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Los Nuevos Medios de La Memoria: Herramientas Digitales al Servicio de la Memoria Histórica. Intervención Pedagógica para Fomentar el Análisis Crítico de Nuestra Historia

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Abstract

Currículo informativo-educativo, desarrolla una intervención en aula de clase en torno a la creación de nuevas estrategias para generar razonamiento histórico desarrollado por la línea de investigación de Educación, Cognición Aplicada y Medios (EDUCAMOS) de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Se realizó en el marco del proyecto de investigación: Los nuevos medios de la memoria: Herramientas digitales al servicio de la memoria histórica. Proyecto ganador de la Convocatoria Nacional de Extensión Solidaria para el fortalecimiento de la Innovación Social en la Universidad Nacional de Colombia 2014. Este documento usa como fundamento la Caja de Herramientas desarrollada por el Centro Nacional de Memoria Histórica bajo la dirección de María Emma Wills Obregón y no pretende ser una propuesta alternativa a la caja, pueden ser usados en el aula, en combinación con otras fuentes virtuales.
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Chapter
Pedagogical change is imperative for historical memory education (HME). This chapter describes qualitatively an educational experience in HME that embeds document-based analysis in role-playing activities. Historical role-playing was used as a pedagogical resource, allowing the presentation of historical inquiry within narratives that are attractive for students. Results show that the role-playing activities fostered class dynamics around emergent document-based narratives that transformed both the understanding of the conflict and the empathetic appreciation of what the conflict meant emotionally for victims and survivors. Using thematic analysis, this chapter presents the main findings of this work in a way that can enrich pedagogical practices in history and HME. Guidelines for designing this type of activities are provided, attending especially to the principle of not reenacting traumatic events directly and to the need of having adequate moments of emotional closing and healing, but also to the idea that HME needs to present the complexity of a violent past and to connect with economic, political, and institutional issues.
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Especially in the case of refugees, the past and its memory tend to be definitional components for personal and social constructions of identity. At the same time, the relationship with the past is frequently problematic and challenging. This study identifies two main narratives and subject positions adopted by refugee participants from the former Yugoslavia: ‘the past is past’ and ‘the past is our strength.’ I analyse the complexity implicit in these two narratives about the past. Although these narratives at first appear contradictory, the participants’ stories illustrate the ways in which they co-operate for the development of mental health in refugees. The ongoing dialogue between the two narratives allows for the participants’ endorsement of subject positions that refer to both individual and collective identities. The strategic use of history permits reinterpretations and relocations of traumatic memories as well as the formation of self-healing narratives that reframe refugee identities in the light of ethnic history and shared experience. I critically discuss the implications of this narrative reframing in relation to aspects of dominant discourses about refugee mental health and postmodern considerations in psychology and counselling.
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Historians are extraordinary, rather than typical, readers who routinely engage in the self-conscious, directed reading and rereading of historical documents, moving iteratively between documents and their own historical theories about an issue. This study was designed to compare the reading practices of historians reading highly familiar privileged texts with those reading familial but unfamiliar texts, and to determine when and how historians use general historical knowledge versus topic-specific expertise. Two expert historians were asked to select a document critical to their current work and then to read and interpret their own document (close) and a colleague's selection (far). A third historian read the two unfamiliar texts as a control. Our expectations were confirmed: (a) Historians have general document-reading knowledge that includes schemas for identification and interpretation, (b) historians' general knowledge dynamically interacts with their topic-specific expertise, (c) historians read familiar and unfamiliar documents differently, and (d) historians read intertextually. We found evidence that identification is supported by action systems for classification, corroboration, sourcing, and contextualization and that interpretations is supported by action systems for a textual and a historical read. We also saw that historians have strategies for reading a document as text, as artifact, and as member of a set of related texts. Although historians, like all readers, construct textbase and situation models as they read, the manner in which they do so reveals the nature and extent of their expertise. Our task analysis provides an exemplar to contemplate: evidence of how historians actually know and do what we hope students may come to know and do. We conclude with recommendations for how history teachers may engage students in two particularly promising activities: reading across multiple related documents to construct a coherent historical account and the deep analytic reading of a single critical or privileged document.
Disponible en: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nike,_Inc 67 Imagen tomada de Levi's Logo. Publicada en diytransfers en Septiembre de
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