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Osteoarthritis Biomarkers

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Edited by
Ramesh C. Gupta
TOXICOLOGY
Biomarkers in
Biomarkers in
TOXICOLOGY
Gupta
Second Edition
... The two most common types of arthritis are osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). OA occurs with greater frequency than RA, and large breed dogs are prone to develop OA (>45%) as compared to smaller breeds [34,35]. OA is an inflammatory joint disease characterized by chronic and progressive cartilage degeneration, osteophyte formation, subchondral sclerosis, bone marrow lesions, hypertrophy of bone at the margin, and changes in the synovial membrane. ...
... The pathophysiology of OA is very complex [80,58,22,32,61,107,34,35] due to the involvement of multiple etiologies (aging, injury, excessive or lack of exercise, nutritional deficiency, obesity, genetic predisposition, infection, etc.) in this disease [60,103,54,34,35], and as a result, treatment is also complicated [32][33][34][35]. Degradation of articular cartilage is a hallmark of OA, which occurs in two phases: an anabolic phase, in which chondrocytes attempt to repair the damaged extra cellular matrix (ECM); and a catabolic phase, in which enzymes produced by different cells (including chondrocytes) digest the ECM [101]. ...
... The pathophysiology of OA is very complex [80,58,22,32,61,107,34,35] due to the involvement of multiple etiologies (aging, injury, excessive or lack of exercise, nutritional deficiency, obesity, genetic predisposition, infection, etc.) in this disease [60,103,54,34,35], and as a result, treatment is also complicated [32][33][34][35]. Degradation of articular cartilage is a hallmark of OA, which occurs in two phases: an anabolic phase, in which chondrocytes attempt to repair the damaged extra cellular matrix (ECM); and a catabolic phase, in which enzymes produced by different cells (including chondrocytes) digest the ECM [101]. ...
... respectively (40). HA is catabolized by hyaluronidases, and the MW of HA in cartilage is reported to decrease with age (8,(41)(42)(43)(44). ...
... With age-related OA, the articular cartilage is subject to significant structural, mechanical, and matrix changes consisting of mild fibrillation of the articular surface and a decrease in PG monomer size and aggregation (100). OA is a disease of the entire joint affecting the articular cartilage, subchondral bone, synovial capsule and membrane, and the periarticular tissues (connective and muscular), and soft tissues (such as ligaments, tendons, and in the menisci) (42)(43)(44)(101)(102)(103). Risk factors include aging, breed, obesity, joint injury, nutrition and genetics. ...
... OA is characterized by the degradation of cartilage matrix components (including cartilage-specific type II collagen and the PG aggrecan), resulting in the loss of cartilage structure and function (42,43,141). ECM loss occurs due to elevated enzyme (collagenases, aggrecanases, and MMPs) activity. ...
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Hyaluronic acid (also known as hyaluronan or hyaluronate) is naturally found in many tissues and fluids, but more abundantly in articular cartilage and synovial fluid (SF). Hyaluronic acid (HA) content varies widely in different joints and species. HA is a non-sulfated, naturally occurring non-protein glycosaminoglycan (GAG), with distinct physico-chemical properties, produced by synoviocytes, fibroblasts, and chondrocytes. HA has an important role in the biomechanics of normal SF, where it is partially responsible for lubrication and viscoelasticity of the SF. The concentration of HA and its molecular weight (MW) decline as osteoarthritis (OA) progresses with aging. For that reason, HA has been used for more than four decades in the treatment of OA in dogs, horses and humans. HA produces anti-arthritic effects via multiple mechanisms involving receptors, enzymes and other metabolic pathways. HA is also used in the treatment of ophthalmic, dermal, burns, wound repair, and other health conditions. The MW of HA appears to play a critical role in the formulation of the products used in the treatment of diseases. This review provides a mechanism-based rationale for the use of HA in some disease conditions with special reference to OA.
... https://scidoc.org/IJVHSR.php chemical biomarkers in serum/plasma, synovial fluid and urine have become exceptionally useful in diagnosis and treatment of OA [2,[21][22][23]. ...
... In BVP-01 supplement, in addition to GLME and deer velvet antler extract, shark cartilage is also a source of chondroitin sulfate, which is proven to ease OA in dogs, humans and horses. Notably, chondroitin sulfate is more effective when given in combination with glucosamine [5,[20][21][22][23]. Shark cartilage is also known to boost the immune system, thereby exerting an anti-OA effect. ...
Chapter
Currently, more than 46 million adults in the United States suffer from some form of arthritis. Arthritis is also prevalent in other species, including canine and equine. Among all forms of arthritis, osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form, afflicting nearly 27 million adults. The other common form of arthritis is rheumatoid arthritis. Among animal species, canine and equine are more prone to arthritis than other species. A large number of factors, such as aging, excessive exercise, obesity, genetic predisposition, immune disorders, poor nutrition, injury, and infection, can lead to OA. Presently, the use of nutraceuticals appears to be a good option to treat or manage OA, because they are taken orally, well-tolerated, and safe. However, some nutraceuticals exert adverse effects. This chapter describes, in brief, the characteristics of OA, pathophysiology of OA, and efficacy, safety, and toxicity of some commonly used nutraceuticals.
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Currently, in the United States, every fifth adult dog or horse suffers from arthritis. The two most common types of arthritis are osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). OA occurs with greater frequency than RA. OA is an inflammatory heterogeneous chronic degenerative joint disease (DJD) characterized by chronic and progressive degradation of the articular cartilage, osteophyte formation, thickening and sclerosis of the subchondral bone, bone marrow lesions, hypertrophy of bone at the margin, synovitis, synovial fluid effusion, and fibrosis. Common clinical signs and symptoms associated with OA in dogs and horses include limping, immobility, stiffness of joints, crepitus, periarticular swelling, palpable effusion, and pain upon manipulation of the joint and limb. The pathophysiology of OA is very complex because there are multiple etiologies for this disease, and as a result, treatment is complicated. Pain and inflammation associated with OA are often managed by pharmacological suppression or surgery among a few other modalities. NSAIDs are known to have severe side effects, and surgery is very expensive, so the use of nutraceuticals appears to be a viable alternative for prevention and treatment of OA. This chapter describes various nutraceuticals that have the potential to exert antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and chondroprotective effects in osteoarthritis.
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Gypenoside (GP), the main active ingredient of Gynostemma pentaphyllum, possesses a variety of pharmacological capacities including anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, and anti-tumor. However, the effects of GP on IL-1β-stimulated human osteoarthritis (OA) chondrocytes are still unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of GP on IL-1β-stimulated human OA chondrocytes and explore the possible mechanism. Our results showed that GP dose-dependently inhibited IL-1β-induced NO and PGE2 production in human OA chondrocytes. In addition, treatment of GP inhibited the expression of MMP3 and MMP13, which was increased by IL-1β. Finally, we found that pretreatment of GP obviously suppressed NF-κB activation in IL-1β-stimulated human OA chondrocytes. Taken together, the results demonstrated that GP has chondro-protective effects, at least in part, through inhibiting the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway in human OA chondrocytes. Thus, these findings suggest that GP may be considered as an alternative therapeutic agent for the management of OA patients.