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27 February – 4 March 2016
Enhancing Navy Bean Production Through
Development of Arcelin Based Bruchid Resistant
Varieties in Ethiopia
Berhanu Amsalu Fenta1, Kassaye Negash1, Kidane Tumsa1, Tigist Shiferaw1, Dagmawit Tsegaye,1Mulugeta
Teamir1, Clare Mugisha Mukankusi2, Stephen E. Beebe3..
1Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Melkassa Agricultural Research Centre, National Lowland pulse Improvement
Program, P.O. box 436, Adama, Ethiopia.
2International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), P. O. Box 6247, Kampala, Uganda.
2International Center for Tropical Agriculture(CIAT), Cali, Colombia
Navy beans are among the export commodities for Ethiopia
contributing over 100 million USD per annum in export earnings.
However, their productivity is relatively low owing to both field and
post-harvest biotic and abiotic stresses. Among the post-harvest
problems, bruchids (Zabrotes subfasciatus) are the major problem for
the navy bean farmers, bulkers and exporters. In the warmer areas like
the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia, this species is known to cause post
harvest grain losses estimated up to 38% with equivalent weight loss
3.2% (Negasi, 1994). Grain losses of up to 60% after only 3-6 months in
storage have also been reported (Getu et al., 2003). Although different
cultural and chemical options have been recommended for the control
of bruchids, most of these practices are not oftenly used by farmers
because of chemical supply shortages, cost and concerns related to
environmental hazards and food safety. Therefore, development of
environmentally safe, sustainable and feasible control measures like
host plant resistance is probably the best option to manage bruchids in
common bean, particularly amongst smallholder farmers. Antibiosis
expressed as adverse effects of seed protein arcelin in extending the
time of adult emergence, growth and lifecycle of these insects (Velten
et al., 2008) in wild bean accessions has been exploited in developing
bruchid resistant common bean germplasm. Even though promising
results were achieved from past breeding efforts in terms of
developing genotypes with arcelin based resistance (Cardona, 2004;
Beneke, 2010), such efforts have not yet resulted in a release of
commercial variety for wider production. Thus, the objective of the
study was to develop high yielding, disease and bruchid resistance navy
bean varieties from arcelin containing recombinant inbred lines.
Multi-environment trials were conducted on 15 arcelin-containing
inbred lines (RAZ lines) sourced from CIAT and a commercial check
variety, (Awash 1), at eight locations from 1700- 1900masl altitude
testing locations for three cropping seasons in the period 2011-2013.
The trial was set up as a 4x4 triple lattice design and the recommended
field cultural practices applied. Phenological, morphological,
productivity and disease resistance related data was recorded.
Furthermore, the lines were subjected to artificial infestation of the
insects to confirm the resistance. Mass rearing of the insects was done
using a susceptible variety at an average room temperature of 27°C &
relative humidity of 70%. Twenty grams of seed were placed in
transparent plastic jars (6 cm x 7 cm) with an opening at one end for
free air circulation. The experiment was laid out in a CRD with three
replications. Each jar was infested with 5 female & 5 male newly
emerged bruchids and the jars left for 10 days to allow oviposition.
Thereafter the jars were opened and the number of emerged adult
bruchids was counted every second day starting from the first
emergence and continued until the last emergence.
The multi- location trials revealed that the overall mean yield
performance of three RAZ lines (RAZ-42, RAZ-11 and RAZ-119)
were greeter than 2t/ha and exceeded the standard check Awash 1
by 12%. These lines also exhibited combined resistance to major
diseases (Common bacterial blight, halo blight, angular leaf spot
and anthracnose) across tested sites.
The artificial infestation of these lines, showed highly sig.
differences (P < 0.01) among the genotypes for all characters
measured for bruchid resistance.
RAZ lines demonstrated resistance by having 0-2 index of
susceptibility (IS= (log (progeny per infesting female / days to adult
emergence)*100) and seed weight loss from 0-5.8%. Where as
Awash 1 exhibited SI of 9 and seed weight loss of 46%.
Generally, arcelin containing inbred lines (RAZ-11, RAZ-36, RAZ-2, RAZ-
44, RAZ-120, and RAZ-40 showed consistently complete resistance for
bruchids. However, based on grain yield, RAZ 42 and RAZ 11 were
higher yielders and resistant to the major bean diseases. These two
varieties have been proposed for variety verification trials and eventual
release. However, before releasing these varieties, nutrition related
tests like anti-nutritional factors (phytate, polyphenols, Saponins,
Hemoglobin etc.) and processing effect (blanching, heat treatment,
soaking) on arcelin content will be studied. Results from these tests will
used by the Ethiopian Public Health Institute (EPHI) to assess
conformity and advise the variety release process. The release of these
varieties will enhance the production of navy beans, reduce
postharvest loss & improve the benefits of growers as well as traders
from bean production and marketing.
Introduction Results
Mean yield Disease score
G. Mean
RAZ 36
2064 1934 1545 1847 3.5 3.4 2.8
RAZ 34
1848 1838 1682 1789 3 3.1 2
RAZ 44
1896 1912 1540 1783 3.8 3.4 2.2
RAZ 42
2199 2137 1804 2047 3.8 3.2 2.1
RAZ 11
- 1 2064 1936 1480 1827 3.4 3.8 2. 2
RAZ 11
1931 2044 1721 1899 3.6 3.9 2.4
RAZ 120
1914 1854 1775 1848 3.9 3.9 2.6
RAZ 114
1490 1062 1319 1290 3.9 4 3.1
1868 1578 1186 1544 4.6 4.5 2.7
RAZ 119
1940 1916 1825 1894 4 3.9 2.5
RAZ 19
1661 1577 1516 1585 4.1 3.9 2.6
RAZ 138
1608 1518 1318 1481 3.5 3.7 2.7
RAZ 40
1760 1802 1601 1721 3.5 3.5 2.5
RAZ 111
1475 1585 1272 1444 3.7 3.5 2.4
Nevy Line 47
2043 1924 1455 1807 3.5 3.8 4.4
-1 2080 1954 1226 1753 3. 4 3.8 4
Table 1. Mean yield and disease score (for eight locations)of arcelin
containing bean lines for three years
Berhanu Amsalu Fenta (PhD)
Ethiopian Institute of Agric.
Research, (EIAR)
Melkassa Agric. Research Centere,
P.O.Box 436, Adama, Ethiopia
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