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Abstract

The health benefits of green and black tea are mainly associated with their antioxidant potential and phenolic compounds. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of dried rose petals (Rosa damascena) on the antioxidant capacity of green and black tea. Antioxidant capacities of tea and rose infusions were assessed using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2, 2-azinobis-3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging. In the DPPH method, various concentrations of rose increased the radical scavenging activity of green tea, while the higher concentrations (2 g) negatively influenced the radical scavenging activity of black tea. In the ABTS assay, lower concentrations of rose (0.5 and 1 g) significantly increased the antioxidant activity of green tea. Moreover, various concentrations of rose enhanced the ABTS radical scavenging activity of black tea. According to the results, higher concentrations of rose decreased the DPPH radical scavenging activity of black tea, while the lower concentrations exerted synergistic antioxidant effects on the ABTS radical scavenging activity of green tea.

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... In the ABTS test, the ABTS greenblue colour turns yellowish or colourless depending on the hydrogen atom or electron received from the antioxidant. The antioxidant activity of lipid and water soluble compounds can be measured by the ABTS test (Aliakbarlu et al., 2018). ...
... Patil et al., (2015) reported the IC 50 value of RPE in ethanol solvents was 325.56 ± 4.53 µg/mL. Meanwhile, the results of the ABTS test conducted by Aliakbarlu et al. (2018) stated that at concentrations of 0.5 μg/mL and 1 μg/mL, RPE had ABTS reduction activity of 7.16%. Researches of Patil et al. (2015) and Aliakbarlu et al. (2018) showed lower antioxidant activity than the results of the study. ...
... Meanwhile, the results of the ABTS test conducted by Aliakbarlu et al. (2018) stated that at concentrations of 0.5 μg/mL and 1 μg/mL, RPE had ABTS reduction activity of 7.16%. Researches of Patil et al. (2015) and Aliakbarlu et al. (2018) showed lower antioxidant activity than the results of the study. This may be caused by a different extraction method, different content of the extract compound, or lower content of the extract compound. ...
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Rosa damascena Mill. is one of the most important Rosa species for the flavour and fragrance industries. The high amount of residues of spent flowers after steam distillation and the potential use of their essential oils as natural antioxidants and antimicrobials lead to determine the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of fresh and spent Rosa damascena flower extracts. The total phenolic contents were 276.02±2.93mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g in FF (fresh flower) extract and 248.97±2.96mg GAE/g in SF (spent flower) extract. FF and SF extracts showed 74.51±1.65 and 75.94±1.72% antiradical activities at 100ppm. The antioxidant activity of FF extract (372.26±0.96mg/g) was higher than that of SF extract (351.36± 0.84mg/g). Antibacterial activity of the extracts was determined by the agar diffusion method against 15 species of bacteria: Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus cereus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus feacalis, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica. Statistical differences among bacteria were significant at p 0.05. Both extracts were effective against all the bacteria except E. coli O157:H7, although the FF extract was more effective than the SF extract. FF and SF extracts showed the strongest effects against S. enteritidis and M. smegmatis, respectively.
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Tea polyphenols, especially the catechins, are potent antimicrobial and antioxidant agents, with positive effects on human health. White tea is one of the less studied teas but the flavour is more accepted than that of green tea in Europe. The concentrations of various catechins in 13 different kinds of infusion were determined by capillary electrophoresis. The total polyphenol content (Folin–Ciocalteu method), the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC value determined with the 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation) and the inhibitory effects of infusions on the growth of some microorganisms were determined. Five different infusions (black, white, green and red teas and rooibos infusion) were added to a model food system, comprising a sunflower oil-in-water emulsion containing 0% or 0.2% bovine serum albumin (BSA), and the oxidative stability was studied during storage at 37 °C. Oxidation of the oil was monitored by determination of the peroxide value.The highest radical-scavenging activity observed was for the green and white teas. Emulsions containing these extracts from these teas were much more stable during storage when BSA was present than when it was not present, even though BSA itself did not provide an antioxidant effect (at 0.2% concentration). Rooibos infusion did not show the same synergy with BSA. Green tea and white tea showed similar inhibitions of several microorganisms and the magnitude of this was comparable to that of the commercial infusion 2 (C.I.2), “té de la belleza”. This tea also had an antioxidant activity comparable to green tea.
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Methanol extracts of fresh tea leaves from a lowland plantation in Malaysia were screened for total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (AOA). AOA evaluation included 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging ability, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and ferrous-ion chelating (FIC) ability. Ranking, based on TPC and AOA, was as follows: shoots > young leaves > mature leaves. TPC and AOA of lowland leaves were comparable to those of highland plants. A green tea produced by drying young leaves in a household microwave oven for 4 min showed significantly higher TPC and AOA than did four commercial brands of green and black tea.
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To investigate the effect of black and green tea consumption, with and without milk, on the plasma antioxidant activity in humans. In a complete cross-over design, 21 healthy volunteers (10 male, 11 female) received a single dose of black tea, green tea (2 g tea solids in 300 ml water) or water with or without milk. Blood samples were obtained at baseline and at several time points up to 2 h post-tea drinking. Plasma was analysed for total catechins and antioxidant activity, using the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay. Consumption of black tea resulted in a significant increase in plasma antioxidant activity reaching maximal levels at about 60 min. A larger increase was observed after consumption of green tea. As anticipated from the higher catechin concentration in green tea, the rise in plasma total catechins was significantly higher after consumption of green tea when compared to black tea. Addition of milk to black or green tea did not affect the observed increases in plasma antioxidant activity. Consumption of a single dose of black or green tea induces a significant rise in plasma antioxidant activity in vivo. Addition of milk to tea does not abolish this increase. Whether the observed increases in plasma antioxidant activity after a single dose of tea prevent in vivo oxidative damage remains to be established. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2000) 54, 87-92
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Polyphenols in food plants are a versatile group of phytochemicals with many potentially beneficial activities in terms of disease prevention. In vitro cell culture experiments have shown that polyphenols possess antioxidant properties, and it is thought that these activities account for disease-preventing effects of diets high in polyphenols. However, polyphenols may be regarded as xenobiotics by animal cells and are to some extent treated as such, ie, they interact with phase I and phase II enzyme systems. We recently showed that dietary plant polyphenols, namely, the flavonoids, modulate expression of an important enzyme in both cellular antioxidant defenses and detoxification of xenobiotics, ie, gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase. This enzyme is rate limiting in the synthesis of the most important endogenous antioxidant in cells, glutathione. We showed in vitro that flavonoids increase expression of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and, by using a unique transgenic reporter mouse strain, we showed increased expression in vivo, with a concomitant increase in the intracellular glutathione concentrations in muscles. Because glutathione is important in redox regulation of transcription factors and enzymes for signal transduction, our results suggest that polyphenol-mediated regulation of glutathione alters cellular processes. Evidently, glutathione is important in many diseases, and regulation of intracellular glutathione concentrations may be one mechanism by which diet influences disease development. The aim of this review is to discuss some of the mechanisms involved in the glutathione-mediated, endogenous, cellular antioxidant defense system, how its possible modulation by dietary polyphenols such as flavonoids may influence disease development, and how it can be studied with in vivo imaging.
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A method for the screening of antioxidant activity is reported as a decolorization assay applicable to both lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants, including flavonoids, hydroxycinnamates, carotenoids, and plasma antioxidants. The pre-formed radical monocation of 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+) is generated by oxidation of ABTS with potassium persulfate and is reduced in the presence of such hydrogen-donating antioxidants. The influences of both the concentration of antioxidant and duration of reaction on the inhibition of the radical cation absorption are taken into account when determining the antioxidant activity. This assay clearly improves the original TEAC assay (the ferryl myoglobin/ABTS assay) for the determination of antioxidant activity in a number of ways. First, the chemistry involves the direct generation of the ABTS radical monocation with no involvement of an intermediary radical. Second, it is a decolorization assay; thus the radical cation is pre-formed prior to addition of antioxidant test systems, rather than the generation of the radical taking place continually in the presence of the antioxidant. Hence the results obtained with the improved system may not always be directly comparable with those obtained using the original TEAC assay. Third, it is applicable to both aqueous and lipophilic systems.
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Experimental evidence has shown that the polyphenols in black tea exhibit strong antioxidant potential in vitro and in vivo. The objective of the present study was to analyse and compare the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of five brands of tea and to evaluate whether the addition of different varieties of soya milk decreased the TAC compared to semi-skimmed bovine milk. Each of the teas analysed was a significant source of antioxidants (7796–10,434μmol/l FRAP). The addition of milk lowered the TAC of each of the teas analysed. When compared to tea with semi-skimmed bovine milk, each of the five teas analysed had either significantly higher antioxidant values or no change after the addition of soya milk. The addition of soya milk to black tea may be a useful alternative to semi-skimmed bovine milk if wishing to maintain the overall antioxidant potential of the tea infusion.
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A highly efficient column-chromatographic extraction (CCE) followed by sequential adsorption to extract and separate bioactive compounds from green tea was developed. Tea powder was loaded into columns with 4-fold solvents and eluted through a cyclic CCE. High-quality tea extracts with greater than 90% extraction efficiencies of polyphenols, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, caffeine, theanine and polysaccharides were obtained with 4-fold water circulated five times among different columns at 70°C. Similar results, except for low polysaccharide extraction (35.5%), were obtained with 4-fold 30% ethanol circulated three times at room temperature. The highly concentrated water extraction was directly passed through columns of polyamide, DM130 macroporous and 732 ion exchange resins, resulting in high-purity polyphenols (99%), caffeine (98%) and theanine (98%) after simple purification of the eluates from each column. This method uses simple equipment, minimum solvents and can be used for both quantitative analysis and continuous preparation of high-quality tea extracts and bioactive compounds.
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The beneficial effects of green and black tea are generally attributed to the antioxidant activity of their phenolic compounds. Tea is commonly used with milk or lemon. Milk proteins might complex with tea polyphenols and reduce their antioxidant activity. Lemon contains vitamin C (ascorbic acid) which has antioxidative properties and can positively influence the antioxidant potential of tea.The present study aimed to compare, in vitro, the antioxidant activities of different commercially available types of tea, prepared by commonly used domestic methods and to evaluate the possible effects of different doses (5–40 mg/100 ml) of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) on the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of tea. The antioxidant activity of tea extracts was determined by the photometric method, according to Rice-Evans and Miller [Methods Enzymol. 234 (1994) 279], measuring the formation of the radical cation ABTS. The values of antioxidant activity of teas prepared in the same way as when consumed were in similar ranges, from 13.3 to 21.6 mmol TE (TE = Trolox equivalents) in green tea and 10.4–17.6 mmol TE in black tea. The experiment in which ascorbic acid was added to teas showed that TAC in black tea extracts increased in a linear manner between 5 and 20 mg ascorbic acid/100 ml tea solution (r=0.984; p
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Tea is the most popular flavored and functional drink worldwide. The nutritional value of tea is mostly from the tea polyphenols that are reported to possess a broad spectrum of biological activities, including anti-oxidant properties, reduction of various cancers, inhibition of inflammation, and protective effects against diabetes, hyperlipidemia and obesity. Tea polyphenols include catechins and gallic acid in green and white teas, and theaflavins and thearubigins as well as other catechin polymers in black and oolong teas. Accurate analysis of black tea polyphenols plays a significant role in the identification of black tea contents, quality control of commercial tea beverages and extracts, differentiation of various contents of theaflavins and catechins and correlations of black tea identity and quality with biological activity, and most importantly, the establishment of the relationship between quantitative tea polyphenol content and its efficacy in animal or human studies. Global research in tea polyphenols has generated much in vitro and in vivo data rationally correlating tea polyphenols with their preventive and therapeutic properties in human diseases such as cancer, and metabolic and cardiovascular diseases etc. Based on these scientific findings, numerous tea products have been developed including flavored tea drinks, tea-based functional drinks, tea extracts and concentrates, and dietary supplements and food ingredients, demonstrating the broad applications of tea and its extracts, particularly in the field of functional food.
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Green tea contains a high percentage of polyphenols, which are potent antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. However, interactions between polyphenols and food components may decrease their potential benefits. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the antioxidant and antimicrobial capacities of different Argentinean green tea varieties could be affected by whey proteins. The results showed some degree of masking in the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of green tea infusions when whey proteins are present. The degree of inhibition of antioxidant activity in each variety did not depend on the polyphenol concentration, indicating the importance of the particular polyphenol composition of each variety. The CH 410 variety exhibited the best performance as antioxidant and antimicrobial, even in the presence of whey proteins. The antimicrobial effects in the presence of whey proteins correlated with the polyphenol content of the green tea infusions and increased with the reduction of whey protein concentration. The antimicrobial effectiveness was similar within a pH range from 4.0 to 7.0, allowing its application to a wide group of foods.
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Black tea is often consumed with milk and sugar. It is still unknown with certainty whether addition of milk and (or) sugar affects its antioxidant activity. The present study is aimed to investigate the effect on antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of black tea on addition of milk and sugar. Four types of black tea brew samples are prepared, viz., plain black tea (B), black tea with sugar (BS), black tea with milk (BM) and black tea with milk and sugar (BMS). The freeze-dried solids of all the brew samples are evaluated for their biological activities. The radical scavenging and antioxidant activities are estimated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and β-carotene-linoleic acid model systems, respectively. It is observed that radical scavenging activity of B was highest followed by BS and BMS. BM shows lowest activity. The antioxidant activity of black tea enhances and stabilizes with milk or sugar. The total polyphenol content is also determined and found to be higher in black tea sample compared to other samples. Both activities are compared with that of butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA) as a standard antioxidant and found to be less in all cases.
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The extracts were prepared from cold or hot brewed steaming green tea at different concentrations (2, 6, and 10%), its antioxidant properties studied and potential antioxidant components determined. The yields of hot water extracts (17.49–28.27%) were significantly higher than those of cold water extracts (11.72–14.70%). EC50 values in antioxidant activity determined by the conjugated diene method and reducing power were 2.19–3.10 and 0.22–0.28 mg/ml, respectively. EC50 values in scavenging ability on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radicals were 29.45–43.80 and 2.88–3.22 mg/ml, respectively. EC50 values in chelating ability on ferrous ions were 6.45–13.51 mg/ml. Contents of total phenols were 221.71–330.22 mg/g whereas those of total catechins in cold and hot water extracts were 135.05–193.14 and 161.57–195.05 mg/g, respectively. Based on the results obtained, hot water extracts were more effective in antioxidant activity and reducing power. However, cold water extracts were more effective in scavenging ability on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals, and chelating ability on ferrous ions. Summarily, the cold brewing method would be a new alternative way to make a tea.
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We have been actively involved in the isolation and characterization of endogenous plant antioxidants that are believed to inhibit lipid peroxidation and offer protection against oxidative damage to membrane functions. Antioxidants have been isolated from conventional food sources, such as tea (green and black), sesame and wild rice, and also from other plant sources, such as rice hulls, and crude plant drugs. Data on new types of water-soluble and lipid-soluble plant antioxidants are provided, and the biological activity and functionality of these antioxidants are discussed.
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The identification of modifiable lifestyle factors that could reduce the risk of breast cancer is a research priority. Despite the enormous chemopreventive potential of green tea and compelling evidence from animal studies, its role in breast cancer development in humans is still unclear. Part of the uncertainty is related to the relatively small number of epidemiological studies on green tea and breast cancer and that the overall results from case-control studies and prospective cohort studies are discordant. In addition, the mechanisms by which green tea intake may influence risk of breast cancer in humans remain not well studied. We review the human studies that have evaluated the relationship between green tea intake and four biomarkers (sex steroid hormones, mammographic density, insulin-like growth factor, adiponectin) that are believed to be important in breast cancer development. Results from these biomarker studies are also inconclusive. Limitations of observational studies and areas of further investigations are discussed.
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A myriad of health claims are being made in favor of the consumption of green tea. However, mostly due to the easy availability and greater than ever popularity of highly concentrated green tea extracts, sometimes combined with an attitude of more-is-better, certain health risks of green tea consumption have begun to emerge. Among such risks are the possibility of liver damage, the potential to interact with prescription drugs to alter their therapeutic efficacy, and the chance to cause harm when combined with other highly popular herbal remedies. This review will summarize documented examples of adverse effects of green tea in humans, and will discuss risks of copious consumption of highly concentrated green tea extracts as indicated by studies in animals. While there is no intention to minimize any of the scientifically established benefits of the use of green tea, the purpose of this review is to focus primarily on the potential for adverse effects and raise awareness of the rare, yet under-appreciated risks.
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Epidemiological studies have shown that populations consuming fruits, vegetables, tea, cocoa, and red wine have lower incidences of cardiovascular disease, certain cancers, and eye disease. These health effects have largely been attributed to the polyphenol content of the foods and drinks studied. Black tea is rich in a range of polyphenolic compounds that could potentially have health-promoting properties. The scale of consumption of tea in the United Kingdom means that it could be an appropriate vehicle for increasing the antioxidant activity and polyphenol content of human plasma. However, it is common practice in the United Kingdom to add milk to tea, and some studies have suggested that this may decrease the overall antioxidant capacity. The objective of the present study was to analyze and compare the antioxidant capacity of 5 brands of tea and to test the hypothesis that the addition of different volumes of whole milk, semiskimmed, and skimmed milk may affect the antioxidant capacity. Each of the teas analyzed was a significant source of antioxidants. The addition of 10, 15, and 20 mL of whole, semiskimmed, and skimmed bovine milk to a 200-mL tea infusion decreased the total antioxidant capacity of all the brands of tea. Skimmed milk decreased the total antioxidant capacity of the tea infusion significantly (P < .05) more than either whole milk or semiskimmed milk. We conclude that black tea is a valuable source of antioxidants and that the effect of milk on the total antioxidant capacity may be related to the fat content of the milk.
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Several epidemiologic studies have shown that chronic inflammation predisposes individuals to various types of cancer. Many cancers arise from sites of infection, chronic irritation, and inflammation. Conversely, an oncogenic change induces an inflammatory microenvironment that promotes the development of tumors. Natural bioactive compounds in dietary plant products including fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes, tea, and wine are claimed to help prevent cancer, degenerative diseases, and chronic and acute inflammation. Modern methods in cell and molecular biology allow us to understand the interactions of different natural bioactive compounds with basic mechanisms of inflammatory response. The molecular pathways of this cancer-related inflammation are now unraveled. Natural bioactive compounds exert anti-inflammatory activity by modulating pro-inflammatory gene expressions have shown promising chemopreventive activity. This review summarizes current knowledge on natural bioactive compounds that act through the signaling pathways and modulate inflammatory gene expressions, thus providing evidence for these substances in cancer chemopreventive action.
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Roses are one of the most important groups of ornamental plants and their fruits and flowers are used in a wide variety of food, nutritional products and different traditional medicines. The antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts from fresh flowers of three rose species (Rosa damascena, Rosa bourboniana and Rosa brunonii) was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical method. The ability to scavenge DPPH radical was measured by the discoloration of the solution. The methanolic extract from R. brunonii exhibited maximum free-radical-scavenging activity (64.5+/-0.38%) followed by R. bourboniana (51.8+/-0.46%) and R. damascena (43.6+/-0.25%) at 100 microg/ml. Simultaneously, ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS) was used to study phenolic composition in the methanolic extracts from the fresh flowers of rose species. The phenolic constituents were further investigated by direct infusion-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS in negative ion mode. Characteristic Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) spectra with other diagnostic fragment ions generated by retro Diels-Alder (RDA) fragmentation pathways were recorded for the flavonoids. Distinct similarities were observed in the relative distribution of polyphenolic compounds among the three species. The dominance of quercetin, kaempferol and their glycosides was observed in all the three species.
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Antioxidants are important species which possess the ability to protect the body from damage caused by free radical-induced oxidative stress. A variety of free radical-scavenging antioxidants exist within the body many of which are derived from dietary sources. There is currently much interest in the antioxidant role of flavonoids and other polyphenols found in tea, wine, fruit and vegetables. Enhanced chemiluminescence is a simple technique which can be used as a rapid and sensitive assay for measuring the antioxidant activity of beverages such as green and black tea. This article examines the impact of water temperature, stewing time, leaf concentration and the addition of milk upon the antioxidant activity of black tea solutions. The antioxidant activity of a range of commercially available black and green teas has also been measured.
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This study aimed to compare in vitro antioxidant power of different types of tea (Camellia sinensis). The ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay was used to measure the total antioxidant power of freshly prepared infusions of 25 types of teas. Results showed that different teas had widely different in vitro antioxidant power and that the antioxidant capacity was strongly correlated (r = 0. 956) with the total phenolics content of the tea. Expressed as micromol of antioxidant power/g of dried tea leaves, values ranged as 132-654 micromol/g for black ("fermented") teas, 233-532 micromol/g for Oolong ("semifermented") teas, and 272-1144 micromol/g for green ("nonfermented") teas. One cup of tea of usual strength (1-2%), therefore, can provide the same potential for improving antioxidant status as around 150 mg of pure ascorbic acid (vitamin C).
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A variety of flavonoids, lignans, an alkaloid, a bisbenzyl, coumarins and terpenes isolated from Chinese herbs was tested for antioxidant activity as reflected in the ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation in rat brain and kidney homogenates and rat erythrocyte hemolysis. The pro-oxidant activities of the aforementioned compounds were assessed by their effects on bleomycin-induced DNA damage. The flavonoids baicalin and luteolin-7-glucuronide-6'-methyl ester, the lignan 4'-demethyldeoxypodophyllotoxin, the alkaloid tetrahydropalmatine, the bisbenzyl erianin and the coumarin xanthotoxol exhibited potent antioxidative activity in both lipid peroxidation and hemolysis assays. The flavonoid rutin and the terpene tanshinone I manifested potent antioxidative activity in the lipid peroxidation assay but no inhibitory activity in the hemolysis assay. The lignan deoxypodophyllotoxin, the flavonoid naringin and the coumarins columbianetin, bergapten and angelicin slightly inhibited lipid peroxidation in brain and kidney homogenates. It is worth stressing that the compounds with antioxidant effects in this assay, with the exception of tetrahydropalmatin and tanshinone I, have at least one free aromatic hydroxyl group in structure. Obviously, the aromatic hydroxyl group is very important for antioxidative effects of the compounds. None of the compounds tested exerted an obvious pro-oxidant effect.
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Tea is one of the most commonly consumed beverages in the world and is rich in polyphenolic compounds collectively known as the tea flavonoids. Tea flavonoids possess antioxidant properties in vitro and have been proposed as key protective dietary components, reducing risk of coronary heart disease and some cancers. The present study aimed to evaluate the possible effects of different preparation methods on the antioxidant properties of green and black tea. Antioxidant potentials of tea infusates were assessed using an assay based upon the reduction of ferric chloride linked to a chromophore. Green tea, black leaf tea and black tea in tea bags were infused with water at 90 degrees C for time periods ranging from 0.25 to 15 min. Green tea infusates possessed approximately 2.5-fold greater antioxidant capacity than both types of black tea infusates. Both green and black teas released significant levels of antioxidants into the hot water within 2 min of infusion. Preparation of teas across a range of temperatures between 20 and 90 degrees C revealed that although antioxidants were liberated from the leaves into the water in cooler infusions, increasing the temperature could increase antioxidant potential by 4 to 9.5-fold. Black tea prepared using tea bags had significantly lower antioxidant capacity than black leaf tea at temperatures between 20 and 70 degrees C, suggesting that tea bag materials may prevent some extraction of flavonoids into the tea solution. The addition of milk appeared to diminish the antioxidant potential of black tea preparations. This effect was greatest where whole cow's milk was used and appeared to be primarily related to the fat content of the added milk. These experiments have considered the effects of commonly used domestic methods of preparation on the in vitro antioxidant potential of tea. It is concluded that maximum antioxidant capacity and hence maximal health benefit may be derived from green tea or from black leaf tea prepared by infusion with water at 90 degrees C for up to 2 min and taken with the addition of either fat-free milk, or without milk addition. Further studies are required to assess the antioxidant actions of tea flavonoids in vivo.
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Green tea and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) are now acknowledged cancer preventives in Japan and has made it possible for us to establish the concept of a cancer preventive beverage. For the general population, we recommend 10 cups of green tea daily supplemented with green tea tablets. For cancer patients following treatment, we here present new evidence that green tea and a cancer preventive drug, sulindac, have synergistic preventive effects. An approach to develop green tea capsules as a cancer preventive drug in the US is discussed, aiming at taking full advantage of this cancer preventive beverage.