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Planck constant, Light length,

Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle,

Josephson constant, Klitzing constant.

Quantization revisited

Jouni Jokela

jouni@jokela-turbine.ch

ABSTRACT

Max Planck quantized the electromagnetic radiation. This happened more or less without a

thought about its all consequences. Meanwhile it has become clear, that this quantum-

physics is the fundamental law of Nature. In this paper the quantisation is revisited, and

taken to its full lengths. Not only radiation is quantized. Also the photon is Quantized, and

had is limits; a Fundamental frequency is recognized, and the wave-vector nature of light is

presented.

This paper makes my previous paper’s context more complete, and clarifies the question

about Quantum-gravity.

Content;

Abstract

Introduction,

1. Planck constant.

2. Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle

3. Electricity; Josephson constant, Klitzing constant.

4. Discussion

5. Conclusions

1. Planck constant.

When Planck created his constant it was necessary to him, to us the “Schwingungszahl” ν

instead of wave length λ. (Page 559; “9. Ueber das Gesetz der Energieverteilung in

Normalspectrum; von May Planck.“)

c

and

hcE

This is important to realize, as it actually means that the light has a Fundamental frequency,

and that the speed of light has invariable length scale which is same to all observers, and

only the way how the time is experienced varies depends form observers own speed related

to observation. Otherwise said, as the speed of light is constant, therefore the Frequency

(Hz) is simultaneously also wave number, and defines spatial frequency of the photon. This

spatial frequency is the magnitude of the wave vector.

1

It’s unit is 1/distance.

If the distance is defined though speed of light, like the case is with metre, then this

fundamental length is not related to any man made definitions, like second, as it’s just not

included in this wave vector.

The impulse of the photon can be directly calculated from the wave vector (Spatial

frequency) as follows; ,

hp

This will be also proven by related observations in other fields of physics.

2. Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle

Originally this was written;

42

h

px

Where the is the position and

xp

momentum.

But as can be seen

hp and

1

4

1h

hx

Which must mean that

4

4 hh

x

also;

x4in the uncertainty principle.

It doesn’t add anything to the issue if we talk about time and Energy, like

htE ~

as;

hcpcE

and

c

x

cf

t

1

Which means

px

c

c

tEcp

cx

so; pxtE

and simply means, that speaking from Energy and time instead of position and momentum

is just a more complicated approach to the same thing.

In the case of uncertainty principle, it’s clear that 1 Hz provides the scale of limit, but it’s

not clear if this 1 Hz is truly quantized.

3. Electricity; Josephson constant, Klitzing constant.

Josephson constant provides exact relationship between Voltage and frequency. It is an

intrinsic standard in the sense that it does not depend on any physical artifact. It can be

calculated from Planck’s constant and elementary charge;

HzVx

e

h/100678.2

2

15

Klitzing constant provides exact quantization for electrical resistance. It clearly gives

always an integer as a result. Though fractional quantum Hall effect is known, it’s obvious,

that even these are constructed clearly from integers, and the reason for fractionality can be

found elsewhere. This resistance can also be very simply calculated from Planck’s constant

and elementary charge;

25812.807

2

e

h

It’s then very easy to calculate the smallest quantum of electric power from these equations.

If we set the frequency to 1 Hz, Josephson constant provides us the electrical potential in

Volts, (U) and the Resistance (R) is already known, so the quantum of electric power (P) is;

2

2

2

2

4

/

2

h

e

h

e

h

R

U

P

E

P

and c

h

c

E

4

and further

1

4

h

h

Which then gives the ratio;

4

1

and as the frequency t

1

t

4

1

In this example it is obviously not so clear where the 1 Hz actually comes from, and if it’s

aloud to consider it as the smallest possible frequency, but the exact quantization with

integers is clearly present.

4. Discussion

This above obviously means that the fundamental property of the nature is, that it’s wave-

like systems has quantized wave numbers and -lengths. At the first sight this is against the

observed frequencies for ie. 21 cm Hydrogen line, which has an observed frequency of

1420405751.7667±0.0009 Hz, though it obviously should have a frequency which is some

Integer number. Here it must be noted that these observations are never able to measure the

frequency of a single photon, and therefore these results are rather showing similar

statistical value for a photon frequencies like the observation, that families in Finland have

1.7 children. I.e. the red shift, Doppler-Effect and relativity can therefore remain their full

validity, and there is no contradiction present because of this. It must be noted that it’s also

a known fact, that some of the photons are not absorbed at all, the reason for this must be,

that their frequencies just don’t fit.

Further, it’s also easy to understand where the exact value of

222

h

px

came’s from. As the wave-function can been seen some sort of cycle of a photon, and this

cycle might very easily be seen as 3D-rotation impressed in 4D or Quaternion’s. Here the

first full cycle turns the inside out like in Möbius-strip, and therefore the full cycle is

achieved first, when a distance of

422

-radius is travelled. This gives the

possibility to recognise the position of the cycle from the other aspects. I.e. in the case of

quaternions, if we let the cycle roll round with the real part of the equation, the imaginary i,

j and k part’s still provide more accurate information about the phase.

When the

from the uncertainty principle and quantum electric power is

combined tx 4

1

4

it can be seen that; tx

16

The true meaning of this, is outside the scope of this paper, but its simplest explanation, that

the electrons are transported only by every 4th wave is somehow comprehensible.

The above means clearly that there can not be any electromagnetic radiation with a

wavelength longer than 299792458 m. This doesn’t even change anything in relativity

theories, much rather it makes them more comprehensive.

The important aspect which this quantization provides is that the Nature becomes a clear

continuously functioning Entropy turning point, which means that there is no beginning and

no end. There is no expansion of the universe; the observed red shift is caused by “tired

light”. This can be verified by the failure of the Tolman surface brightness test; the

measured exponent was not 4 as expected.

The 1 Hz radiation can not be split to anything less. It can’t even bend in direction. It can

only be absorbed. So though all systems in nature will finally decay down to 1 Hz radiation,

this radiation will travel until it is absorbed by something. It can of course be absorbed by

any single particle, similarly like it can also be emitted by any single particle. The

probability of such an absorbance must be generally smaller, than the probability of the

emission of such a photon. This means that the amount of such photons is generally

enormous in nature. So great, that they can provide the gravitational force alone. The Le

Sage/Fatio idea for the nature of gravitation is therefore basically correct. The Heating

problem pointed out by Maxwell and others is therefore also solved. Anything less than

299792458 m in diameter won’t be heated through this mechanism, because it simply can’t

absorb all the radiation. Its gravitational push is transmitted through single particles

similarly to hydrostatic pressure.

But then, anything dense enough and bigger than 299792458 m in diameter, is theoretically

able to absorb all this radiation, and is therefore heated up remarkably. It’s notable that the

size limit of brown dwarfs and red dwarf are precisely this size. The exact value calculated

from Jupiter would be 78.7, or 0.075 if calculated from the Sun.

Further consequences of this kind of behaviour are that the freely moving plasma particles

are heated up like proposed by Maxwell, this heating simply leaves the centre colder in all

cases. Also the strong accumulation of energy in this process must lead to the production of

matter. This consumes energy, which causes further cooling.

5. Conclusions

It’s all much simpler than expected. Nothing is mystical, there are only 4 dimensions. The

gravity is just a very simple part of basic Quantum mechanics. Even the uncertainty relation

doesn’t have any mystic. It’s just the same problem if you measure the distance of two

trees. You just can’t measure it directly from the middle to middle. No beginning and no

End. Nothing Dark and no Big Bang’s.

The Sun and the Stars turns the lost energy back to matter and warm. In the meanwhile this

lost energy works as gravity.

Jouni Jokela, Europe. 24.02.2017