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Consumers perceive the Ready-made Frozen Food (RMFF) as nourishing, healthier and delicious. Consumers, therefore, are switching to this substance item and willing to pay the premium cost. The investigation had been coordinated to know the most affecting factors that affect purchasers to purchase Ready-made Frozen Food. Literature reviews are available that the food habits of the people are promptly being changed in the way women are being involved in the economic activities of our society. Individual habits, attitudes, beliefs and values, age, education, income, marital status, etc. are some socio-demographic factors that influence a consumer in the time of buying RMFF. Besides these social demographic influencing factors, results have confirmed that consumers are interested in buying this food as it is easy to cook, delicious, easy to find, quality product, low price, etc. This examination concluded by gathering data from 150 respondents through a questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed through the Factor Analysis Process. It had also been detected that working individuals are essential clients of this sustenance. In addition, gender; age; education level; family income; profession demonstrate a positive impact on purchasing RMFF. It had also been identified that RMFF is currently very expanding because it is easy to cook (as indicated by 94% respondents) and safe (as indicated by 73% respondents). Moreover, the brand image (indicated by 84% respondents), quality (68%), low pricing (77%), advertising (64%), appearance (69%), availability (59%), and taste (78%), likewise influence clients to purchase this kind of food. Through this research, an interesting topic had been found that "time-saving (according to 38% respondents)" and "packaging (indicated by 49% respondents)" factors do not have any significant impact on the purpose of buying RMFF.
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Factors influencing consumersto Take Ready-made Frozen Food
Shuvro Sen
&Neel Antara
&Shusmita Sen
#Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019
Consumers perceive the Ready-made Frozen Food (RMFF) as nourishing, healthier and delicious. Consumers, therefore, are
switching to this substance item and willing to pay the premium cost. The investigation had been coordinated to know the most
affecting factors that affect purchasers to purchase Ready-made Frozen Food. Literature reviews are available that the food habits of
the people are promptly being changed in the way women are being involved in the economic activities of our society. Individual
habits, attitudes, beliefs and values, age, education, income, marital status, etc. are some socio-demographic factors that influence a
consumer in the time of buying RMFF. Besides these social demographic influencing factors, results have confirmed that con-
sumers are interested in buying this food as it is easy to cook, delicious, easy to find, quality product, low price, etc. This
examination concluded by gathering data from 150 respondents through a questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed through
the Factor Analysis Process. It had also been detected that working individuals are essential clients of this sustenance. In addition,
gender; age; education level; family income; profession demonstrate a positive impact on purchasing RMFF. It had also been
identified that RMFF is currently very expanding because it is easy to cook (as indicated by 94% respondents) and safe (as indicated
by 73% respondents). Moreover, the brand image (indicated by 84% respondents), quality (68%), low pricing (77%), advertising
(64%), appearance (69%), availability (59%), and taste (78%), likewise influence clients to purchase this kind of food. Through this
research, an interesting topic had been found that Btime-saving (according to 38% respondents)^and Bpackaging (indicated by 49%
respondents)^factors do not have any significant impact on the purpose of buying RMFF.
Keywords Ready-made frozen food .Customer attitude .Purchase behavior .Influencing factors
JEL Classification C83 .L66 .N35
The idea of food has been changed altogether continuously.
Previously, individuals were used to eating homemade food.
As this pattern had been changed, the act of eating food at the
restaurant had been begun. Afterward, it has changed once
more. Individuals have begun taking food at home these days,
yet it is Ready-made Frozen Food (RMFF) bought from mar-
kets or super shops. It occurred because of westernization.
Additionally, with the pace of globalization, regular individ-
uals have turned out to be extremely busy with their profes-
sion. Culture has likewise changed to adapt to globalization.
By and large, the way of life of people has drastically
changed. With male populace, our female populace has begun
to add to the financial improvement. Ladies are winding up more
engaged and the populace all in all is attempting to expand their
way of life and standard. Presently, the considerable segment of
ladies in city zones or some in remote zones is engaged with
administrations, business enterprise, and so on. Whatsmore,
consequently, ladies cant contribute enough time to their home
to keep up a wide range of family unit activities. In this way, they
need such sorts of sustenance which is anything but easy to
make, clean, hygiene and saves time in their bustling lives.
Ready-made Frozen Food is such sorts of the item.
Generally, age; wage; educational level; and inclinations;
have an impact on clients to purchase food (Kotler et al. 2001).
*Shuvro Sen
Neel Antara
Shusmita Sen
University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Southeast University, Dhaka, Bangladesh
University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh
Current Psychology
Moreover, with the speed of changing in the way of life and
advancement of the conjugal family, individuals began inclin-
ing toward Ready-made Frozen Food. Among 70% of the
Indian family are nuclear families and ladies want to invest
less energy in cooking (Mohan Kathuria and Gill 2013). The
engagement of the spouses in the financial division expands
the interest in obtaining this type of food. 56 years prior
individuals favored restaurants to take breakfast, lunch, and
bite significantly supper. In any case, this pattern has changed
as individuals can purchase RMFF which is easily accessible
in a shop or superstore which is not only easy to cook and tasty
The food pattern of the single living individual i.e. unmarried,
separated, widowed and isolated is varied from those male and
female who live with their family. The larger part of single living
male and female utilized the distinctive kind of preparing to eat
food because of their own reason. The reasons for this sort of
nourishment may be single living people might be work loaded,
no enthusiasm for taking food and principally pressure with some
different causes in life and so forth (Muktawat and Varma 2013).
Moreover, consumersinterest in this type of food is growing due
to their convenience, value, attractive appearance, taste and tex-
ture (Patel and Rathod 2017).
By far most purchasers utilize markets for purchasing their
instant made food shopping. Very nearly 66% utilized expan-
sive general stores and another utilized the nearby shops. Be
that as it may, supermarkets and neighborhood shops assume
as a key part in RMFF shopping. Nearby local shops addition-
ally utilize their outlets for some of this food shopping.
Definition of Ready-made Frozen Food
Ready-made Frozen snacks are a pre-packaged, fresh or fro-
zen meal that only stands in need of heating before being
Merriam-Webste, an American company that publishes
dictionaries, defines Ready-made Frozen Food as a special-
ized food that can be prepared & served quickly. These types
of nutrition are designed for Ready availability, use, or con-
sumption and with little consideration given to quality or sig-
nificance. This type of food is stored at cold temperature.
Ready-made Frozen Food is the sustenance that is sold in a
proper packaged and prepared for utilization. This type of
food is unique in relation to advantageous eatery nourish-
ments. It must be covered by security cover. Manufacture date
and expire date must have appeared on the packet.
Frozen Foodsare one kind of made-up or partially made-up
dishes which have been frozen to 20 °C and can be stored for
at least 1.5 months. Frozen foods have generally been partially
cooked for use prior to freezing, then packaged and rapidly
frozen (Ahuja 2011).
Research Objectives
The examination endeavored to know the buyer states of
mind, information, conduct, and mindfulness with respect to
the patterns of purchasing Ready-made Frozen Food. This
paper, therefore, attempts to understand the following things:
&Purchase influencing factors of people towards Ready-
made Frozen Food.
&The customer segment who usually purchase this type of
Research Questions
The study had been done to find out the answers to the fol-
lowing questions:
&Which group of people are more interested in the RMFF?
&What criteria do consumers think most at first in the time
of purchasing RMFF?
Literature Review
The previous researches provide a clear idea about the reasons
why people purchase Ready-made Frozen Food. There may be
some different reasons or factors. There are many studies found
in the field of identifying influencing factors to customers pur-
chasing a product. But there are very limited studies done by
researchers in the context of Ready-made Frozen Food.
In exploration, it has been distinguished that there are three
kinds of variables that influence buying aim of a customer (Jaafar
et al. 2012). The first is intrinsic elements including the perceived
value, quality & satisfaction from the item. The second one is
extrinsic variables which incorporate pricing, advertising, brand-
ing, packaging, availability, etc. The last one is the demographic
information including purchasers age, occupation, sexual orien-
tation, conjugal status, family status, training, and so on.
So, for the convenience, the literature review is discussed
here, in two divisions.
Socio-Demographic Influencing Factors to Purchase
Ready-made Frozen Food (RMFF)
Previous literature review shows that sociodemographic factors
i.e. age, gender, race, ethnicity, and language, for example and
socioeconomic status (SES), such as income and education, can
influence the consumersbehavior toward RMFF. These findings
are particularly significant.Herearesomeexamples.
Individual factors like individual habits, attitudes, beliefs,
and values play an important role in food choice. Socio-
demographic factors (age, education, and income) also found
Curr Psychol
to have an impact on actual buying behavior (Singh and
Ve r m a 2017). Food choice has been demonstrated to be de-
pendent on demographic characteristics such as age, gender,
educational level, and income (Ahuja 2011).
Among the many factors that can influence a customers
decision-making behavior, one of the major factors is gender.
Men and women do shopping considering different motives,
perspectives, rationales, and considerations. The influence of
gender on shopping behavior has become a prominent topic in
the field of marketing (Hernández et al. 2011). Previously,
shopping was a stereotypically female activity which has
changed now (Buttle 1992). Currently, men are engaging
more in shopping activities (Otnes and McGrath 2001). In
terms of food choice, gender can be a considerable factor.
Users age analysis has become a very important topic
nowadays (Harrison and Rainer Jr 1992). Young people &
aged people have a different opinion in their lifestyle.
Generally, with the increment of maturity, people become
more aware of the benefits to health that come with eating a
balanced diet (Chambers et al. 2008). In a previous study, it
has been found female persons with age 3045 years having
children and high income are willing to purchase quality food
products (Dettmann and Dimitri 2009).
Occupation is one of the considerable factors. People food
choice behavior depends on profession also. Housewife, ser-
vice holder, businesswomen or engaged in a different profes-
sion may have different perception regarding food. The in-
creasing demand for frozen food is related to the increment
of female participation in the labor force activity and house-
hold incomes, more use of household technologies, longer
working hours and increasing consumer incomes (Ahuja
2011). Womens participation in both private & public sectors.
The demand for RMFF is expanding with the increment of
the salary; education; worldwide trade & globalization and so
on. Higher income people buy RMFF more frequently
(Loureiro et al. 2001; Govindasamy and Italia 1999).
Educated consumers are more interested in purchasing
Ready-made Frozen Food than those with less education
(Dettmann and Dimitri 2009).
Marital status affects the purchase behavior of RMFF. In a
previous study, it has been found that unmarried individuals,
who live alone and the family in which both spouse and wife
carry out the activity expend Ready to eat food in particular
(Nirmalraj 2014).Thestudents,wholivealone,havetospend
44% of their monthly cost in the food sector (Sen and Antara
2018). So, to minimize the cost, students also prefer RMFF.
The key drivers for increased demand in RMFF products
are: growth in consumer class; change in lifestyle character-
ized by expanding urban population; increased number of
nuclear and dual-income families; change in attitudes and
tastes with increasing modernization and to a lesser extent
westernization of tastes, particularly, of the youth; and low
penetration rates (Ahuja 2011).
Extrinsic & Intrinsic Attribute of Ready-made frozen
Food (RMFF) that Influence a Customer to Purchase
this Food
The request and attention to the RMFF are expanding.
Clients are widely mindful of this item. Beside socio-
demographic factors, few other factors also affect a con-
sumer to purchase RMFF.
With the relative decrease in conventional food & change
in eating patterns, the interest for expending prepared to eat
food has been ascending with the relative significance of com-
fort, efficient (Vijayeta 2015). In a recent survey, surveyed on
parents by Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior in
2017, the researchers used a psychosocial survey to assess the
motivation of parents in buying prepackaged, processed
foods. It has been identified majority (57%) of parents use
time savings as a reason for purchasing frozen dinners.
Nearly half (49%) of parents reported their families really
liked the frozen meals, one third chose processed foods be-
cause children could help prepare them, and more than one
quarter (27%) preferred the cost savings of frozen foods
(Behavior 2017).
Convenience or Ease of useand Saving of Time
are the two most vital elements that influence purchasers
to purchase instant food (Hawa et al. 2014). Because of
the convenience, most parents buy frozen dinners to save
time on preparation (Horning et al. 2017). It has also
been found in a recent study that convenience and clean
nourishment items occupied way of life and equivalent
support of workforce ladies (Prasad and Aryasri 2008).
Purchasers give most priority to the brand image at the time
of buying Ready-made Frozen Food (Islam and Ullah 2010).
Consumersnegative perceptions of branding of a product can
drive to the quality image of the product (Richardson et al.
1996). Moreover, consumer previous knowledge can also cre-
ate an impact on purchase behavior (Bettman and Park 1980).
In addition, customers focused on the availability of the
sustenance. Nutritional value, quality, tidiness, and cleanli-
ness, fat and cholesterol level are being considered by con-
sumers (Machado 2003). Most of the Indian people give em-
phasize on nutrition, tasty, purity, quality, low priced, avail-
ability, and proper packaging in the time of purchasing RMFF
(Mohan Kathuria and Gill 2013).
The packaging can also influence the consumerspurchase
decision criteria. Ornateness, use of foreign language and
graphics were taken as important factors taken by consumers
in the time of purchasing a product (Gluckman 1986).
These existing studies clarified that there is a huge demand
for Ready-made Frozen Food in those places where women
also engaged in economic activities. Nowadays, in the whole
world, consumers dont have enough time to prepare food from
scratch. The most common feature for eating this type of meal
is in the time of Dinner, and Breakfast is the least likely.
Curr Psychol
Why People Prefer RMFF
From the previous literature review & other researches done in
this sector, the following conditions might be the reasons for
preferring RMFF by the customers.
&The main reason for the growth of the RMFF industry is
increased awareness among consumers in the country.
Previously, frozen food was mainly being exported. But
over the last couple of years, the domestic market has also
started growing.
&Western culture goes into our way of life.
&Food culture has been changed nowadays. Previously,
people used to eat food in restaurants. As the pattern has
been changed, the act of eating food at the restaurant has
been converted to taking food in the home but it will be in
Ready-made basis.
&Women freedom, flexibility & involvement in business or
administrative sector are becoming to extend. So, they
cant give enough time in-house because of taking part
in the financial area.
&Retail shops are developing in the local area, and they are
built up in an advantageous area. So, people can get easy
access to any retail shop to buy RMFF.
Theoretical Framework
After reviewing different literature related to buying behavior
of RMFFs, the own theoretical framework was formed (Fig. 1).
This study designed the framework in consideration to three
main factors that have an impact on the attitude of customers.
These are demographic factors, intrinsic factors, and extrinsic
factor. Demographic factors are socioeconomic characteristics
of the targeted population expressed statistically, such as age,
sex, education level, income level, marital status, occupation,
religion, birth rate, death rate, the average size of a family, the
average age at marriage & so on. Intrinsic factors are physical
attributes of the product though extraneous elements are item
related properties (Collins-Dodd and Lindley 2003).
Understanding these factors is vital for this examination since
they affect purchasing conduct of a customer.
Materials & Methods
Research Approach
This study followed the deductive process where existing
knowledge and theories were used to explain certain phenom-
ena. From the theoretical framework, the study tried to find
out the factors that influence the buying behavior of RMFF
products. Both qualitative & quantitative data were used as
qualitative data help to understand consumer behavior &
quantitative data help to measure consumer behavior.
Sampling Method & Sample Size of the Study
The sample of this study was selected by following
Convenience sampling method as it allows the researcher to
achieve basic data regarding the study without any complica-
tions. A total of 175 questionnaires were distributed and 150
respondents provided their responses. All information was
collected from the BChittagong City^of Bangladesh.
Chittagong city is one of the largest cities in terms of popula-
tion, income and so on.
Questionnaire Design
Most of the data has been collected through a questionnaire.
The survey questionnaire was drafted from the literature re-
view done by other researchers to identify the influencing
factors of purchasing RMFF. Questions asked in the question-
naire were anchored on the 5-point Likert scale. The respon-
dents were asked to rate the factors according to importance
while making purchases of frozen food from stores. The
scores were assigned from 1 to 5 for the degree of satisfaction
(5 for highly satisfied, 4 for satisfied, 3 for neutral, 2 for
dissatisfied, 1 for highly dissatisfied). Frequencies were mul-
tiplied with their respective weights and aggregate values
were found out.
A dummy study was conducted on 25 respondents to en-
sure that the questionnaire format was clear. The results of the
study were tabulated and determined the actual test to be con-
ducted. Minor amendments were do based on the feedback
received from the pilot study.
Data Collection
Its the best option to conduct the primary research, where
secondary data is also available. So, both primary & second-
ary data were used to furnish this study.
Primary data was collected with the help of a predesigned,
structured and non-disguised questionnaire. The primary date
was collected relating to various parameters of attitude like
belief, emotion, attitude, feeling and intention to buy RMFF.
The main sources of the secondary data were previ-
ous journals, articles, & internet such as annual report,
blogs and so on.
Data Analysis
After the collection of data, a master table was constructed.
The data contained in the questionnaire was first transferred to
Curr Psychol
a master table which facilitated the tabulation of data in the
desired form.
For the demographic analysis of the respondents, the col-
lected data was analyzed by constructing suitable tables and
using percentage methods.
The responses were thoroughly checked & coded for the
purpose of analysis. First of all, the coded data was entered in
the BSoftware for Statistics and Data Science (STATA)^ver-
sion 12. To examine the reliability, a factor analysis method
was used.
Analysis & Discussion
General Information Regarding the Respondents
The demographic information of the respondents is giv-
en in Table 1.
The interviewed people living in the area of Chittagong,
Bangladesh. From the interviewed result, presented in Table 1,
shows that 83% of the respondents were female while only
17% were male.
About 60% of respondents were under 2130 years
old, 31% were under 3140 age group and the rest were
under 4150 age group. In terms of family income, the
highest (22%) frozen food buyersfamily income was
more than 40,000 BDT while only 5% of respondents
had less than 20,000 BDT. It has been observable that
with the decreasing of the income range, the numbers of
respondents became decreasing.
Additionally, 17% of the sample had a little education, only
to the higher-secondary school level. More than half of the
interviewees were graduate while 1/5th people were post-
graduate. Only 7% of the respondents might be illiterate,
primary-secondary educated people or doctorate. It indicates
the number of educated people has increased over time.
The occupation of the interviewee is characterized as the
housewife, service holder, and business. So, 44% were service
holder, about 40% were related to business while only 16%
were the housewife. Younger womens participation in em-
ployment has increased day by day.
Source: Own
Demographic Factors:
Extrinsic Factors:
Intrinsic Factors:
Time Saving
Easy to cook
Purchase the product
Attitude Positive
Don’t purchase the
product or reconsider
Fig. 1 Theoretical framework of this study
Curr Psychol
Basically, from the other previous studies, we found
twelve influencing factors that influence a customer to
purchase RMFF. These influencing factors are timesaving,
safety, easiness to cook, favorability, price, brand, tasty,
advertising, appearance, quality, availability & packaging
characteristics. In this examination, we tried to identify
the most influencing factors among all the factors &
how much they can effect a customer to purchase
RMFF. For investigating the gathered information, factor
analysis strategy has been conducted. The factor investi-
gation shows the emphatically related components for
considering instant solidified food. The result of the cor-
relation of factor analysis is given in Table 2.
In this examination, there were 12 factors found with
their eigenvalue value. The initial 3 factors (Factor-1,
Factor-2, and Factor-3) were recognized (utilizing eigen-
value more than one) that clarified 0.8193 or about 82%
of the total variance. These three components with the
factor loading of 0.5 or more have been chosen. The
main reason to choose these three factors is factor load-
ings 0.5 and above are extremely noteworthy to deter-
mine the minimum loading necessary to comprise an
item (Hair et al. 2014). From the aftereffect of factor
examination, factor loading has also found which is given in
Tab le 3.
It has been seen that 10 factors were strongly associated
with some particular factors. Innately, it shows what degree
those factors loaded on the factors. A relatively high commu-
nality indicated that the variable had much in common with
other variables. On the other hand, a relatively low commu-
nality means that the variable does not sustain an established
relationship with other variables. The communality measure-
ment is shown in Table 4.
Table 1 Social demographic
information of the respondents Serial No. Variable Categories Frequency
Percentage Cumulative
1 Gender Male
2 Age of Respondents <20
3 Family Income <20000
4 Educational Level Higher Secondary
Any other*
5 Occupation Housewife
Service holder
*Shows illiterate, primary - secondary level and doctorate qualification
Table 2 Factor analysis
Factor Eigenvalue Difference Proportion Cumulative
Factor 1 3.49877 1.80445 0.4553 0.4553
Factor 2 1.69431 0.59118 0.2205 0.6757
Factor 3 1.10313 0.23929 0.1435 0.8193
Factor 4 0.86385 0.35972 0.1124 0.9317
Factor 5 0.50413 0.12335 0.0656 0.9973
Factor 6 0.38078 0.15518 0.0495 1.0468
Factor 7 0.22561 0.21211 0.0294 1.0762
Factor 8 0.01349 0.08843 0.0018 1.0779
Factor 9 0.07494 0.05991 0.0098 1.0682
Factor 10 0.13485 0.02504 0.0175 1.0506
Factor 11 0.15989 0.06921 0.0208 1.0298
Factor 12 0.22910 0.0298 1.0000
Curr Psychol
Influencing Factors to Purchase RMFF
The primary focus of this study was to find out the most influenc-
ing reasons for preferring Ready-made Frozen Food. From the
socio-demographic analysis, it had been found that 83% of total
respondents were female, 60% were under 2130 age, and 22%
of total respondentsfamily income was over 40,000 BDT. Other
than these, 56% of total respondents were graduate & 44% were
service holder. In summary, maximum RMFF buyers were grad-
uated female service holder whose age were under 30 years &
had over 40,000 BDT as income. So, it is clear that socio-
demographic factors i.e. age, gender, income, education level,
occupation etc. have an effect on the purchasing RMFF.
The factor analysis examination also found that the majority,
about 94%, of the consumers were influenced to purchase
Ready-made Frozen Food as that it is easy to cook. About
84% of respondents have thought the brand of the product had
an impact on their perception to purchase this food. Again, 78%
of respondents also gave priority to taste before buying RMFF.
Similarly, tasty; inexpensive; favorability; safety; appearance;
quality of the food; advertising; and availability also created a
positive impact on the purchaser to buy this type of solidified
food. On the contrary, time-saving & packaging factors didnt
have enough influence on customers in the time of buying the
product as their uniqueness were not higher than 0.5.
The most influencing factors that affect customers to pur-
chase RMFF is shown in Fig. 2.
From this investigation, it had been discovered that 66% of
men enjoyed Ready-made Frozen Food and 34% didntcare
Table 3 Factor loading
Variable Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 Factor 4 Factor 5 Factor 6 Factor 7 Factor 8 Uniqueness
Timesaving 0.0916 0.5555 0.4257 0.1102 0.1042 0.4025 0.0210 0.0118 0.6218
Safety 0.6288 0.1732 0.1202 0.4792 0.1361 0.2002 0.0644 0.0019 0.2678
Easy to cook 0.8617 0.2129 0.1197 0.160 0.3100 0.0924 0.0323 0.0252 0.0639
Favorable 0.4342 0.5666 0.2073 0.1564 0.3589 0.0874 0.1995 0.0002 0.2468
Price 0.6865 0.0522 0.3303 0.1472 0.2125 0.3238 0.1041 0.0405 0.2328
Brand 0.7594 0.2461 0.0161 0.2867 0.2493 0.0784 0.2216 0.0252 0.1622
Tasty 0.4916 0.5124 0.0983 0.5083 0.0438 0.0141 0.0767 0.0248 0.2191
Advertising 0.3164 0.5872 0.3765 0.2109 0.0244 0.0340 0.0588 0.0042 0.3636
Appearance 0.6446 0.1507 0.3482 0.1087 0.1979 0.0903 0.2765 0.0236 0.3044
Quality 0.3358 0.0518 0.6802 0.2883 0.0147 0.1063 0.0864 0.0224 0.3193
Availability 0.3708 0.5953 0.0515 0.0268 0.2568 0.0389 0.1634 0.0680 0.4059
Packaging 0.3291 0.4944 0.0538 0.2602 0.1864 0.1711 0.0168 0.0642 0.5083
Table 4 Measuring communality
Serial No. Variables Uniqueness Communality
(1- uniqueness) %
1 Timesaving 0.6218 0.3782 = 38%
2 Safety 0.2678 0.7322 = 73%
3 Easy to cook 0.0639 0.9361 = 94%
4 Favorable 0.2468 0.7532 = 75%
5 Low Price 0.2328 0.7672 = 77%
6 Brand 0.1622 0.8378 = 84%
7 Tasty 0.2191 0.7809 = 78%
8 Advertising 0.3636 0.6364 = 64%
9 Appearance 0.3044 0.6956 = 69%
10 Quality 0.3193 0.6807 = 68%
11 Availability 0.4059 0.5941 = 59%
12 Packaging 0.5083 0.4917 = 49%
It has been observed that easy to cook is in the highest position with
0.9361 or 94% communality where time-saving is in the lowest position
having 38% communality. Timesaving factorwith 0.3782 = 38% & pack-
aging factor with 0.4917 = 49% dont include as the most influencing
factors of purchasing RMFF as their communality dont exceed 0.5%
Frozen Food
Easy to
Fig. 2 Factors that affect Customers to purchase ready-made frozen food
Curr Psychol
about it. Around 57% of buyers conveyed a favorable attitude
and 20% remained neutral where another 23% remained un-
favorable attitude. As far as effectiveness to cook, around 94%
of buyers had concurred with this announcement, where
others hadnt concurred. Be that as it may, 61% of respondents
had a perplexity about the wellbeing and health issue with this
sustenance. Likewise, 55% of respondents were settled upon
that this type food saves their cooking time. It had additionally
discovered that 64% of respondents frequently purchase this
sort of food. Once more, 53% of respondents considered this
type of food was vital for their amusements.
Most of the consumers wished to pay the premium
price for Ready-made Frozen snacks with all food but
they wanted an assurance that the food is safe & health.
About 45% of respondents claimed that healthy Ready-
made Frozen Food is important to them, with a strong
feeling that the budget is not a barrier.
Food consumption behavior is rapidly changing from cereal-
based food products to high-value food products and slowly
from fresh, unprocessed, unbranded food products to proc-
essed, packaged and branded products. Socio-demographic
factors and products intrinsic & extrinsic factors have an ef-
fect on RMFFs purchase behavior. The results of the study
are also important for understanding the perception of con-
sumers regarding Ready-made Frozen Food.
Gender is a very important factor. Women-they love shop-
ping even when they have a deadline, men-they shop and they
leave - is a common phrase. Between male & female, there are
several different things that affect their buying behavior. They
have different needs in terms of fashion and lifestyle. So, their
consumer behavior can be vastly different. In most of the
households, women influence most of the product choices.
So, in the case of frozen food selection, gender can be an
influencing factor (Ahuja 2011; Saleem et al. 2017).
Age is an important demographic factor in the time of pur-
chasing RMFF. With the growing of age, their needs change
as well as purchase decision-making pattern. Young people
are intended to spend more money on their lifestyle than aged
people. Aged people tend to consume less energy-dense
sweets and fast foods, and consume more energy-dilute
grains, vegetables, and fruits rather than young people. Daily
volume of taking foods and beverages also declines as a func-
tion of age (Drewnowski and Shultz 2001).
Prior research shows that food purchase behavior is related
to marital status. Married men & women are more likely to be
overweight than others in all other marital-status categories
except for those living with partners (Hanson et al. 2007).
So, partnering plays a strong part in food selection.
One of the most interesting thing that economic status &
educational level have a relationship with the food choice.
Generally, educated & solvent people wish to improve the
condition of living. Educated households person purchased
significantly more vegetables, fruit, and less meat relative to
households with the lowest education level (Ricciuto et al.
2006). Changes in lifestyle, opinion, culture, personality etc.
and equal participation of women in the workforce are con-
sidered a major factor in purchasing RMFF (Prasad and
Aryasri 2008).
Convenience is an important factor in taking purchase de-
cision towards frozen food products. Convenience indicates a
consumer is inclined to save time and energy as regards food
preparation. Food preparation is a time- consuming activity.
So, a female person wants to minimize the time that is spent on
meal preparation (Ahuja 2011).
Nowadays, people try different types of foods just to
Bcheck them out^and to Bchange their taste^(Foxall 1993).
Childrens taste sensation differed from that of adults (Negri
et al. 2012). There is a taste difference between homemade
food and purchased Ready-to-Eat product (Hawa et al. 2014).
Generally, customers are price sensitive & cautious about
their spending. But it is not always true, particularly in food
consumptions. RMFF buyers are price-seeker who look for
the low price (Zeithaml 1988). Actually, those buyers who
look for a low price are not stable, they switch every time to
other lower priced product (Baltas 1997). In contrary, some
consumers think the price is a signal of quality (Bao et al.
2011). They think quality productsprice is high. In a recent
study, it has been found that consumers are more willing to
pay the premium price to ensure good quality of the food
products (Cranfield and Magnusson 2003).
Branding consist of not only a name or logo but also
some other activities done by the manufacturer to a par-
ticular product, service or idea in order to make the prod-
uct unique in the market to compete with other products
(Vraneševic and Stančec 2003). Nowadays, branding be-
comes one of the basic motives for the consumerschoice
of a particular food product. Branding is important to
create an impact on consumerschoice along with their
loyalty through identifying and differentiating quality and
origin. The brand has a direct effect on the perceived
quality because the brand indicates the quality of the
product (Vaidyanathan and Aggarwal 2000). It also helps
to increase consumer trust, and reduce their perceived risk
as well as time and effort put into switching/searching
costs (Nguyen and Gizaw 2014).
We are all live in an advertised era. We can get a clear idea
about advertising from Guy W. D. Cook. In a book named,
BThe Discourse of Advertising^, Mr. Cook uttered, Bwhether
we are alone, with our friends or family, or in a crowd, adver-
tising is always with us, if only on the label of something we
are using, advertising is everywhere.^(Cook 2001). Among
Curr Psychol
all the marketing weapons, advertising has a vast impact on
customers. A company cant become a market leader unless
they invest lots of their investment in promotional purposes
(Hussain et al. 2008). The major aim of advertising is to create
an impact on purchasersbuying behavior. Consumers be-
come emotionally attached to a product through viewing ad-
vertising (Niazi et al. 2012). So, advertising plays a vital role
to motivate the customers purchasing RMFF.
Packaging is a critical factor in the decision-making pro-
cess. Nowadays, businessorganization acknowledges packag-
ing as a strategic tool for enhancing the competitiveness of
food products (Estiri et al. 2010). Majority of consumers have
awareness about the presence of Food Preservatives&
Flavouring Agentsin the packed foods that they buy (HN
et al. 2013). But very interestingly, it has been found that
packaging doesnt have enough effect to consumers purchas-
ing RMFF.
The involvement in economic activities of men and
women both are increasing. Rising urbanization, increas-
increasing per capita income are acting as a driving force
behind Ready-made Frozen Food. So, their intention in
household activities becomes simple——————BJust
buy food from the market, bring home, enter oven, bring
to the table and eat with tasty and safety^.
This study tried to find out the reasons for preferring
Ready-made Frozen Foods. Prior studies have reported
that consumersintention to purchase can dependent on
socio-demographic factors such as age, gender, educa-
tion, income or anything else. As a positive attitude &
purchase intention may not always lead to the actual
buying behavior, the influence of socio-demographic fac-
tors is also tested. The result has revealed that socio-
demographic like gender, age, education level, family
income & occupation etc. have an influence on purchas-
ing RMFF. The result of the test also reveals which
group of people are the main customers of RMFF. The
result shows that working women are the main buyer of
this food. The age group 2130 years are buying RMFF
than any other age group. However, education level,
family income also have a significant influence on pur-
chasing RMFF.
However, purchase intention towards RMFF is also affect-
ed by other factors i.e. safety, easy to cook, favorability, low
price, brand, taste, advertising, appearance, quality etc.
Results of the factor analysis show that the packaging &
time-saving factors dont have enough capacity to influence
a person towards purchasing RMFF.
Acknowledgments The authors would like to show gratitude to the stu-
dents of the BUniversity of Dhaka^for providing the necessary informa-
tion. The authors are also immensely grateful to Mr. Hafij Ali, Biology
Lab Manager, Independent University, Bangladesh (IUB) for his com-
ment in a previous version of the manuscript although any errors in this
papers findings, interpretation & conclusion are the authorsown and for
this reason, the reputations of the esteemed person should not fade.
Compliance with Ethical Standards All activities performed
in the study that involved human participants were in accordance with the
ethical standards of the institutional or national research committee and
with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or compara-
ble ethical standards.
Conflict of Interest On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author
states that there is no conflict of interest.
Publishersnote Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdic-
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At present most of the retailers are utilizing the personalization concept in various advertisements for improving customers’ familiarity and their interest in different offers. However, the product recommendation is the most popular and commonly used personalization in current advertisements. Also, the previously published works illustrated the specific design of product aspects on a retailer’s website without depending on the additional consultation ways. In this work, the design and analysis of personalized recommendations have been done in different channels by focusing on customer expectations. Here, the male, and female customer’s concepts are determined by the advertising concept as a very good idea for evaluating the customer’s intentions for selecting the product recommendations from the multiple recommendations.
Purpose Health is an essential issue in the motivation to eat organic food. The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship if people who have a positive view of a healthy lifestyle (want to live healthy) have an influence on the tendency to buy organic food. Design/methodology/approach The analysis of secondary data dealing with the issue was supplemented by primary data. In order to meet the main aim, a preliminary objective was set which was to determine the influence of socio-demographic factors on the recommended lifestyle. Specifically, the largest statistically significant difference in influence on healthy lifestyle was gender, followed by education and age. The survey was conducted in the period of January–May 2019 on a sample of 1,373 respondents from Slovakia. Findings The data was evaluated by means of selected specific statistical methods (Kruskal–Wallis test, Man-Whitney test and Decision tree methodology). The results of the research verified that the lifestyle of Slovak consumers has an influence on the consumption of organic products and that people who practise healthy eating buy organic food more often. Our research has shown that lifestyle is increasingly influencing consumer purchasing behaviour. Originality/value The results showed that today's healthy lifestyle increases the demand for healthy food among potential consumers. Furthermore, the presented results of our research in Slovakia could establish some basis for conducting similar research in other European countries.
During the recent COVID-19 outbreak, many people opted to stay at home and completely run their businesses online. The recent research studies show that, the frozen food sales and social media usage have grown exponentially as a result of the change in people’s behavior and companies’ marketing strategies. Frozen food sales are expected to grow as a result of social media marketing, and also, the relationship between buyers and sellers is becoming more flexible. The main purpose of this research study is to examine the recent increase in frozen food sales as a result of social media’s influence. The proposed research work has been carried out by using qualitative technique, and also, this research study has conducted a literature analysis to learn from previous research works based on what factors they contribute to increase sales, and why social media is the best medium for marketing. The literature study suggests that frozen food sales rise as a result of consumer behavior, and that social media is the best platform for marketing their products. The results indicate that the behavioral changes have a significant impact on frozen food sales, and that social media assists in product marketing and enhancing the key drivers of growing consumer interest. As a result, a large number of frozen food companies are considering the option of utilizing social media as a marketing tool.KeywordsSocial mediaMarketingSalesFrozen food
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Allergen food recalls issued by food regulatory bodies in the UK from 2016 to 2021 are analysed herein by food type, allergenic food group, reasons for recall, and food expiry status. Trends and relationships have been assessed. Food allergen-related recalls in the UK have tended to increase annually despite increased awareness and regulations until 2019, peaking at 118 recalls before decreasing to 82 and 84 in 2020 and 2021 respectively. Recalls due to allergens were the main reason for food recalls at 57.6% (n = 597), which included 25.2% of recalls involving milk products. However, most recalls (40.0%) were issued due to omission of priority allergens from the list of ingredients. The supermarket Lidl issued the most recalls with 37 recalls involving 62 products. 6.0% (n = 480) of recalls passed their best-before or use-by dates, with 14 products (48.3%) having use-by dates which are microbiologically unsafe to be consumed once past the relevant dates, and cereal & bakery products accounted for 30.4% of all recalls with expiry dates (n = 480). These analyses suggest that allergen-related recalls still present risks to consumers and the food industry, with larger retailers recalling the most despite modern facilities. More attention must be focused on all food allergen recalls, particularly the omission of intentionally added foods containing priority allergens from the list of ingredients. In addition, allergen-based recalls of food with expired or shortly to expire dates, which pose uncontrolled risks to consumers with food allergies, have been identified.
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The lockdown imposed to limit the diffusion of COVID-19 in Italy affected the economic situation negatively. The income of many households decreased, and people were forced to stay home. Both these factors influenced food consumption: on the one hand less income means less money for purchases, on the other, the negative psychological impact of lesser income and the pandemic shifted the consumption towards alcohol and tobacco. Using survey data, this paper shows how the negative economic shock due to lockdown, together with the restrictions imposed by it, affected the consumption of food items in a region of Norther Italy.
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Attempts were undertaken to design a quick ready-to-cook gluten-free snack utilizing finger millet and potato flour (50:50) as well as tomato pomace due to the restricted availability of gluten-free snack goods in the Indian market. The nutritional content of the food and its general acceptability, cooking characteristics, and storage stability were all tested. The addition of tomato pomace had a distinct influence on the product’s color and hardness. Additionally, it resulted in a significant reduction in the amount of oil used, cooking loss, and frying time required. With a high acceptance level, the snack supplemented with 10% tomato pomace was determined to be the most optimal formulation. When the same substance was subjected to FTIR analysis, it was discovered that it retained all the important functional groups required for sustaining antioxidant activity. It also displayed high storage stability, a desirable overall acceptance score, and a very promising nutritional profile, all of which would benefit the product’s end users.
Spain is the leading European country in the production and consumption of frozen products. More specifically, in the region of Galicia (northwest of the Iberian Peninsula) the bulk of the frozen fish and seafood industry is located. The production activity carried out in Spain, as a member of the European Union, must be governed by European sustainability guidelines. This is what one of the largest business groups in the frozen sector in Galicia has done in its new business project, a plant producing high-quality frozen products with a significant added value. The objective of this study is to analyze the viability of this new company, over a five-year financial projection. In addition, a price sensitivity analysis will also be carried out in order to determine the possible scenarios that the company would face. The results show that the project is efficient and covers the investments made, in the medium term, despite the losses suffered in the short term.
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Freezing technology is one of the most well established long-term preservation techniques for producing high-quality, nutritious foods with prolonged shelf-life. Frozen foods (FFs) are a significant section of the global food market experiencing rapid growth. It also represents an alternative to small producers in developing countries to add value to their products in a competitive market. However, unfairly, FFs are often perceived as less qualitative than fresh produce, although studies have shown that some FFs have higher nutritional values than fresh products. This study’s aim is to analyze consumers’ perceptions in the two Balkan countries towards FFs. A total of 380 questionnaires were completed in both countries (182 in Kosovo and 198 in Albania). Consumers’ perceptions towards FFs were measured through eleven items using a five-point Likert scale. The items addressed issues related to the quality and safety of FFs, information on FFs, and the impact of origin on the perception of FFs. The differences between populations were tested with the t-test and correlation analysis with the bootstrapping method for sociodemographic factors. The results show that Kosovo consumers generally show a higher positive attitude toward FFs than Albanian consumers. Albanian consumers prefer fresh foods over FFs. The lack of trust in food safety institutions was expressed with concern for the conditions of the frozen chain applied both on the imported and domestic frozen products. Similarly, the findings show that Albanian consumers are willing to pay more than the baseline price to obtain fresh products instead of frozen compared with Kosovo consumers. Additional studies are needed to explore whether the lack of trust in food safety institutions inhibits the successful development of FFs in Albania and Kosovo. In both countries, responsible authorities should help consumers to have a more profound knowledge of the quality of FFs and boost these activities to increase farmers’ incomes and play an active role in reducing food loss and waste. Keywords: frozen food; quality; safety; consumer perception; Balkans
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While strategy is of great importance in the hospitality industry, this article is in regard to the process. Therefore, for the first time, this article examines how stuffed yellow peppers are frozen (congelé) and later served as a portion of hot food in restaurants. A sensory analysis was performed, and tasters were invited. Data were collected over three different periods that represented the duration of freezing. The results of the descriptive statistical analysis indicated that the evaluated frozen dishes exhibited degrees of sensory deterioration. The findings are critical to the restaurant business because recipes are often skipped, and the process depends solely on the chefs. The primary value added for management is that strict recipes could improve the cost and shelf life of meals prepared and then frozen in the restaurant by lowering the storage temperature or shortening the freezing time. Incidentally, such analysis should be a continuous development to reduce energy consumption and increase food quality. The consistent results first demonstrated a decreased mouthfeel of the sauce after the first month and, second, a higher stickiness after two months of freezing. In addition, the nutritional values of the dish were calculated using trademarked software.
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This study aimed to assess the microbiological quality of 159 animal- and plant-based ready-to-cook (RTC) frozen food items currently popular in Dhaka. Microbiological analyses were carried out to enumerate total aerobic counts of mesophilic bacteria, yeast and mold and to detect some common foodborne pathogens according to standard microbiological criteria. Higher microbial loads in all animal-based food types, other than chicken strips were found. In contrast, plant-based items were relatively safe except paratha, dal-puri, rooti chapati, and aloo-puri. Several common pathogenic bacterial species were screened by analyzing their morphological, cultural, and biochemical characteristics. Escherichia coli was prevalent in most samples, while Salmonella species were least reported. A considerable number of samples exhibited enough microbial loads at infection or intoxication levels.
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The advanced education framework has quickly changed on the planet. In these days, individuals are continually endeavoring to accomplish the higher education. Hence, the demand for the educational institution, leaving spaces, infrastructural development is expanding step by step. This investigation has been embraced to perceive the components that impact an understudy in considering the choice to remain in off-grounds living in the season of advanced education. This investigation has been done through an organized survey & finished by factor analysis strategy. The discoveries demonstrated that maximum understudies pick off-grounds living to guarantee their solace, accommodation, and wellbeing in a peaceful perusing condition. Off-grounds living understudies need to endure enormous challenges regarding cost, transportation, connecting with social activities, and so forth. Government and University experts can take some preventive ways like building lobbies, expanding transportation facilities, diminishing the cost of nourishment, and so forth to minimize the problems of off-grounds livings students.
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This study highlighted the role of knowledge about frozen foods and focused on what traits will change consumers' intentions toward frozen food purchases. Further, it analysed how consumer attitudes toward frozen food acted as a mediator and family structure acted as a moderator in the relationships between knowledge of frozen food products, change seeking traits, and frozen food purchase intentions. Data was collected through a questionnaire based on adopted scales, and the sample consisted of 279 frozen food customers of branded and non-branded stores in Multan District, Pakistan. Exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and multi-group moderation were conducted to provide statistical evidence for hypotheses. Knowledge about frozen foods and change seeking traits were found significant in predicting frozen food purchase intentions directly and through mediation. Additionally, family structure was found to be a significant moderator of the hypothesized path between attitude towards frozen food and frozen food purchase intentions. This study is the only one of its kind and helps to demystify frozen food purchase behaviour of consumers in adeveloping country like Pakistan, especially, in light of a changing social phenomenon, that is, shifting of joint family systems to nuclear family structures.
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Recent trends in final food demand show that the concept of food has undergone a radical transformation in recent years. The diversification of food away from traditional products and in convergence with western style is responsible for changes in the whole food system. This paper aims to provide comprehensive approach to the consumer purchasing behaviour towards processed ready to eat and ready to cook food products. It thus focused on knowing the perception of the consumers towards Ready-to-Eat and ready to cook food and the impact of factors on their purchase intention. There existed an ambiguity of what Ready-to-Food is, as different sources provided with different meanings. In order to derive a niche expertise of derived findings, the research was restricted to only branded ready to eat and ready to cook food products and to Consumers who were aware about these food products. A sample of 110 respondents has been taken under convenient sampling technique in Bhubaneswar city, Odisha. The study reveals that majority of the respondents have planned decision in purchasing instant food products. Television plays a major role in providing information about instant food products.
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Fast food industry is a high growing sector of Bangladesh. It is concerned with the tastes and habits of the people. The food-taking habit especially in fast food segment has been changing very fast over last decade among the people of Dhaka - the capital city of Bangladesh. The reasons could be attributed by the increase of awareness, growth of education, development of information technology, and expansion of television channels and print media in Bangladesh. Hence, this paper aims at identifying the preference factors of fast food consumers living in Dhaka city. This study was conducted among the university students who usually eat fast food at their leisure time. To conduct the study, a total of 250 respondents were interviewed with a structured questionnaire. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used in analyzing the data. Multivariate analysis technique like factor analysis was performed to identify the preference factors of the fast food student-consumers of Bangladesh. Multiple regressions were run to identify the relationship between the factors identified and the overall preference of the consumers. Results show that the consumers give most importance on brand reputation of the food item followed by nearness to receive and accessibility, similarity of taste with previous experience, cost and quality of the food, discount and taste, cleanliness and hygiene, salesmanship and decoration, fat and cholesterol level, and self-service factors. This study suggests that the brand reputation, nearness and accessibility, similarity in taste, and cost and quality relationship should be emphasized to improve the attraction of the university students towards the fast food items in Bangladesh.
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Evidence from past research and insights from an exploratory investigation are combined in a conceptual model that defines and relates price, perceived quality, and perceived value. Propositions about the concepts and their relationships are presented, then supported with evidence from the literature. Discussion centers on directions for research and implications for managing price, quality, and value.
Objective: To investigate reasons why parents purchase prepackaged, processed meals and associations with parental cooking self-efficacy, meal-planning ability, and home food availability. Methods: This secondary data analysis uses Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment Plus study data from parents of children aged 8-12 years (n = 160). Associations between reasons why parents purchase prepackaged, processed meals and the outcomes were assessed with chi-square, Fisher exact, and t tests. Results: The most frequently endorsed reasons for purchasing prepackaged, processed meals included lack of time (57%) and family preferences (49%). Five of 6 reasons were associated with lower parental cooking self-efficacy and meal-planning ability. Some reasons were associated with less-healthful home food environments; few reasons varied by socio-demographic characteristics. Conclusions and implications: Because lower cooking self-efficacy and meal-planning ability are associated with most reasons reported for purchasing prepackaged, processed meals, strategies to increase these attributes for parents of all backgrounds may reduce reliance on prepackaged processed meals for family mealtimes.
Purpose – The study was conducted with the aim of understanding brand awareness among consumers and analyzing the attitude of consumers towards selected branded commodity food products. An attempt was also made to examine the factors influencing the purchase of selected branded commodity food products. Design/methodology/approach – The products selected for the study were branded rice and branded sugar. A sample of 200 respondents was selected from different localities of a city in India. Findings – Major sources of awareness, for branded rice and branded sugar, are friends/relatives/reference groups, point-of-purchase display, and retailer's recommendations. Respondents perceive free from adulterants, free from insecticides/pesticides/harmful chemicals and social status as the most important parameters of branded rice and branded sugar. The most important factors influencing the purchase of branded rice and branded sugar were found to be flavor, aroma, free from insecticides or pesticides and free from adulterants. Research limitations/implications – Further studies can be conducted with a larger sample size. Importance of brand equity with respect to commodity products can be analyzed. Practical implications – Marketers could frame strategies for different market segments based on demographics. Brand awareness needs to be given adequate focus by the marketers. Originality/value – This paper has made an attempt to study purchase behaviour with respect to commodity products. Not many studies have been undertaken to analyze brand awareness, and consumers' attitudes towards branded commodity food products in developing countries like India.