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Paradigm shift in common bean production, productivity and marketing through generation and promotion of demanded common bean verities in Ethiopia

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Abstract

In Ethiopia, common bean breeding has been done through introduction of advanced germplasm form the CIAT and local cross making and evaluating the genotypes across years and locations. Through PABRA, bean varieties with known market attributes have also been imported and went through fast tracked evaluation and best ones released. In situ population development was also carried out and the varieties were evaluated for the target market classes. The release sought to cover the navy bean with broader export market class, regional markets with high value types including sugar bean and local as well as regional preferred small red market. Clients and stakeholders were consulted when setting the breeding goals, trait prioritization, during implementation, monitoring, learning and evaluation. While promoting the bean based technologies, common bean value chain actors were actively involved; choosing variety for promotion and seed production. Various methods were employed in variety promotion including; use of farmer research groups, enhancing quality declared seed, strengthening formal extension, partnering with farmer cooperatives unions, strengthening and stimulating formal seed system. Between 2004 and 2014, the synergetic efforts contributed to increased bean productivity from 0.615 tons/ha to 1.5 tons/ha, representing 243.9% increase. Area under beans has increased by 80%, from 181,600 ha to 326,465.88ha. Revenues from navy beans export alone increased from 20 to 100 million USD. The paradigm shift in bean productivity, production and market has improved the livelihoods of bean growers in the country. The value chain client-led bean breeding and promotion model can be adopted for other crops. Key words:- Demand driven, seed system, technology generation, promotion
Produced for the
27 February – 4 March 2016
Paradigm shift in common bean production, productivity
and marketing through generation and promotion of
demanded common bean verities in Ethiopia
Berhanu Amsalu Fenta1, Kidane Tumsa1, Kassaye Negash1, Tigist Shiferaw1, Rubyogo Jean Claude2, Clare M. Mukankusi3, Stephen E.
Beebe4..
1Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Melkassa research centre, P.O.Box 436, Ethiopia
2Pan Africa bean Research Alliance (PABRA), CIAT Africa, C/O Selian Agricultural Research Institute P.O. Box 2704, Arusha
3International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), P.O.Box 6247, Kampala, Uganda
4International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Cali, Colombia
Common beans are important sources of food and cash for small
holder farmers and plays a major role being as one of the main export
commodity in Ethiopia. Common bean breeding in Ethiopian bean
program has been done through hybridization, using local landraces
and introduction of advanced germplasm form the CIAT/PABRA
through evaluating these genotypes across years and locations.
However, in the past although several varieties have been released, the
adoption and dissemination rate was sluggish. The main limitation
during the past technology generation was, there were limited
participation of producers and market actors to capture their interest.
Furthermore, there was also limited access of those improved varieties
seed. As the result, most of the bean producers obtain seed of
improved varieties from few seed suppliers, who are unable to
sufficiently produce and sell seed at reasonable price. Thus, mapping
the interest of producers as well as traders and improving the
accessibility and availability of seed of improved varieties at the
community level were fundamental for enhanced bean based
technology generation and promotion. Therefore, the objective of the
national bean program was to generate high yielder, demand driven
and resistance for major diseases bean varieties and promoting using
participation of multi-stakeholder seed system.
Clients and stakeholders were consulted when setting the breeding
goals, trait prioritization, during implementation, monitoring, learning
and evaluation. While promoting the bean based technologies,
common bean value chain actors were actively involved in choosing of
the variety for promotion and seed production. Various methods were
employed in variety promotion including; use of farmer research
groups, enhancing quality declared seed, strengthening formal
extension, partnering with farmer cooperatives unions, strengthening
and stimulating formal seed system.
Moreover, through PABRA and exporters, bean varieties with known
market attributes have also been imported and went through fast
tracked evaluation and best ones released for production. In situ
population development was also carried out and varieties were
evaluated for the target market classes.
The release of bean varieties sought to cover the navy bean with
broader export market class, regional markets with high value types
including sugar bean and local as well as regional preferred small red
market. Hence, the last 10 years 11 varieties for commercial purpose
and a total of 26 bean varieties having different color (red, red mottled,
cream, yellow) preferred by consumers has been released for
production. At multi-stakeholder led seed system, a total of 1211.4 t of
basic seed & with a production of 11844.2t of seed of different type,
the technology promotion extended to more than a million farmers.
Table 1: Common bean varieties released
for export market
.
The intervention in demand led breeding enhanced access of preferred
varieties of by growers and exporters. Between 2004 & 2014, the
synergetic efforts contributed to increased bean productivity from
0.615 tons/ha to 1.5 tons/ha, representing 243.9% increase. Area under
beans has increased by 80%, from 181,600 ha to 326,465.88ha.
Revenues from navy beans export alone increased from 20 to 100
million USD. The paradigm shift in bean productivity, production and
market has improved the livelihoods of bean growers in the country.
Introduction Results
Methods
Conclusions
No Name of Variety Seed color
Year of
release
1
Ado (SAB
736)
Large White
2014
2
Tafach
(SAB 632) Speckled 2014
3
Awash
-2 White 2013
4
Deme
Red Speckled
2008
5
Batu
Large White 2008
6
Acos
-red (DRK) Dark red 2007
7
Cranscope
Red Speckled
2007
8
Chorie
White 2006
9
Chercher
White 2006
10
Argene
White 2005
11
Nazret
-2 White 2005
Table 2 Amount of basic seeds
supplied from 2004/5 to 2013/14
Table 3 Land coverage and amount
of seeds produced by partners
2004/5-2011/12
Outcome of the innervation
Institutional changes (EIAR &
partners shared roles and
catalyze access)
Increased seed production
and access
Change in production,
productivity, export, and price
Impact on farmers’ income &
livelihoods
Investment along the value
chain actors (farmers, small &
large, exporters numbers,
employment from e.g. ACOS ,
government (ET. Commodity
Exchange market (ECX))
ACOS ET
0.8610.843
0.9971.043
1.347
1.49 1.44
1.23
1.49
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
Productivity (t/ha)
Cropping year
0
15000
30000
45000
60000
75000
90000
Bean expansion Productivity increased Production Export
Small & large packs
Participatory Variety Selection Promotional materials
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