palaeotylinae n. subfam.: Coleoptera: Platypodidae) is described from Cretaceous Burmese amber. It differs from other subfamilies by the loose antennal club, 6-articled funicle, coarsely faceted eyes, tibiae with teeth at apex, bilobed meso- and meta-tarsomeres 2 and 3 and tarsomere 1 shorter than tarsomeres 2–4 combined. This is the first described Platypodidae from Burmese amber and the oldest documented ambrosia beetle that demonstrates glandular sac mycangia containing yeast-like propa-gules and hyphal fragments.
Article
Full-text available
Niche diversity of pollinating insects plays a vital role in maintaining extant terrestrial ecosystems. A key dimension of pollination niches refers to the insect proboscis length that commonly matches the floral tube length. Here we describe new kalligrammatid lacewings (an iconic Mesozoic pollinating insect lineage) from late Cretaceous Burmese amber and Mesozoic sediments in China. Kalligrammatids display complex configurations of elongate mouthpart elements consisting of well-developed maxillae, labium and their palps. The mouthpart lengths vary among species, from 0.6 to 18.0 mm, suggesting corresponding variability in the floral tube lengths of Mesozoic plants. With the diversification of pollinating habits, the kalligrammatids presented highly divergent traits related to chemical communication and defence mechanisms. Together with other Mesozoic long-proboscid insects, these fossils not only reveal the high niche diversity of Mesozoic pollinating insects but also highlight the diversity of Mesozoic pollinator-dependent plants prior to the rise of angiosperms.
Article
Full-text available
A b s t r a c t The extinct caddisfly genus Palerasnitsynus (Psychomyiidae) is revised, based on nine new species embedded in mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber. They can be distinguished from all other extinct and extant psychomyiid genera by the absence of fork III in their fore- and hindwings and by the presence of latero-apical dark sporns at the 3rd maxillary palp segment. These species belong to the smallest Trichoptera hitherto known, with forewing lengths of 1.8–2.6 mm. Moreover, the micro-caddisflies of the genus Palerasnitsynus are very common and comprise almost 60 % of all caddisflies in Burmese amber. Some amber pieces contain aggregations of specimens which indicates swarming activities of the adults. K e y w o r d s : Psychomyiidae, Palerasnitsynus, amber caddisflies, micro-caddisflies, swarming.
Article
Full-text available
Batesian mimicry is a relationship in which a harmful organism (the model) is mimicked by a harmless organism (the mimic), which gains protection because predators mistake it for the model. It is the most widely studied of mimicry complexes and has undoubtedly played an important role in the speciation of various animals especially insects. However, little is known about the early evolution of this important behavior and its evolutionary significance owing to a dearth of paleontological records. Here we report several specialized representatives of the family Alienopteridae from the Early Cretaceous of Brazil, mid-Cretaceous Burmite, and the Eocene of the USA. They exhibit unique morphological adaptations for wasp and ant mimicry and represent one of the oldest evidence of Batesian mimicry in the insect fossil record. Our findings reveal at least 65-million-year coevolution between extinct alienopterids and aculeates. Phylogenetic Bayesian network analysis houses Alienopteridae within Umenocoleidae explosively radiating ~127 Ma. Alienopteridae is the only Mesozoic-type cockroach family which passed K/Pg.
Article
Full-text available
The phylogeny of the superfamily Evanioidea is presented using morphology and DNA sequence data of selected extant and fossil genera by employing two phylogenetic methods, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference. Based on our new results, the monophyly of Evanioidea is corroborated. Evanioidea, Anomopterellidae, Othniodellithidae, Andreneliidae and Evaniidae are monophyletic families, while Praeaulacidae, Aulacidae, Baissidae and Gasteruptiidae are paraphyletic families. In addition, four new genera (Sinuevania gen.n., Curtevania gen.n., Exilaulacus gen.n., Heterobaissa gen.n.) with five new species (Sinuevania mira sp.n., Curtevania enervia sp.n., Exilaulacus loculatus sp.n., Exilaulacus latus sp.n., Heterobaissa apetiola sp.n.), and five additionally new species (Newjersevania longa sp.n., Newjersevania brevis sp.n., Cretevania tenuis sp.n., Cretevania venae sp.n., Praeaulacus rectus sp.n.) and one new combination [Cretevania mitis (Li, Shih & Ren, 2014a) comb.n.] are described based on well‐preserved fossils from the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation in Inner Mongolia, China, the Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation in Liaoning, and mid‐Cretaceous amber from Myanmar. This study documents the diversification of one major lineage of the mid‐Mesozoic parasitoid revolution that dramatically changed food‐web relationships in terrestrial ecosystems. This published work has been registered in ZooBank, http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:CBC04ADA‐0176‐402D‐9B43‐E1B3CDA080E1.
Article
Full-text available
Endobeuthos paleosum gen. et sp. nov. is based on 6 flowers preserved together in a single block of mid-Cretaceous amber from Myanmar (Burma). The calyx is composed of ca. 50+ small, helically arranged sepals. The corolla consists of 5 imbricate petals forming a sheath-like structure that is usually concealed within the calyx. The petal tips are often spreading and exserted from the calyx. There are numerous stamens, each of which consists of a filament and an enlarged anther connective with a single lateral, bisporangiate theca. Dehiscence is extrorse. The tips of 3 or 4 styles are visible, indicating that the flowers are bisexual. The fossils possess unique features that prevent assignment to any modern family. However, the numerous sepals and stamens and a thickened anther connective may suggest an association of E. paleosum with the family Dilleniaceae. ©2018 Botanical Research Institute of Texas.All Rights Reserved.
Article
Full-text available
An unusual and well-preserved fossil staphylinid is described and figured from a single specimen in Upper Cretaceous Burmese amber. Gollandia planata gen. et sp. n. is tentatively placed in the extant oxyteline tribe Coprophilini, although it lacks a few characteristic features of present-day members of the group, likely indicating it to be either a stem group of the tribe or prove to be distinct pending future discoveries. The discovery of this genus suggests that early oxytelines were more morphologically diverse during the Cretaceous and their evolutionary history was more complicated than previously documented. Tribal placement as regards fossil oxyteline taxa is discussed.
Article
Full-text available
A female terrestrial isopod in amber from Myanmar is described as Palaeoarmadillo microsoma gen. et sp. n. (Isopoda: Oniscidea: armadillidae). Placement in the family Armadillidae is based on the 2-segmented flagellum with the flagellum nearly as stout as the basal segments, the head with 2 small medial anterior processes, the fronto-caudally compressed cephalon, the large expanded protopodite with small exopodites dorsally attached and the possibility (based on the shape of the epimera) that the specimen could have formed a global shape. Autapomorphies of the fossil are the shape of the basal antennomeres, flagellum and shape and size of the uropod exopodites. The specimen is parasitized by fly larvae (Diptera) and two mite spermatophores with sperm packets are attached to the dorsum of the isopod.
Article
Full-text available
The Burmese amber assemblage of Hymenoptera with its 47 constituent families is now the richest in Cretaceous. A collection of Burmite (Burmese amber) from the Hukawng Valley, Myanmar at the Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences was examined, revealing that Burmite inclusions contain a very highly diverse hymenopteran fauna with as many as ten families found new for the Burmese fossil assemblage. The mid-Cretaceous hymenopteran fauna of Burmese amber is revised at the family level. A high level of the first family occurrences and endemism is demonstrated suggestive of an insular syndrome affected the mid-Cretaceous Burmese biome, as well as somewhat contradictory features in composition of the hymenopteran families there.
Article
Mid-Cretaceous amber has yielded to date twelve species assigned to six genera of the plant bug family Tingidae Laporte, 1832: Burmacader Heiss & Guilbert (2 sp.); Cucullitingis Du & Yao (1 sp.); Paraphatnomacader Guilbert & Heiss (1 sp.); Spinitingis Heiss & Guilbert (1 sp.); Tingiometra Heiss, Golub & Popov (4 sp.); Tingiphatnoma Guilbert & Heiss (2 sp.) (Du & Yao, 2018; Golub & Heiss, 2020; Guilbert & Heiss, 2018; Heiss, Golub & Popov, 2015; Heiss & Guilbert, 2013, 2018, 2019; Maksoud, Azar & Huang, 2019; Ross, 2019). A new genus and species Microtingis leptosoma gen. et sp. nov. is described and illustrated below.
Article
Borisoperla kondratieffi gen. et sp. nov., a new fossil stonefly is described and illustrated based on a well-preserved male insect from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber. The new taxon exhibits typical external characters of Peltoperlidae. Zwickoperla Chen & Wang, 2020 comb. nov. is transferred from Perlidae to Peltoperlidae. A new fossil subfamily of Peltoperlidae, Borisoperlinae subfam. nov. is established for Borisoperla gen. nov. and Zwickoperla. This study represents the first fossil record of Peltoperlidae.
Article
The family Corethrellidae, called frog-biting midges, with the single genus Corethrella Coquillett, 1902, is a small group of dipterans including 107 extant species (Borkent, 2017). Females of most species are haematophagous and feed on males of frogs and toads locating them by their calls (Borkent, 2008). Extant frog-biting midges have a pantropical distribution, absent in Europe, north Africa, middle and northern Asia (Giłka & Szadziewski, 2009). The genus during its phylogenetic history dated back to Lower Cretaceous (125–129 Ma) had a broader geographical distribution, and during Eocene was present in Europe. Till now nine fossil species have been described from Lower Cretaceous Lebanese amber (1), mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber (1), Eocene Baltic amber (5) and Miocene Dominican amber (2) (a complete annotated list is provided below).
Article
Three new species of Helotidae, Palaeohelota parva gen. et sp. nov. from the Lower Cretaceous of Yixian Formation, Burmahelota pengweii gen. et sp. nov. and Metahelotella monochromata sp. nov. from the Upper Cretaceous of Northern Myanmar are described, with the first taxon representing the oldest fossil record of the family Helotidae. The diversity of Helotidae during the Cretaceous suggests the family originated and diversified at least in the Early Cretaceous. Laodiscis Lin, 1971 described in Helotidae from the Paleocene of China is here removed from Helotidae and transferred to Coleoptera, family incertae sedis.
Article
Although Dipsocoromorpha are one of the most ancient lineages of true bugs, their hitherto known fossil record was extremely scarce. Herein, Kachinia cretacea gen. et sp. nov., ascribed to Schizopteridae: Hypselosomatinae, is described based on a female adult in mid-Cretaceous Kachin amber from northern Myanmar. The new taxon shares some primitive traits with other Mesozoic schizopterids, but also derived a series of autapomorphic characteristics. The two Mesozoic schizopterid genera Hexaphlebia and Lumatibialis, which have not been assigned to subfamily level, are tentatively treated as early representatives of Hypselosomatinae based on their complex tegminal venation similar to that of the genus Hypselosoma. Additionally, a key to all known fossil species of Schizopteridae is provided on the basis of tegminal features. Our findings further confirm Schizopteridae as one of the basal clades of Dipsocoromorpha, being highly diversified and widespread by the late Mesozoic.
Article
The Cicadellidae, one of largest insect families, is highly diversified in its living groups; fossils of this family, however, are poorly documented. Up to now, only three modern cicadellid subfamilies have been reported from the late Mesozoic, represented by five monotypic genera. We herein erect a new taxon, Qilia regilla gen. et sp. nov., from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber, and tentatively ascribe it to Ledrinae: Paracarsonini. The new genus differs distinctly from other Paracarsonini from the Crato Formation of Brazil in having the head with the apex of the anterior margin acute; the antennae located relatively far away from the postclypeus; crossveins from RA to the anterior margin of the wing absent, resulting in a long and unbroken anterior cell; the terminal branches of RA and MP reduced in number; and crossveins (ir and rp-mp) weakly expressed. The results of the present study greatly expand the paleogeography of modern Ledrinae in the late Mesozoic, and also add some significant information to our knowledge of the diversity, distribution and evolution of early leafhoppers.
Article
Grammapsychops lebedevi Martynova, 1954 from the Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian) of Siberia is re-described based on the holotype. The species is represented by a hind wing as its CuA is definitely concave, although the costal space is strongly dilated. This genus together with three other Cretaceous genera (i.e., Embaneura G. Zalessky, 1953, Kagapsychops Fujiyama, 1978, and probably Pulchroptilonia Martins-Neto, 1997) form the Grammapsychops genus-group. The hind wing of Grammapsychops may theoretically be associated with forewings of Kagapsychops or other closely related genera with similar forewing venation. The Late Cretaceous psychopsoids are critically reviewed. All known psychopsoid taxa from this interval are considered as belonging to Psychopsidae.
Article
Burmahemiphlebia zhangi Zheng et al., 2017 is the dominant damselfly found in Burmese amber. Here, a new hemiphlebiid damselfly, Burmahemiphlebia hui sp. nov., is described representing the second Burmahemiphlebia species discovered in Burmese amber. Burmahemiphlebia hui sp. nov. differs from Burmahemiphlebia zhangi in having more postnodal cross-veins, CuP and the separating point of AA from AP basal of A × 1, Arc aligned with A × 2, RP2 base closer to N than to Pt, and IR1 five cells distal of RP2 base. The new damselfly is extremely rare and the only one known from Burmese amber, unlike Burmahemiphlebia zhangi. Daran Zheng* [[email protected]], Bo Wang† [[email protected]] State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology and Center for Excellence in Life and Paleoenvironment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 39 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008, PR China. *Also affiliated with: Department of Earth Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, PR China. †Also affiliated with: Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Depositional Mineralization & Sedimentary Minerals, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, Shandong 266590, PR China and Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, PR China. Received 9.5.2018; revised 25.8.2018; accepted 28.8.2018. © 2018, © 2018 Geological Society of Australia Inc., Australasian Palaeontologists.
Article
A new tettigarctid, Hpanraais problematicus gen. et sp. nov. is described based on a forewing from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber. This new genus and species significantly differs from other fossil and extant tettigarctids in the details of tegmen venation. The fossil represents an enigmatic and very peculiar Tettigarctidae known from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber from Kachin province, and it not only enriches the knowledge of the diversity of Mesozoic Tettigarctidae but also provides some key morphological details of the forewing in this family.
Article
The oldest known representative of the genus Mycetobia, Mycetobia myanmara sp. nov., is described from Upper Cretaceous Burmese amber.
Article
Myrmecophilous and termitophilous interactions likely contributed to the competitive advantage and evolutionary success of eusocial insects, but how these commensal and parasitic relationships originated is unclear due to absence of fossil records. New extinct cockroaches of the still living family Blattidae are reported here from the Cretaceous Myanmar amber (99 Ma) and are the earliest known inhabitants of complex ant nests, demonstrating that this specialised myrmecophily originated shortly after ant eusociality and appeared in the fossil record. Cretaceous stem aposematic Blattidae are known from the amber of Myanmar and Lebanon and we report them here also from the Syrian amber. Concurrent evolution suggests that the collective internal defence of early ants was weak and allowed infiltrations by numerous unrelated organisms, At the same time, the contemporary presence of ant mimicking myrmecomorphs suggests a need for strong external protection against visually hunting predators. Myrmecophily is supported by morphological adaptations (lack of wide fat body and feeding of adult male; short, fossorial legs; shortened cerci; oligomerised antenna; hairy surface structures) and camouflage behaviour, documented by sediment and own feces covering. Moreover the same piece of amber contains ants, ant mimics and other undescribed ant nest-visiting insects as syninclusions. Another species preserved along with two termites is a putative termitophile. Abundant comparatively large parasitic cockroaches influenced Mesozoic tropical forest ecosystems by affecting the early evolution of complex nests of eusocial insects. Rainforest rudiments in South Yunnan yielded observation of analogical still living, formally undescribed species.
Article
The froghopper family Sinoalidae was previously recognized from the uppermost Middle–lowermost Upper Jurassic Daohugou Biota and coeval strata of northeastern China. Very recently, a froghopper bearing some unique morphological characters from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber was described and placed in this family. Here, a second sinoalid taxon Jiaotouia minuta Chen and Wang, gen. et sp. nov., is described and illustrated from Burmese amber, and a cladistic analysis is also performed to establish its phylogenetic position. The new taxon can be discriminated from all known sinoalids by displaying some unique tegminal characters as follows: Pc+CP extremely long, extending to apical margin and slightly concave at end of longitudinal veins at apical margin, and MP connected to CuA1 by fusing into a common stalk instead of crossvein mp-cua. Our find further explores the taxonomic diversity and morphological disparity of Sinoalidae.
Article
A new genus and species of Berothidae, Protoberotha minuta gen. et sp. nov., is described from mid-Cretaceous Myanmar amber. Based on the comparisons of venational characters and female genital sclerites of the new genus with those of the extant berothids, it is concluded that the new genus had a close relationship with Cyrenoberothinae, representing a basal lineage of Berothidae. The structures of the female terminalia across the extant berothids are summarized and discussed.
Article
Fossil records of piestine rove beetles are very limited, with only two definite species from Mesozoic Chinese compressions, a single taxon from mid-Eocene Baltic amber and a doubtful Oligocene compression fossil from France. Here, a remarkable new genus and species, Propiestus archaicus gen. et sp. nov., is described based on a well-preserved individual in Upper Cretaceous Burmese amber from northern Myanmar (Cenomanian, c. 99 Ma). It represents the first piestine fossil found in Mesozoic amber. The fine morphological characters preserved as an amber inclusion enable a confident systematic placement within the subfamily based on both our detailed observations and phylogenetic analyses. The resulting trees revealed a strongly supported sister-group relationship with the extant genus Piestus, comprising all currently known piestine species from the Neotropical region and one from the Nearctic. Our new discovery is congruent with a hypothesis of the Gondwanan affinity of insects found from Burmese amber. Considering the geological data as well as several previous studies, the current distribution of Piestus could possibly be explained by either a relictual Gondwanan distribution or the widespread presence of the clade Propiestus + Piestus on Pangea, rather than subsequent dispersal events during the Cenozoic. Nonetheless, more evidence is needed to corroborate the true biogeographical origin and past distribution of this clade. In agreement with strong external similarities with living Piestinae, Propiestus probably exhibits a specialized body plan, including a flattened body, long, slender antennae and short legs, suggesting that it inhabited microhabitats under the bark of rotting wood as do its modern congeners. http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:3411BDFD-54A1-4555-A870-813758BC61DA
Article
From the Upper Cretaceous Burmese amber, only three genera and species of Tingidae (Spinitingis ellenbergeri Heiss and Guilbert, 2013; Burmacader multivenosus Heiss and Guilbert, 2013; and Tingiometra burmanica Heiss et al., 2015) have been reported to date. Two new genera and species Paraphatnomacader huarongcheni gen. et sp. nov. and Tingiphatnoma bispinosa gen. et sp. nov. are described and illustrated. Their phylogenetic relationships are discussed on the basis of a cladistics analysis, leading to an emergence of the Tingidae likely much older than ca. 125–135 Ma.