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Characterization and modeling of solar radiation on the ground, application to the estimate of solar potential available on the coast of Nouakchott

  • L'Ecole Normale Supérieure de Nouakchott

Abstract and Figures

The purpose of this work is to evaluate four empirical models developed in literature such as Ghouard, Perrin Brichambaut, Bird and Hulstrom and Dependent model of the Link trouble factor. The validation of these different theoretical models was carried out using solar global radiation data collected on the Cheikh Zayed Nouakchott power plant. These measurements were carried out at a time step of 5 minutes during the period of one year. (April 1, 2015 to March 31, 2016).The results show that the Ghouard model presents notable performances compared to the other models, with a determination coefficient of 96.2%. This validation also shows that the solar radiation measured and that estimated by the different models have the same pace and have good performance with a coefficient of determination greater than 93%. The available solar potential estimation was carried out using the actual measurements collected on the Cheikh Zayed plant. The results obtained showed that the available solar potential is 5 kWh / m² / d.
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... This relative loss in the proposed plant is only about the half due to a higher ΔThc (about 42˚C). (14) for the example. ...
... Ir depends on the horizontal irradiance at the top of the atmosphere (extraterrestrial solar irradiation) Ier and the luminosity (clearness index Cli). From [14] page 6, it can be observed that, at Nouakchott:  Ir is minimal in December with solar energy of 5023.07 Wh/m 2 /day,  Ir is maximal in April with solar energy of 7117.18 ...
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An attempt has been made to analyze the three years measured data of different Indian cities and to develop a new set of equations to estimate the monthly mean daily clear sky radiation over India. The statistical analysis has been used for present study. The comparison of present estimates has been made with various earlier proposed models. The root mean square error (RMSE) and mean bias error (MBE) have also been computed to test the accuracy of the proposed equations. The percentage of MBE with new constant for all stations under consideration is varying from 0.22 to 2.09 % while RMSE is varies from 2.22 to 10.37%. It is found that in comparison to other models, the results with new proposed equations estimates better for the climate of India.
Solar radiation models are desirable for designing solar-energy systems, for good evaluations of thermal environments and for several solar systems in buildings. The purpose of this work is to evaluate four empirical models developed in literature such as Ghouard, Perrin & Brichambaut, Bird & Hulstrom and Capderou models. These models can be used to predict the daily direct, diffuse and global solar radiation intensities for clear skies at a given Earth’s position, in our case, Tetuan city in northern of Morocco (35.57361 latitude, -5.37528 longitude). The statistical analysis was performed by combining simulations through computed values with provided data from local energetic laboratory station. Results obtained show several accuracy levels which indicate that the studied models can be successfully used to predict the daily solar radiation data by days of the year.
Two sunshine based and three air temperature based global radiation models are calibrated using daily data in Jan. 1 1994–Dec. 31 1998 at 48 stations all over China. The Nash–Sutcliffe equation (NSE) is used as the model evaluation criterion. The sunshine based models are suitable for daily global radiation estimation. The averaged NSE value of the Angström model is 0.83, and the maximum value is 0.91. The maximum NSE value of the Bahel model is 0.92 with an averaged value of 0.84. The models that use air temperature as the input variable are not suitable for daily global radiation estimation in China. The averaged NSE values of the three air temperature based models (Bristow–Campbell model, Allen model and Hargreaves model) are not larger than 0.47. A logarithmic relationship between the daily global radiation/daily extra-terrestrial solar radiation (RG/RA) and the temperature difference between the maximum and minimum daily air temperature (TM−Tm) is found in the present study. A new daily global radiation model that is a function of RA, sunshine hours and TM−Tm is designed, which gives an averaged NSE value of 0.85 and a maximum value of 0.92.
A detailed comparison was made between five simple broadband models for clear sky global insolation. Compared models were those of Atwater and Ball, Davies and Hay, Watt, Hoyt, and Lacis and Hansen. A sixth simple model, called the Bird model, has been formulated by using parts of these five models and by comparison with the results from three rigorous radiative transfer codes. All of the simple models provide results that agree within < 10% with the three rigorous codes when the sun is in the zenith position. The Bird and Hoyt models agree within 3% with each other and with the results of the rigorous codes. However, the Bird model is easier to implement and has broader application than the Hoyt model.
The t-statistic is proposed as a statistical indicator for the evaluation and comparison of solar radiation estimation models. A relationship was developed for the t-statistic as a function of the widely used root mean square and mean bias errors. Using data published in the solar energy literature, it was demonstrated that the use of the root mean square and mean bias errors separately can lead to the incorrect selection of the best model from a suite of candidate models. It is recommended that the t-statistic be used in conjunction with the root mean square and mean bias errors to more reliably assess a model's performance. The t-statistic has the added advantage of enabling the model tester to determine whether or not a model's estimates are statistically significant at a particular confidence level.
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