Article

Lost colours: Photogrammetry, image analysis using the DStretch plugin, and 3-D modelling of post-firing painted pottery from the south west Iberian Peninsula

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Abstract

The main purpose of this project was to verify the use of the DStretch plugin, designed to study rock art, for analysing post-firing painted pottery from the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age in the Atlantic façade of the Iberian Peninsula. To do so, a Guadalquivir-type carinated pot was used as a study vessel from the excavations of Portaceli (Medellín, Badajoz, Spain). The study brought together all of the different methods used, from the photogrammetry used to obtain a high-quality image of the piece, analysis with DStretch, and the final 3-D modelling process in order to accurately reproduce the shape and decoration of the vessel. The final goal was to obtain precise documentation on these types of vessels, the handling of which is not recommended due to the fragile nature of the pigments used in their decoration.

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... The use of new technologies for the study of pottery vessels allows working on different scales of observation. In particular, the use of 3D models offers the possibility of evaluating the surfaces of the vessels, as well as aspects related to their symmetry and volume (Rodríguez González, Carbonell Pastor & Casals, 2019;Ferrari & Giligny, 2020). ...
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Digitization, three-dimensional (3D) documentation and visualization of archaeological materials are processes in increasing development that are used for the enhancement of heritage. These tools have multiple uses for the analysis and research of archaeological objects, although their use in pottery forming techniques studies is less explored. In this paper, diverse digital methods are explored in the study of pottery forming macro-traces, using the 3D model of an archaeological vessel from South-Central Andes. This case is proposed as a pilot study, aiming to reveal the potential of digital techniques for understanding pottery forming techniques. The particular case analysed corresponds to a globular pot of the Humahuaca Black-on-Red style, recovered at the Pucara de Volcán archaeological site, in Quebrada de Humahuaca (Jujuy, Argentina). Initial studies of macro-traces on the pot suggested the use of paddling as the forming technique. The workflow used to contrast this hypothesis included the generation of a 3D model by close-range photogrammetry; and the analysis of the resulting point-cloud and mesh using Morphological Residue Model (MRM) and Virtual Reflectance Transformation Imaging Visualization (V-RTI), with diverse open-source software packages, such as AliceVision Metashape and CloudCompare. These methods increased the micro-topography visibility of the pot surface. As a result, the presence of sub-circular depressions in the body of the pot -similar to percussion cupules-, horizontal pressure lines in the collar, and micro-pull-outs in the maximal diameter of the pot were described. These macro-traces were interpreted as corresponding to the paddling technique used for the elaboration of the pot body —a technique not previously identified in pre-Hispanic traditional pottery manufacturing in the north of Argentina—, and of coiling for manufacturing the collar. The digital methods explored have great potential in the study of pottery forming techniques, although their scope depends on the accuracy of the 3D model analysed.
... Moreover, SfM/MVS technology usually generates RGM textured 3D model though many laser scanners including ones we used in this study cannot. SfM/MVS technology has become increasingly prevalent in archaeological and other practices including architecture, landscapes, drill cores, chambers in monuments, and pottery [12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22]. Some previous studies have reported that the accuracy of 3D models made with the SfM/ MVS technology can be comparative with those made by laser scanning, though restricted to relatively large objects, without some exceptions [23][24][25][26][27]. Laser scanning is another method to construct a 3D model that has gradually become used in archaeological practices [28][29][30][31][32]. ...
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SfM/MVS photogrammetry has received increasing attention due to its convenience, broadening the range of its applications into archaeology and anthropology. Because the accuracy of SfM/MVS depends on photography, one important issue is that incorrect or low-density point clouds are found in 3D models due to poor overlapping between images. A systematic way of taking photographs solve these problems, though it has not been well established and the accuracy has not been examined either, with some exceptions. The present study aims to (i) develop an efficient method for recording pottery using an automated turntable and (ii) assess its accuracy through a comparison with 3D models made by laser scanning. We recorded relatively simple pottery manufactured by prehistoric farmers in the Japanese archipelago using SfM/MVS photogrammetry and laser scanning. Further, by measuring the Hausdorff distance between 3D models made using these two methods, we show that their difference is negligibly small, suggesting that our method is sufficiently accurate to record pottery.
... En los últimos quince años el uso de esta herramienta de mejora de imagen se ha propagado en el campo de la arqueología (Le Quellec, Duquesnoy & Defrasne, 2015). Hoy en día su uso no se limita al marco de aplicación original, el arte rupestre, sino que se ha extendido a la documentación de pinturas murales egipcias (Evans & Mourad, 2018) e históricas (Fuentes, Soto & Martín, 2019), o de cerámica arqueológica (Dorado, 2018;Rodríguez, Pastor & Casals, 2019). Pese a que el realce de diferencias cromáticas leves también puede destacar características físicas asociadas a determinadas patologías, su uso desde el campo de la conservación con fines diagnósticos es aún aislado (Fernández, Gutiérrez, Ruiz & Criado, 2017;Palomar, Baselga, Viñals, García & Sancho, 2019). ...
Preprint
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... On the other hand, the ImageJ DStretch complement designed by Harman [10] for the image enhancement of cave paintings has also given good results to study fine engravings [9,11,12]. DStretch is one of the most efficient tools for deciphering faint paintings [13][14][15]. It is based on the application of the decorrelation stretching algorithm to the main components of a digital color image. ...
Article
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In this article, we propose a methodology for the archaeological documentation of limestone plaquettes decorated with faint paintings and fine engravings. The plaquette number 16330 is presented, belonging to the portable art collection in Cova del Parpalló (Gandía, Spain), one of the most important Paleolithic sites in the UNESCO's Rock Art of the Mediterranean Basin on the Iberian Peninsula. Macro photogrammetry is used to generate a 3D model and basic treatments on raster images. The resulting 3D model has a spatial resolution of tens of microns and was used to generate a digital elevation model (DEM) and orthorectified macro photographs for documenting the engravings and paintings. All stages of the workflow are detailed in-depth, specifying the data collection parameters and the configuration used in the subsequent processing with HyperCube and DStretch software. The resulting documentation is accurate, reproducible, and objective and allows the reinterpretation of the available graphic documentation started in the 1990s.
... Applications of terrestrial multi-view image-based modeling and texturing for large-scale heritage applications vary considerably. This technique has been implemented towards high resolution documentation and virtual restoration of small artefacts [8], damaged pottery [9], rock art [10], wall paintings [11] and decorative friezes [12], comprehensive investigations on pre-historic engravings [13], ancient Egyptian coffins [14] and ancient inscriptions [15], and evaluation of damage [16] and restoration works [17] on painted surfaces. ...
Preprint
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Digital photogrammetry and spectral imaging are widely used in heritage sciences, towards the comprehensive recording, understanding, and protection of historical artefacts and artworks. The availability of consumer-grade modified cameras for spectral acquisition, as an alternative to expensive multispectral sensors and multi-sensor apparatuses, along with semi-automatic software implementations of Structure-from-Motion (SfM) and Multiple-View-Stereo (MVS) algorithms, has made more feasible than ever the combination of those techniques. In the research presented here, the authors assess image-based modeling from near-infrared (NIR) imagery acquired with modified sensors, with applications on tangible heritage. Three-dimensional meshes, textured with the non-visible data, are produced and evaluated. Specifically, metric evaluations are conducted through extensive comparisons with models produced with high-resolution visible (VIS) spectrum image-based modeling, to check accuracy of results. Furthermore, the authors observe and discuss, when the implemented NIR modeling approach, enhances the preservation of surface detail on the reconstructed spectral models or counteracts certain problems arising from lighting conditions during VIS acquisition. Radiometric properties of the produced results are evaluated on the capacity to enhance observation towards the characterization of surface and under-surface state of preservation, and consequently, to support conservation interventions, in comparison to the respective results in visible spectrum.
... Although originally designed for rock art researchers, DStretch ® has also been used to study faded murals [43], frescos [44] and even images obscured by smut and grime [45]. In yet another demonstration of its potential, it has also been used to recover information about polychrome on antique ceramic [46]. By artificially enhancing hidden or discoloured traces of pigment, DStretch ® reveals details in photographs that are hidden to the naked eye [47]. ...
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Basic guide to 3D modelling of complete and fragmented archaeological objects
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El análisis de imagen como aportación metodológica al estudio de las cerámicas pintadas de la Prehistoria Reciente: casos de estudio desde el Sudeste de la Península Ibérica
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Cerámica pintada de tipo Medellín,”
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Las cerámicas del Bronce Final. Un soporte tipológico para delimitar el tiempo y el espacio tartésico
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