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The aim of the research was to improve the growth and quality of Echinopsis hybrids plants. Substrates with added chabazitic-zeolites and Effective microorganisms were used, in addition to assessing seed germination and plant growth after treatment, the test examined whether microorganisms sprayed on flowers could influence and attract pollinating insects. The trial included 4 tests: 1) substrates for the cultivation of shoots; 2) substrates for the evaluation of seed germination; 3) effect of substrates on flower production; 4) spray treatment with microorganisms to evaluate the behaviour of bees. The substrates used have included the use of soil and inert materials or soil with the addition of zeolite and chabasite and effective microorganisms. The results showed that the use of zeolites and EM microorganisms increase the quality characteristics of Echinopsis plants, in terms of vegetative and radical growth, increase in seed germination and flowering duration.
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A Peer Reviewed International Journal of Asian
Academic Research Associates
AARJMD
ASIAN ACADEMIC RESEARCH
JOURNAL OF MULTIDISCIPLINARY
EFFECTIVE MICROORGANISMS AND CHABAZITIC-ZEOLITES FOR THE
IMPROVEMENT QUALITY OF ECHINOPSIS HYBRIDS
DOMENICO PRISA1
1CREA Research Centre for Vegetable and Ornamental Crops, Council for
Agricultural Research
and Economics, Via dei Fiori 8, 51012 Pescia, PT, Italy
Abstract
The aim of the research was to improve the growth and quality of Echinopsis hybrids
plants.
Substrates with added chabazitic-zeolites and Effective microorganisms were used, in
addition to assessing seed germination and plant growth after treatment, the test examined
whether microorganisms sprayed on flowers could influence and attract pollinating insects.
The trial included 4 tests: 1) substrates for the cultivation of shoots; 2) substrates for the
evaluation of seed germination; 3) effect of substrates on flower production; 4) spray
treatment with microorganisms to evaluate the behaviour of bees.
The substrates used have included the use of soil and inert materials or soil with the
addition of zeolite and chabasite and effective microorganisms.
The results showed that the use of zeolites and EM microorganisms increase the quality
characteristics of Echinopsis plants, in terms of vegetative and radical growth, increase in
seed germination and flowering duration.
Key-words: alternative substrates, cactus, plant quality, EM, zeolites, bees
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Introduction:
Succulent plants, are those plants that are able to accumulate water in their tissues in order to
survive long periods of drought. Succulent is therefore the most correct name, since the
swelling consists of juice. It is often used to distinguish between cacti and succulent plants, to
indicate with the former those plants belonging to the family of the same name, and with the
latter all the other families of succulent non cacti.
The highest concentration of succulents is found between the 40th parallel north and south of
the Equator. However, we can find up to 56° north latitude and 50° south latitude(Anderson,
2001).
This large belt, geomorphologically very diverse, is characterized by dry periods, sometimes
even long, alternating with other rainy, or where frequent fogs are in the absence of rain, as
happens in the deserts of the coastal strip of Namibia and the Peruvian Andes. But we also
encounter the equatorial forest with its warm-humid climate, the steppe, the savannah, the
plateaus and the mountains (Cecarini, 2011). The echinopsis that will be treated in this
article, have as their main habitat Bolivia, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay. They are plants
with a globular, then cylindrical shape, with thorny, semi-rustic ribs. Some live in the shelter
of desert grasses, others in the mountains even at high altitudes. They often emit plantlets in
large quantities. Very large flowers, sometimes perfumed, not very long-lasting, with a long
peduncle; many hybrids with wonderful shades are produced. The genus Echinopsis hyb. now
includes also Pseudolobivia, Lobivia, Trichocereus, Helianthocereus, Soehrensia. (Cecarini,
2011).
EM includes a selection of live cultures of naturally isolated micro-organisms from soils
(Mohan, 2008); EM micro-organisms include 83 bacterial and fungal strains of different
species, of optional aerobic and anaerobic type (Olle and Williams, 2015). The main activity
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of EM is to increase soil biodiversity. Photosynthetic bacteria that are part of EM in synergy
with other microorganisms increase the energy substances available to plants and reduce
stress (Condor et al., 2007). The interaction of EM microorganisms with the plant-soil system
suppresses plant pathogens and disease agents, solubilises soil minerals, increases energy,
maintains soil microbial flora balance, increases photosynthetic efficiency and nitrogen
fixation (Subadiyasa, 1997). Zeolites, on the other hand, are special minerals with unique
properties: high and selective cation exchange (CSC) capacity; reversible dehydration;
molecular absorption; catalytic behaviour. Zeolites have different applications in agriculture,
in particular chabazitic-zeolites (a type of zeolite of which the Italian soil is very rich) can be
used both in substrates to replace inert matrices (vermiculite, perlite, pumice) with significant
effects on plant growth and stress resistance, reducing the use of water and fertilizers, and in
open field resulting in an increase in the structural properties of soils and microbial
colonization.
For the properties that can provide the substrate of cultivation with the addition of zeolites
and EM microorganisms, in this experiment has been evaluated the possibility of improving
the germination, the cultivation cycle and the flowering of Echinopsis hybrids, cacti that
often meet different problems from this point of view.
Material and methods
Greenhouse experiment and growing conditions
The trials, which began in early January 2017, were carried out at a local grower in
Rosignano Solvay (Li) on plants of Echinopsis hybrids (cacti). The experiment was divided
into 4 parts:
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Test 1) Plantlets of about 2 cm, two different hybrids of Echinopsis (hyb. "Maria Piazza"
and "Arabesque") were placed in 10 pots, in two different mixtures of substrates to assess the
enlargement. 3 plantlets per pot were cultivated, for 20 pots, for 3 replicas, 180 plantlets per
thesis in total.
From 1.1.2017 to 4.1.2018, the enlargement in terms of diameter of the plantlets, the number
of total thornes and the root weight were evaluated.
The two substrates used were:
- control (CTRL): soil for acidophilic plants 40%, volcanic lapillus 30%, quartz sand 30%,
trivalent fertilizer 7-14-21;
- treated (T): soil for acidophilic plants 40%, chabazitic-zeolites 30%, quartz sand 30%,
effective microorganisms in dilution 1:100 (root irrigation and treatment once a month),
trivalent fertilizer 7-14-21;
Test 2) Seeds of Echinopsis ‘Ishtar’ divided into 3 replicas of 100 per pot , ø 10, were sown
in 4 different mixtures of substrates. The percentage of germination and the TMG (average
time of germination) were then evaluated. The four substrates used were:
- Control1 (CTRL1): 70% acidophilic soil, 30% vermiculite;
- Control2 (CTRL2): 70% acidophilic soil, 20% perlite, 10% quartz sand;
- control3 (CTRL3): 20% acidophilic soil, 80% pumice;
- treated (T1): 70% acidophilic soil, 30% chabazitic-zeolites, Effective microorganisms in
dilution 1:100 (initial tanning of seeds and spraying with soil once every 15 days);
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Test 3) Plants of the three-year-old Echinopsis 'Calida' hybrid were grown in four different
substrate mixtures, the number of flowers produced and the duration of the flowers in hours
were subsequently evaluated.
The four substrates used were:
- control1 (CTRL1): 40% acidophilic soil, 30% volcanic lapillus, 30% quartz sand, trivalent
fertilizer 7-14-21;
- control2 (CTRL2): 80% acidophilic soil, 20% perlite, trivalent fertiliser 7-14-21;
- control3 (CTRL3): 80% acidophilic soil, 20% pumice, trivalent fertiliser 7-14-21;
- treated (T1): 70% acidophilic soil, 30% chabazitic-zeolites , Effective microorganisms in
dilution 1:100 (root irrigation and treatment once a month), trivalent fertilizer 7-14-21;
Test 4) The number of flights carried out by bees on the flowers of Echinopsis hyb has also
been assessed. "Zeus", "Icarus" and "Aurora" plants, treated with EM microorganisms (20
plants for each hybrid), compared to control plants sprayed with water only (20 plants for
each hybrid), for a total of 120 plants. This is to assess whether the lactobacilli present in the
EM selection can in any way have a booster effect on bees. The spraying with
microorganisms was done both in the substrate and on the newly opened flowers. The
evaluation of the number of pollinations carried out by bees on echinopsis flowers was
carried out within a week, always between 10 and 12 in the morning.
Statistics
The experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design. Collected data were
analysed by one-way ANOVA, using GLM univariate procedure, to assess significant (P
0.05, 0.01 and 0.001) differences among treatments. Mean values were then separated by
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LSD multiple-range test (P = 0.05). Statistics and graphics were supported by the programs
Costat and Excel.
Results
The test showed that zeolites and EM microorganisms can improve the quality and
cultivation characteristics of a cacti species such as Echinopsis. In the (Table 1-2) in fact it is
noticed as the mixture based on chabazitic-zeolites and EM (treated), has determined a
significant increase of the dimensions of the plantlets, of the number of thorns and of the
radical weight, in comparison to the control based on conventional substrate, both in the
hybrid "Maria Piazza", and "Arabesque".
Also the germination test (Fig.1) showed how the treatment with zeolites and EM can
significantly increase the germination percentage of seeds and reduce the TMG (average
germination time).
In fact, the germination rate passes from 88% in the thesis treated with chabazitic-zeolites
and EM, to 67% germination in the control with vermiculite to 30%. As far as the TMG is
concerned, passes from the 26 days of the thesis treated with chabazitic-zeolites and EM to
the 35 days of the control with perlite and quartz sand. The test carried out on the hybrid
"Calida" (Fig.2) showed that the thesis treated with zeolite and EM microorganisms was able
to determine a significant increase in the number of flowers (34.22) and in the duration of the
flowers (28.12 days), compared to controls with traditional substrate (control1, 22.06 flowers
and 18.05 days; control2, 18.12 flowers and 16.10 days; control3, 16.04 flowers and 19.11
days). Interesting fact is highlighted in particular, in plants treated with EM selection,
characterized mainly by lactobacilli and yeasts. The EM microorganisms were in fact able to
significantly increase the number of flights and pollinations of flowers in the hybrids "Zeus",
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"Icarus" and "Aurora" (112, 126 and 135) compared to controls sprayed with water only (32,
41 and 46) (Fig.3).
Discussion
The use of zeolites and EM microorganisms can guarantee, as demonstrated by this evidence,
a clear improvement in the quality of the plants in cultivation.
In the literature, the use of zeolites in agronomy highlights the following economic and
environmental advantages: 1) qualitative and quantitative improvement of production; 2)
reducing the use of fertilizers and fertilizers; 3) reducing the consumption of water for
irrigation; 4) reducing the hydrological system. (Mumpton 1978, 1984; Barbarick and
Piraeus, 1984; Allen and Ming, 1995; Chelishchev, 1995; Ming and Allen, 2001; Passaglia
and Marchi, 2002).
Zeolites and, more particularly, chabazitic-zeolites, in fact, once introduced in the cultivation
substrate or in open field, can increase the quality of the plants, retaining water and fertilizers
and making them available when needed (Prisa and Burchi, 2015). The use of EM
microorganisms can ensure an increase in soil fertility and a rebalancing of microbial fauna,
which is very important for the absorption of nutrients and water by plants (Prisa, 2017).
Even in cacti, as demonstrated by these tests, the use of zeolites in synergy with EM
microorganisms can ensure a significant increase in plant growth, root improvement, seed
germination and flowers number and duration, aspects also highlighted on other ornamental
and horticultural species (Prisa and Burchi, 2015; Prisa, et al., 2016; Prisa 2016, Pavlovic et
al., 1998; Idris et al., 2008; Marambe and Sangakkara, 1996).
The treatment with microorganisms also seems interesting because the data shown shows that
they can attract useful insects, such as bees, to the flowers (fig.4). For both zeolites and
microbial products, I would like to underline the use of quality materials, which is of
fundamental importance for repeatable and long-lasting results.
Conclusion
These trials showed several benefits that can be obtained through the use of chabazitic-
zeolites and effective microorganisms: improvement of quality in Echinopsis hybrids plants,
in terms of vegetative and radical growth, better use of fertilizers and water, increase in seed
germination and flowering duration. The test also showed that EM microorganisms can
attract pollinating insects to flowers, in particular bees
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REFERENCES:
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environmental soil remediation. Natural zeolites: Occurrence, properties, Applications.
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mineralogical society of America, Washington, 619-654.
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Olle, M., Williams, I.H. (2015). The influence of Effective Microorganisms on the growth
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Table 1 - Effect of zeolites and Effective microorganisms on the growth of Echinopsis hybrids "Maria
Piazza"
Treatment
Plantlet diameter at
3.1.2017
(cm)
Plantlet diameter at
4.1.2018
(cm)
Thornes number
(n°)
Root fresh weight
(g)
CTRL
2.40 ± 0.20 a
5.21 ± 1.03 b
118.12 ± 3.44 b
3.44 ± 0.76 b
T
2.33 ± 0.31 a
9.40 ± 1.35 a
196.17 ± 2.66 a
7.65 ± 1.28 a
Each value reported in the graph is the mean of three replicates ± standard deviation. Statistical analysis
performed through one-way ANOVA. Different letters for the same parameter indicate significant
differences according to LSD test (P = 0.05).
Table 2 - Effect of zeolites and Effective microorganisms on the growth of Echinopsis hybrids
“Arabesque”
Treatment
Plantlet diameter at
3.1.2017
(cm)
Plantlet diameter at
4.1.2018
(cm)
Thornes number
(n°)
Root fresh weight
(g)
CTRL
3.60 ± 0.45 a
10.22 ± 0.56 b
124.44 ± 1.87 b
6.55 ± 1.26 b
T
3.52 ± 0.37 a
14.18 ± 0.90 a
147.33 ± 3.06 a
12.32 ± 2.04 a
Each value reported in the graph is the mean of three replicates ± standard deviation. Statistical analysis
performed through one-way ANOVA. Different letters for the same parameter indicate significant
differences according to LSD test (P = 0.05).
Fig.1 - Effect of zeolites and Effective microorganisms on seed germination percentage and TMG (mean
germination time) of Echinopsis hybrids "Ishtar"
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Fig.2 - Effect of zeolites and Effective microorganisms on the number of flowers and the duration of
flowers in the Echinopsis hybrid "Calida"
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Each value reported in the graph is the mean of three replicates ± standard deviation. Statistical analysis
performed through one-way ANOVA. Different letters for the same parameter indicate significant
differences according to LSD test (P = 0.05).
Fig.3 - Number of bees placed on the flowers of Echinopsis hybrids after microbial and water spraying
treatment
Fig.4 Bees and bumblebees on Echinopsis flowers sprayed with EM microorganisms
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... Effective micro-organisms can be used as herbal insecticides to control insects and pathogenic microorganisms and can also be used as plant growth inducers. Soil micro-organisms have an important influence on soil fertility and plant health [10,11]. EMs interact with the soil-plant ecosystem by controlling plant pathogens and disease agents, solubilising minerals, increasing plant energy availability, stimulating the photosynthetic system, maintaining the microbiological balance of the soil, fixing biological nitrogen [12]. ...
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The aim of this work is to develop an innovative technology for the cultivation of Myrtillocactus geometrizans, introducing the use of Effective microorganisms and at the same time, limiting the use of mineral fertilizers, plant protection products and improving the physico-chemical and organoleptic characteristics of garambullos for consumption and processing. The trial showed a significant improvement in the agronomic parameters analysed on Myrtillocactus geometrizans plants treated with Effective microorganisms. In particular, there was an increase in plant height and circumference, vegetative and root weight, number of flowers and fruits, number and length of thornes in plants treated with microorganisms. In addition, the use of EM microorganisms showed a significant increase in total betalains, ascorbic acid, phenols and total flavonoids in garambullos. It was important to underline how the use of Effective microorganisms guaranteed, despite the reduction of irrigation and fertilisation by 50% in the growing medium, the same results in terms of agronomic parameters and fruit production and quality as the control with irrigation and fertilisation under optimal conditions. The application of Effective microorganisms in agricultural processing can therefore guarantee higher production standards, with a possible reduction in costs fertilizer and water. Particularly for those farms that want to focus on the production of ornamental and fruit cacti. Fruits obtained from growing plants treated with Effective microorganisms have a high antioxidant and nutraceutical potential, which is very important especially in this age where food is also a medicine.
... Beneficial microorganisms include plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), which generally live near roots or within specialized cells and are able to stimulate plant growth through a variety of mechanisms [20]. There are few studies involving the application of microorganisms and biostimulants in succulent and cactus cultivation that have demonstrated improvements in plant vegetative and root development, flower production, and especially with regard to increased protection from abiotic stresses and phytopathogens [25,26]. The main objective of this work is to enrich the literature with new studies concerning the application of microbial biostimulants on succulent plants, in this case Aeonium, providing more information to the farmer on new cultivation methods that are more environmentally friendly. ...
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In this work, the biostimulant and biocontrol capacity of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in succulent plants such as Aeonium was evaluated. The specific objectives were in particular: (i) Evaluate whether the use of this bacterium can increase the growth rate of Aeonium plants that typically have a slow growth cycle; (ii) evaluate if the use of B. amyloliquefaciens can lead to increased plant resistance to Fusarium oxysporum; (iii) considered if utilization of B. amyloliquefaciens allows for increased plant resistance to water and nutrient stress. The experimentation showed a significant improvement of the agronomic parameters analyzed on all Aeonium plants treated with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. In general there was a significant increase in plant height, number of leaves, vegetative and root weight, number of new shoots. In addition, Aeonium goochiae and sunburst show a better protection against the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. The trial also highlighted the ability of B. amyloliquefaciens to guarantee a productive and qualitative production of the plants even under conditions of reduced water and nutritional resources. Plants, thanks to the interaction with soil microorganisms, can reach higher nutrient and water resources, resulting in greater resistance to abiotic stresses and better quality in the cultivation cycle.
... Earthworm humus has a great potential especially used for the formulation of potted substrates [11]. Researchers evaluated the effect of different sources of N (manure, ammonium nitrate and earthworm humus) and obtained higher yields on Raphanus sativus L. and Capsicum annum L. with earthworm [12]. ...
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In order to improve the quality and protection of horticultural crops, the capacity of chabazitic zeolites with earthworm humus at different percentages added to the growing medium was evaluated. The five experimental groups in cultivation were: i) group without chabazite and earthworm humus; ii) group with (chabazite/earthworm humus 70-30) 10%; iii) group with (chabazite/earthworm humus 70-30) 20%; iv) group with (chabazite/earthworm humus 50-50) 10%; v) group with (chabazite/earthworm humus 50-50) 20%. All the plants of Lactuca sativa, Brassica juncea red, Chycorium intybus, Eruca vesicaria, Brassica rapa japonica have shown a significant improvement in the vegetative and radical growth in the thesis treated with chabazitic zeolites added with earthworm humus. In particular the theses with (chabazite/earthworm humus 70-30) 20% and (chabazite/earthworm humus 50-50) 20% were the most performing and showed a significant improvement of all the agronomic parameters analysed. The study in question is therefore of particular interest, especially when the horticultural species in question are grown in greenhouses where biotic and abiotic stresses are very important and finding sustainable methods to reduce their effects is essential.
... There are several experiments where EM-Bokashi has been tested for the cultivation of horticultural plants and which have led to an improvement in production (Artiana et al., 2016;Birnadi et al., 2019, Roldi et al., 2013. Few are the works that deal with the use of EM-Bokashi on ornamental plants (Prisa, 2019a). For this reason in this study, the effect of introducing different amounts of EM-Bokashi into the growing medium of Kalanchoe Blossfeldiana was evaluated ( Figure 1) to determine whether this organic soil is able to improve the growth and flowering of these succulents. ...
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In this study, the effect of introducing different amounts of EM-Bokashi into the growing medium of Kalanchoe Blossfeldiana was evaluated (Figure 1) to determine whether this organic soil is able to improve the growth and flowering of these succulents. The five experimental groups in cultivation were: i) group without beneficial EM-Bokashi; ii) group with 5% EM-Bokashi; iii) group with 10% EM-Bokashi; iv) group with 15% EM-Bokashi; v) group with 20% EM-Bokashi. All plants treated with EM-Bokashi showed a significant increase in the agronomic parameters analysed compared to the untreated control. The results show that the addition of Bokashi to the growing medium of Kalanchoe Blossfeldiana can improve plant quality, in particular agronomic and physiological characteristics and increased nutrient and water uptake. The analytical results lead to the following conclusions: i) the addition of already 5% Bokashi to the growing medium can bring significant improvements to the cultivation of Kalanchoe Blossfeldiana; ii) significant improvements in terms of plant and root biomass will stabilise for amounts of Bokashi in excess of 10% in the substrate; iii) EM-Bokashi significantly improves plant nutrient and water uptake; iv) plants treated with Bokashi photosynthesize and have a higher chlorophyll content and are more efficient in the use of water; v) the qualitative and physiological improvement of plants is probably determined by the presence of beneficial bacteria in the Bokashi soil conditioner, which stimulate plants and increase nutrient uptake.
... Whether due to the presence of zeolites or the consistency of the rocks, zeolites have a high (130-200 meq/100g) and selective (mainly for NH4 and K + ) cation exchange capacity, reversible dehydration, permeability and high water retention, all useful in agricultural, horticultural and floricultural applications [5,6]. Zeolites were used in this experiment because they have several interesting characteristics for use in agriculture, horticulture and in particular in tomato [4], celery [5], zucchini and melon [8], and vegetables and fruit [9,10] and ornamental plants [11,12,13]. In particular the binomial zeolites and microorganisms seems very interesting as found in other experiments to improve the qualitative characteristics of plants, nutrient uptake and resistance to biotic and abiotic stress [14,15]. ...
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In this study, the possibility of optimizing the use of fertilizers on Ranunculus asiaticus by adding chabazite with Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) to the substrate was evaluated. The five experimental groups in cultivation were: i) group without zeolites (CTRL), irrigated with water and substrate previously fertilized; ii) group with natural chabazite (CN) and 100% fertilised substrate; iii) group with chabazite enriched with PGPR (CM) and 100% fertilised substrate; iv) group with natural chabazite (CN2) and 50% fertilised substrate; v) group with chabazite enriched with PGPR (CM2) and 50% fertilised substrate. All plants treated with chabazite (CN and CN2) and chabazite enriched with PGPR (CM and CM2) showed a significant increase in the agronomic characteristics analysed compared to the untreated control (CTRL). The results show that the microorganisms are able to improve the performance of zeolitite, probably increasing the efficiency of nutrient and water absorption by the roots. This is also evident when evaluating physiological parameters where the photosynthesis rate and chlorophyll content are significantly better in (CM) and (CM2) than in (CN) and (CN2). Zeolites can act as a "home" for microorganisms, as is normally the case in nature with clays. In fact, under conditions of water stress, microorganisms take refuge inside the clay particles until the environmental conditions are suitable again to colonize the soil. Zeolites are able to actively interact with the organic components present in the soil or brought with fertilization, and have the ability to make more available the mineral and nutritional components present within their crystalline lattice, according to the needs of the plant.
... Zeolites have been used in this experiment because they have several interesting characteristics for use in agriculture, in particular in horticulture, the use of zeolites in table tomatoes [5], celery [6], courgettes and melons [7], vegetables and fruit [8,9] has led to an increase in the total production of finished product per hectare of land. In floriculture, the use of zeolites has led to an increase in height in the total number of inflorescences, buds, flowers, the size of the bulbs and a higher precociousness of flowering in geranium [10,8,9] and the qualitative improvement and resistance to biotic and abiotic stress of other ornamental species [11,12,13]. ...
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In this study the effect of natural zeolites and zeolites added with microorganisms for the growth of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) was evaluated, in order to highlight whether the microbiological component is the basis of the functionality of zeolites. The 3 experimental groups in cultivation were: 1) group without zeolites (CTRL) (peat 100%), irrigated with water and substrate previously fertilized; group with natural chabazite (CN) and fertilised substrate; group with chabazite enriched with microorganisms (CM) and fertilised substrate. (Patented formula rif.28106IT/MB/BF). The test showed a significant increase in the agronomic parameters analyzed in plants treated with natural zeolites and zeolites with the addition of microorganisms compared to the control. Also with regard to the physiological analysis of plants there was a significant increase in the parameters analysed, in the thesis treated with zeolites with the addition of microorganisms and natural zeolites compared to the control. Finally, it should be noted that in the thesis treated with zeolites enriched with microorganisms and in that with natural zeolites, the experiment also showed an increase in the percentage of germination of seeds and a significant reduction in the average time of germination compared to the untreated control (CTRL). The use of zeolites, as demonstrated by this test, can guarantee the grower a qualitative improvement of the plants in cultivation, ensuring better management of the use of fertilizers and water for irrigation. The zeolites are able to interact actively with the organic components present in the soil or brought with the fertilization, and have the ability to make more available the mineral and nutritional components present within their crystal lattice, based on the needs of the plant.
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