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Benefits of the Pilates Method in Preventing Elderly Falls

Authors:
  • Federal University Vale do São Francisco (UNIVASF)

Abstract

The proportion of the elderly population has increased considerably in the world; this requires the transformation of public health policies for the coming decades. One of the major health problems of the elderly population is falls, responsible for injuries, days of hospitalization and low functional independence capacity. Different studies have revealed the effects of Pilates practice on the prevention of falls in the elderly. The method is well accepted by the elderly population and able to increase levels of muscle strength, flexibility, balance, functional mobility, body awareness, confidence in balance, reducing fear of falls.
Short Communication
Volume 4 Issue 1 - May 2018
DOI: 10.19080/JPFMTS.2018.04.555630
J Phy Fit Treatment & Sports
Copyright © All rights are reserved by Marcelo De Maio Nascimento


Marcelo De Maio Nascimento*
Department of Physical Education, Federal University of the São Francisco Valley, Brazil
Submission: May 16, 2018; May 22, 2018
Marcelo De Maio Nascimento, Department of Physical Education, Federal University of the São Francisco Valley, Brazil,
Tel: ; Email:
J Phy Fit Treatment & Sportsl 4(1): JPFMTS.MS.ID.555630 (2018) 001
Short Communication
The proportion of the elderly population has increased
considerably in recent decades. It is estimated that in the year
2050, the world population presents 2 million people over 65:
a population more susceptible to chronic and degenerative
diseases. In the case of Brazil, for example, it is estimated that
      
253 million inhabitants, and 9 million will be over eighty years
old. Therefore, issues of human aging are a challenge for public
policies on health and social development [1,2]. Human aging
is considered as a process and not pathology [3]. This process
determines a series of physical changes, which is followed
by the progressive reduction of the functional capacities,
necessary for the resolution of activities of daily living [4].
Although aging occurs differently for each person, it cannot be
avoided. However, by adopting an active lifestyle, it is possible to
prolong the years of life in a healthy way [5]. In this perspective,
the regular practice of physical exercises presents itself as a
measure of low cost, capable of increasing the physical condition
of the elderly and, consequently, the functional capacity. In
this perspective, the regular practice of physical exercises
presents itself as a measure of low cost, capable of increasing
the physical condition of the elderly and, consequently, their
functional capacity. Through physical exercises, the elderly can
expand their social network of friendships, avoiding isolation,
depression, insomnia, increasing the perception of quality of
life and well-being [6-8].
Among the sporting modalities advised for the elderly
population and well accepted, is Pilates [9]. The method is
composed of a series of exercises developed by Joseph Pilates
in the 1930s. Pilates also called his method as “contrology”,
because exercises seek control and awareness of body
movement [10]. The exercises can either be practiced on
equipment, regulated by a spring system, or on the ground,
using only body weight. The conceptual basis of training
consists of body-mind integration, achieved from functional
      
stability of the “powerhouse” muscles, a region that involves
more internal muscles, located from the peripelvic region to
the diaphragm. This set of muscles is especially responsible for
postural control and stability of the body.

According to the World Health Organization [11],
approximately 28-35% of people 65 and older fall yearly, the
rate increases to 32-42% among older people over age 70, being
the most common case among women. The consequences of a
fall can be serious, it is estimated that 10% of them generate soft
tissue injuries, fractures and brain trauma, which is followed by
days of hospitalization. In Brazil, for example, according to data
released by the Ministry of Health on hospital admissions for
the elderly by falls, between the years 2005 and 2010, 399,681
        

The proportion of the elderly population has increased considerably in the world; this requires the transformation of public health policies
for the coming decades. One of the major health problems of the elderly population is falls, responsible for injuries, days of hospitalization and
low functional independence capacity. Different studies have revealed the effects of Pilates practice on the prevention of falls in the elderly. The
 

 Pilates; Aging; Falls
Journal of Physical Fitness, Medicine
& Treatment in Sports
ISSN: 2577-2945
How to cite this article: Marcelo De M N. Benets of the Pilates Method in Preventing Elderly Falls. J Phy Fit Treatment & Sports .2018; 4(1): 555630
DOI: 10.19080/JPFMTS.2018.04.555630
002
Journal of Physical Fitness, Medicine & Treatment in Sports
hospitalization in this period was USD 132.821.221,69. These
data demonstrate the need to develop actions to prevent falls
in the elderly in Brazil.
       
Falls
Systematic review studies [11,13], meta-analysis [14]
and experimental [15,16] have shown the potential of Pilates
exercises to prevent falls in the elderly. This is due to the
following factors:
a) Increased levels of muscle strength in the lower limbs,
dorsal and abdominal muscles [17];
 
c) Stimulation of the static and dynamic balance
regulation system: visual, vestibular and proprioceptive
apparatus [19,20];
d) Improves gait pattern: increased speed of strides,
length and cadence [21];
        
balance [22].
In addition, in order for the risk of falls to be reduced to
the maximum, physical exercise should be associated with fall
prevention strategies [23,24], such as:
a) Multifactorial assessment of intrinsic and extrinsic
aspects related to falls;
b) Single clinical evaluation: protocols and
questionnaires;
c) Educational interventions; and
d) Actions to prevent falls at home.
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How to cite this article: Marcelo De M N. Benets of the Pilates Method in Preventing Elderly Falls. J Phy Fit Treatment & Sports .2018; 4(1): 555630
DOI: 10.19080/JPFMTS.2018.04.555630
003
Journal of Physical Fitness, Medicine & Treatment in Sports
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DOI:10.19080/JPFMTS.2018.04.555630
... Em se tratando da população idosa, uma medida sugerida à prevenção e/ou redução do risco de queda consiste na prática regular de exercícios físicos 13 . Dentre os exercícios, destaca-se o método Pilates mate 14 , pois seus exercícios beneficiam tanto a estabilização da musculatura do centro de força (power haus) 15 , como a propriocepção 16 , aumentando também a força dos membros inferiores e os níveis de flexibilidade 17 . No entanto, sabe-se que quedas são multifatoriais, logo idosos fisicamente ativos também estão sujeitos a cair [18][19] ...
... Entretanto, sabe-se que a prática regular do exercício físico é um agente protetor capaz de reduzir o risco de queda 3,13 . Dentre as atividades recomendadas há Pilates mate que se apresenta como estratégia eficaz à prevenção de quedas da população idosa [14][15][16][17] . No presente estudo, verificou-se tempo médio de treinamento do Pilates mate de 27 meses. ...
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Deficits in the elderly’s visual, vestibular, and somatosensory systems affect postural control, which increases the risk of falling. Objectives: To evaluate the difference in postural balance between elderly fallers and non-fallers in different situations of sensory inputs by practitioners of the Mat Pilates; To verify the correlation between fall and balance; To estimate the risk of fall between the population, and to establish a mediation model for the case. Method: This was a cross-sectional study using a quantitative approach of analytical design carried out in the city of Petrolina, Pernambuco State, from 2017 to 2018. Study population was composed of 94 women (67.90 ± 5.19 years) divided into fallers (n = 29) and those with no history of falls (n=65). Calculation was defined “a posteriori.” Sociodemographic data, medications and frequency of falls were collected using a questionnaire. Body balance was assessed using the Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction and Balance test (CTSIB) and the Body Balance Test (TEC). Results: The observed rate of fall was 29%, and the average Pilates practice time was 27 months. The logistic regression analysis indicated negative results. A positive association with a fall was shown by CTSIB 2 (OR = 0.286; 95% CI [-0.119 - 0.063]), indicating an increased chance of falling by up to 71%. Conclusion: Although the group of elderly women was a regular practitioner of physical exercises, it was found that the risk of falling does not depend on the history of previous falls and the deficit in the sensory regulation of static and dynamic balance is common with advancing age.
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OBJETIVO: Apresentar a proposta para sistematização do programa de treinamento “DT-Tênis 60+” específico para o aprendizado dos fundamentos do Tênis e prevenção de queda de idosos. MÉTODOS: Estudo qualitativo descritivo, que revisou a literatura sobre os temas envelhecimento humano e quedas, a metodologia Play and Stay, sugerida para o ensino do tênis e a metodologia Dual Task, adequada para o planejamento de exercícios à prevenção de quedas de idosos. RESULTADOS: Foram apresentadas duas ilustrações sobre a base conceitual da proposta “DT-Tênis 60+”, além de um modelo estrutural sobre as fases da aula, contendo organização dos conteúdos, sequência das atividades e tempo de duração. O texto encerra com imagens sobre materiais didáticos a serem utilizado na aula, seguido por exercícios práticos para adaptação do aluno com a raquete e o ensino da técnica forehand. CONCLUSÃO: O princípio metodológico da proposta de treinamento “DT-Tênis 60+” pode ser adotado por profissionais da área do tênis em suas práticas diárias com a população idosa para o desenvolvimento de habilidades motoras e cognitivas, bem como, à redução do risco de quedas. ABSTRACT. “DT-Tennis 60+” Program: a proposal for systematizing the learning of tennis and the prevention of falls among the elderly. OBJECTIVE: To present the proposal for the systematization of the training program “DT-Tennis 60+” specifically for learning the fundamentals of Tennis and preventing falls from older adults. METHODS: Qualitative descriptive study, which reviewed the literature on the themes of human aging and falls, the Play and Stay methodology, suggested for the teaching of tennis, and the Dual Task methodology, suitable for planning exercises to prevent older adult falls. RESULTS: Two illustrations were presented on the conceptual basis of the proposal “DT-Tennis 60+”, in addition to a structural model on the phases of the class, containing the organization of the contents, sequence of activities and duration. The text ends with images about teaching materials to be used in class, followed by practical exercises to adapt the student with the racket and the teaching of the forehand technique. CONCLUSION: The methodological principle of the training proposal “DT-Tennis 60+” can be adopted by tennis professionals in their daily practices with the older adult population for the development of motor and cognitive skills, as well as, the reduction of the risk of falls.
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OBJECTIVE: To present the proposal for the systematization of the training program “DT-Tennis 60+” specifically for learning the fundamentals of Tennis and preventing falls from older adults. METHODS: Qualitative descriptive study, which reviewed the literature on the themes of human aging and falls, the Play and Stay methodology, suggested for the teaching of tennis, and the Dual Task methodology, suitable for planning exercises to prevent older adult falls. RESULTS: Two illustrations were presented on the conceptual basis of the proposal “DT-Tennis 60+”, in addition to a structural model on the phases of the class, containing the organization of the contents, sequence of activities and duration. The text ends with images about teaching materials to be used in class, followed by practical exercises to adapt the student with the racket and the teaching of the forehand technique. CONCLUSION: The methodological principle of the training proposal “DT-Tennis 60+” can be adopted by tennis professionals in their daily practices with the older adult population for the development of motor and cognitive skills, as well as, the reduction of the risk of falls.
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OBJECTIVE: To present the proposal for the systematization of the training program “DT-Tennis 60+” specifically for learning the fundamentals of Tennis and preventing falls from older adults. METHODS: Qualitative descriptive study, which reviewed the literature on the themes of human aging and falls, the Play and Stay methodology, suggested for the teaching of tennis, and the Dual Task methodology, suitable for planning exercises to prevent older adult falls. RESULTS: Two illustrations were presented on the conceptual basis of the proposal “DT-Tennis 60+”, in addition to a structural model on the phases of the class, containing the organization of the contents, sequence of activities and duration. The text ends with images about teaching materials to be used in class, followed by practical exercises to adapt the student with the racket and the teaching of the forehand technique. CONCLUSION: The methodological principle of the training proposal “DT-Tennis 60+” can be adopted by tennis professionals in their daily practices with the older adult population for the development of motor and cognitive skills, as well as, the reduction of the risk of falls.
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Objective: Considering a world-wide increase of the elderly population and the age-related ceasing of functional capacities, maintenance of body balance is crucial to avoid falls and the risk of fractures. The Pilates Method offers exercises aimed at stabilizing the postural muscles and therefore appears to have a good potential in this context. The aim of the study was to assess the possible effects of a Pilates program on body balance in elderly people. The hypothesis was that this type of intervention would improve body balance as compared to another group of elderly people, who participated in a program with unspecific physical activities. Design: The Pilates group (PG, n=19) and the control group (CG, n=20) exercised twice a week for 10 weeks. All participants were submitted to a balance test before and after the intervention. Results: The groups showed similar balance abilities in the pre-test, classified as regular balance abilities. The participants in the CG did not show any improvement in body balance during the post-test, while the participants in the PG showed significant improvements, with a tendency toward a good classification. Older subjects showed a tendency toward a lower capacity in body balance within the groups. Conclusion: The Pilates Method offers a beneficial tool to improve the abilities to maintain body balance. The effects of this method probably represent an entity of improved postural muscle functionality and an improved integration of the information provided by various receptor systems in the control of the activity of these muscles.
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The beneficial effects of exercise have been well recognized for over half a century. Dr Jeremy Morris' pioneering studies in the fifties showed a striking difference in cardiovascular disease between the drivers and conductors on the double-decker buses in London. These studies sparked off a vast amount of research on the effects of exercise in health, and the general consensus is that exercise contributes to improved outcomes and treatment for several diseases including osteoporosis, diabetes, depression, and atherosclerosis. Evidence of the beneficial effects of exercise is reviewed here. One way of highlighting the impact of exercise on disease is to consider it from the perspective of good practice. However, the intensity, duration, frequency (dosage), and counter indications of the exercise should be taken into consideration to individually tailor the exercise programme. An important case of the beneficial effect of exercise is that of ageing. Ageing is characterized by a loss of homeostatic mechanisms, on many occasions leading to the development of frailty, hence frailty is one of the major geriatric syndromes and exercise is very useful to mitigate, or at least delay it. Since exercise is so effective in reducing frailty, we would like to propose that exercise be considered as a supplement to other treatments. People all over the world have been taking nutritional supplements in the hopes of improving their health. We would like to think of exercise as a physiological supplement not only for treating diseases, but also for improving healthy ageing. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of Mat Pilates on functional capacity (FC) of elderly women before and after six weeks of intervention. Eighteen women aged 62.28 (± 2.34) participated in the study. Timed Up and Go test, Timed Up Stairs, Timed Down Stairs, 30-s Chair Stand, Chair Sit-and-Reach and Back Scratch tests were assessed. The results showed significant improvements in all FC tests after six weeks of Mat Pilates intervention. Summarizing, only six weeks of Mat Pilates training of 60 minutes per session, three times a week, three series beginning with six repetitions and eight repetitions at the last two weeks of intervention, were enough to improve FC in elderly women. Furthermore, the exercises difficulty increased from beginners to intermediate.
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Background: Decreased postural control, sensory integration deficits and fatigue are important problems that cause functional impairments in patients with multiple sclerosis (pwMS). Purpose: To examine the effect of modified clinical Pilates exercises on sensory interaction and balance, postural control and fatigue in pwMS. Methods: Eleven patients with multiple sclerosis and 12 healthy matched controls were recruited in this study. Limits of stability and postural stability tests were used to evaluate postural control by Biodex Balance System and sensory interaction assessed. Fatigue was assessed by Modified Fatigue Impact Scale. Pilates exercises were applied two times a week for 10 weeks and measurements were repeated to pwMS after exercise training. Results: Postural control and fatigue (except psychosocial parameter) of pwMS were significantly worser than healthy controls (p<0.05). Significant improvements occurred in sensory interaction (eyes open, foam surface) and total, physical and cognitive scores of fatigue after 10-week modified clinical Pilates training (p<0.05). No significant changes were detected in postural control after the pilates exercises (p>0.05). Conclusions: Ten-week Pilates training is effective to improve sensory interaction and to decrease fatigue. Pilates exercises can be applied safely in ambulatory pwMS for enhance sensory interaction and balance and combat fatigue. More investigations are needed.
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Several studies show the benefits of including muscle strength and aerobic physical activity in the routine of elderly people. Among the various possibilities of physical activity, the Pilates method has become a popular modality in recent years, through a system of exercises enabling to work the whole body and that corrects posture and realigns the muscles, developing the body stability needed for a healthier life. The aim of this study was to review the current evidence on the effects of the practice of the Pilates method in the elderly. A systematic literature review was conducted in the following electronic databases: Pubmed, Scielo, Lilacs/Bireme, Scopus, Pedro and Isi of Knowledge, from descriptors pilates, elderly, old adults, aging. In the selection of studies the following inclusion criteria were used: original articles in English, Portuguese and Spanish languages. All selection and evaluation processes of the articles were performed by peers and the quality was verified by the Downs and Black scale. Twenty-one studies were included. The year of publication ranged from 2003 to 2014 and the size of the sample varied from 8 to 311 elderly subjects, aged at least 60 years old. The intervention period was from 4 weeks to 12 months of Pilates exercise practice. It was concluded that despite the studies pointing to physical and motor benefits of the Pilates method in the elderly, we cannot state whether or not the method is effective, in view of the poor methodological quality of the studies included in this review. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
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The study examined effects of traditional balance vs. mat-based Pilates training on balance and trunk strength in healthy community dwellers. Forty-eight seniors were either stratified to a balance training group (BAL, n=16, 69.1 (SD 5.8) y), Pilates training group (PIL, n=17, 70.8 (6.5) y) or control group (CON, n=15, 69.2 (6.1) y). BAL performed traditional balance training, while PIL conducted mat-based Pilates-exercises (8 weeks, 2 sessions/week 66 min each). Balance performance (single limb stance and perturbed kneeling, Y-Balance test), dynamic and isometric trunk flexion and extension were assessed during pre- and post-testing. According to the magnitude-based inference approach, substantial positive effects in favor of BAL compared to CON were found for the Y-balance score (right leg, effect size (d)=0.68; left leg, d=0.56), trunk extension (d=0.68) and single leg stance (right leg, d=0.61; left leg, d=0.38). Dynamic (d=0.32) and isometric (d=0.15) trunk flexion revealed unclear effects. For the Y-balance score (right leg, d=0.48, left leg, d=0.75) and single leg stance (right leg, +d=0.61%; left leg, d=0.67), interestingly, BAL substantially exceeded PIL. PIL vs. CON revealed unclear effects for most parameters (0.05<d<0.36). Mat-based Pilates training did not cause relevant adaptations in trunk strength and balance performance, whereas balance training substantially improved balance and trunk strength. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
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The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effects of six weeks of Pilates regarding functional balance, fear of falling and pain in community living women older than 65 years old with chronic low-back pain. A single blind controlled randomized trial of six weeks of Pilates in addition to physiotherapy treatment (n=50) vs. physiotherapy treatment alone (n=47) was conducted on 97 community living women (71.14±3.30 years) with chronic low-back pain (CLBP). Main outcome measures were fear of falling (FoF), assessed by the Falls Efficacy Scale-international; functional mobility and balance, measured with the Timed up and Go Test; and pain, evaluated using the numeric rating scale. Only the Pilates group showed improvement in FoF (ES; d=.68) and functional mobility and balance (ES; d=1.12) after treatment, and also had better results in pain (ES; d=1.46) than the physiotherapy-only group. Six weeks of Pilates exercises may be effective in fall prevention through the improvement of FoF, functional balance, and pain in Spanish women over 65 years old with CLBP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.