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The Mushroom at the End of the World: On the Possibility of Life in Capitalist Ruins

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... En la segunda sección abordamos esta tendencia desde una perspectiva de lo que algunos teóricos han denominado como colonialismo climático (Mahoney & Enfield, 2018) o el extractivismo verde (Dunlap, 2018a;Dunlap & Jakobsen, 2020). Desde esta perspectiva, discursos como el del combate al cambio climático, la transición energética y la reducción de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI) se ha transformado en una forma de perpetuar las dependencias metabólicas entre distintos lugares, produciendo una transformación de paisajes a gran escala y permitiendo el avance de fronteras extractivas hacia otros lugares que previamente se entienden como zonas no productivas o sin valor (Tsing, 2017;Franquesa, 2018). ...
... Primero, a través de la reproducción de esta jerarquía para controlar las formas de trabajo, la naturaleza a nivel local, los cuales se convierten en 'recursos' y en productos y servicios (Barca, 2020). El sistema energético y la energía misma pasan a configurar una lógica colonial-extractiva, a través de la cual es posible extraer el valor del territorio y al mismo tiempo convertir a la energía -entendida como una fuerza física, prediscursiva-en un concepto abstracto, que termina por reproducir espacios sacrificables (Tsing, 2017;Franquesa, 2018). Desde este punto de vista, el sistema energético sienta las bases que permiten una forma de 'control' sobre la población, el cual sólo ha sido posible gracias a la enorme disponibilidad de energía a su servicio (Boyer, 2014). ...
... La periferialización de la Península de Yucatán, inauguró Discusión y lecciones aprendidas una forma de reconfigurar el territorio nacional al verlo como espacios con alto potencial o 'mal aprovechados' que podrían ser extraídos por la expansión de las energías renovables en la región (Franquesa, 2018). En pocas palabras, esta es una forma en la que el capitalismo, a través del avance de la tecnología, logra expandir sus fronteras de mercancía, utilizando un discurso en donde es necesario aprovechar aquellos espacios desperdiciados, algo que paradójicamente va dejando a su paso desperdicio en nombre de la acumulación (Tsing, 2017). ...
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En 2016, la Secretaría de Energía de México concedió nueve proyectos de energía eólica y solar en el estado de Yucatán. Uno de estos, el “Parque Solar Ticul A y Ticul B”, se instaló a escasos kilómetros de la Reserva Estatal Biocultural del Pu’uc, y a 300 metros de la comunidad maya de San José Tipcéh, en el municipio de Muna. Diversos hechos polémicos en los procesos de negociación y consulta –tanto por la empresa como por las autoridades federales– para la construcción del proyecto generaron desconfianza en miembros de la comunidad, que percibieron el proceso como un intento para apropiarse de sus tierras. A través de un conjunto de diversas acciones por la defensa de su territorio, el caso de la comunidad indígena de San José Tipcéh es uno de resistencia legal ante la expansión y el desarrollo de industrias que no toman en cuenta la licencia social. Durante este periodo se evidenció inconsistencias y limitaciones que existen dentro del marco legal mexicano en términos energéticos, ambientales, de participación pública e indígena, así como de algunos de los instrumentos para salvaguardar los derechos y bienestar de los pueblos indígenas. En este documento se recoge la experiencia y las distintas expresiones de resistencia de la comunidad indígena del pueblo de San José Tipcéh, siguiendo sus esfuerzos para defender el territorio ante el desarrollo de un proyecto de energía solar a gran escala. Asimismo, se propone algunas lecciones aprendidas con relación a los instrumentos que se utilizan para consultar a las comunidades indígenas y así revelar las principales limitantes y las formas de violencia estructural en las que operan. Finalmente, a través de este documento buscamos señalar una hoja de ruta a seguir por las comunidades para que estas puedan tomar en sus manos el proceso de consulta, decisión, negociación y acceso a la información para poder ejercer su derecho a la autodeterminación.
... Furthermore, scholars working in the realm of climate change note how dualistic views of humans and nature have been detrimental to the development of long-term solutions and that concepts like the Anthropocene and climate change make it so these divisions are no longer tenable (Hastrup, 2016). These and other scholars of posthuman theory have begun to more directly include the agency of nonhuman animals and plants in their analyses to bridge disciplinary divides and develop solutions that recognize humans' interdependence with the natural world (Latour, 2017;Tsing, 2015). Although they have not traditionally been included in social science studies, these interactions are vital for understanding epistemologies of climate change, especially among farmers who regularly interact with nonhumans. ...
... However, only a couple of studies have used the concept of assemblages in an agricultural context. Tsing (2015) has used it to illustrate how the prized matsutake mushroom industry is shaped by and could not exist without the complex human-disturbed forest ecologies which determine when and where these mushrooms grow. Gorman (2017) has used it to analyze the importance of nonhumans' presence within therapeutic Community-Supported Agriculture farms. ...
... While these interactions represent a highly simplified social-ecological system, as have other SNA studies incorporating nonhumans (Bodin & Tengö, 2012;Crabtree et al., 2019), they illustrate how farmers' interactions with these nonhumans help to shape their embodied knowledge of the weather, especially helping them to understand when it is extreme or variable (Carolan, 2008). This highlights how critical human-nonhuman networks are for providing information to farmers and further illustrates the benefits of including nonhumans in analyses, as other posthuman scholars have shown (Haraway, 2007;Kohn, 2013;Tsing, 2015). ...
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Farmers’ perceptions of weather play an important role in shaping their responses to climate change. I combine assemblage theory, which focuses on the interactions between nonhuman and human entities as they co-function in space, with social network analysis to explore how small farmers’ interactions with nonhuman plants and animals inform their perceptions of extreme and variable weather across Oregon. While assemblage theory and qualitative methods provide in-depth details on farmers’ nonhuman interactions, survey and social network analysis highlight broader patterns across farmers’ assemblages. My results illustrate the critical role that human-nonhuman interactions play in shaping common perceptions of weather extremes and variability among farmers, regardless of their beliefs about climate change, and the importance of diverse nonhuman interactions for shaping such perceptions.
... 8 In this sense, affect disrupts any «humanistic», or «paternalistic», ways of engaging with the environment contained in the idea of «caretaking» (Conley, 2016). In material ecocriticism, affect implies not «caring for an environment», but rather «a cultivated, patient, sensory attentiveness to nonhuman forces» (Bennett, 2010: 111, xiv) -what Anna Tsing (2015) dubs «the arts of noticing», and Karen Barad (2007) and Donna Haraway (2016) «response-ability». These terms make reference to both accountability and the senses, that is, they imply «detecting (seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, feeling) a fuller range of nonhuman powers circulating around and within human bodies» (Bennett, 2010: ix). ...
... Elsewhere they refer to ecopoetics as «a heightened sensitivity» (235) and to poetry as «the means to experience states of heightened intensity revealing the interpenetration of all things, material and mental, human and nonhuman, animate and inanimate» (283, emphasis mine). Therefore, in line with new materialist thinkers, what is at stake in ecopoetics is both «the arts of noticing» (Tsing, 2015) and «response-ability» (Barad, 2007;Haraway, 2016), which rely not only on ethical obligations to respond, but crucially, on the sensual, affective, as well as cognitive dimensions of perception. ...
Article
In this article, I aim to contribute to the discussion on the convergence between affect studies and ecocriticism, especially in its new materialist strands, by focusing on their applicability to the study of poetry. Drawing on Jane Bennett, I set out to explore the potential of poetry to imagine and attend to the worlds beyond the anthropocentric, as well as to engender attentiveness to the nonhuman as theorized in new materialisms. I contend that Bennett’s theorization of affect, vibrant matter, and her model of influx-and-efflux, can be fruitfully thought of in connection to what writer and scholar Julia Fiedorczuk conceptualizes as ecopoetics. In particular, and addressing Fiedorczuk’s ecocriticism and poetic practice, this paper will understand ecopoetics as a means of inducing “an aesthetic-affective openness to material vitality” (Bennett, 2010: x), and it will raise questions about how to write an I in a world of vibrant matter.
... As CIE cartographers who seek to map the terrain, we are also making the terrain of CIE in Malaysia, thus becoming part of it. We return to Tsing's (2015) earlier question regarding polyphonic assemblages: "How do gatherings become "happenings," that is, greater than the sum of their parts?" (p. ...
... The construction and strength of networks in the meta-assemblage of the 'CIE in Malaysia' project which we have described thus far lend tentative shape to the field of CIE locally, although this is contingent and subject to evolution with new discoveries, new coalitions and new commitments. If this chapter is a case of CIE as meta-assemblage represented in the Malaysian context, then indeed we echo Tsing's (2015) sentiment that "[a]ssemblages coalesce, change, and dissolve: this is the story." (p. ...
... The supply chain is vast; it cannot be fully governed, and it seamlessly accommodates practices that are formal, informal, and semiformal (and sometimes partly illegal). Tsing (2015) uses the notion of supply chain capitalism in the context of collecting and selling Matsutake mushrooms in Japan; Matsutake mushrooms are a rare natural product and cannot be produced in agricultural farms, and their identity (and value) as a gift and as a commodity in the long supply chain vacillate. ...
... Parallel dazu vollzieht sich die Popularisierung von Theorien, wie sie Donna Haraway und Anna Tsing in den letzten Jahren ausgearbeitet haben (vgl. Haraway 2008Haraway , 2016Tsing 2015). Auch Kinder-und Jugend medien, so die These dieses Beitrags, bieten einen Raum, um spekulative, visionäre, utopische Versionen der Gegenwart zu erproben. ...
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[English title and abstract below] Die environmental humanities florieren auch im deutschsprachigen Raum, und Konzepte der neomaterialistischen Theorie finden mehr und mehr Eingang in populäre Narrative rund um Klimawandel und Ökologie. Das zeigt sich in Genres wie Nature Writing und Climate Fiction, die mit Metaphern von Verwobenheit (entanglement) operieren, ebenso wie in den zahllosen Kinder- und Jugendbüchern, die ökologische Themen aufgreifen und Geschichten erzählen, in denen es um eine besondere Affinität zwischen Kindern und nichtmenschlichen Wesen geht. Dabei stehen oft die Emotionen der kindlichen und jugendlichen Figuren im Zentrum, ihre Angst, Sorge, Empörung und Wut angesichts des Schwindens der Artenvielfalt. Diese Emotionen, wie ich in diesem Beitrag zeigen möchte, bieten für Kinder- und Jugendmedien Zugang zu einer Vielfalt von Erzählungen rund um das Zusammenleben von Menschen und nichtmenschlichen Wesen, rund um die Bedeutung, die den vielfältigen Erfahrungen mit Tieren, Pflanzen und Landschaften zugeschrieben wird. So entsteht aus der Tradition des Erzählens aus der Perspektive von Kindern und Jugendlichen ein neuer Blick auf eine vielfach verwobene Welt – mitunter begleitet von einer kritischen Auseinandersetzung mit popularisierten neomaterialistischen Topoi. Kindliche und jugendliche Protagonist:innen werden mit ihren Ökopassionen zu Reflexionsfiguren im Verhältnis von Mensch, Natur und Medien. EcopassionsTowards a New Materialist Reading of Children’s and Young Adult Media in the Anthropocene Environmental humanities are flourishing in the German-speaking world, and concepts of new materialist theory are increasingly finding their way into popular narratives about climate change and ecology. This is evident in genres such as nature writing and climate fiction that operate with metaphors of entanglement, but also in the countless books for children and young adults books that take up ecological themes and tell stories about special affinities between children and non-human beings. These often focus on the emotions of the child and adolescent characters, on their fear, concern, outrage and anger in the face of disappearing biodiversity. These emotions, as I will show in this article, allow children's and youth media to access a variety of narratives about the coexistence of human and nonhuman beings, and about the meaning ascribed to the wide range of experience with animals, plants, and landscapes. A new perspective on a multiply interwoven world thus emerges from the tradition of storytelling from the point of view of children and young people, sometimes accompanied by a critical examination of popularised new materialist topoi. With their ecopassions, young protagonists become tropes of reflection in the relationship between humans, nature and media.
... Such a move automatically peripheralises all nonAnglophone higher education institutions within the process of internationalisation, placing a demand on them to adjust. The adjustment itself involves a dismissal of preexisting t social relationships, which inevitably causes a disturbance (Tsing 2012(Tsing , 2015a. Reinforcing communication in any language other than English within an international academic setting, however, leads only to further peripheralisation of a nonAnglophone institution. ...
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To investigate how the process of peripheralisation usurps internationalisation experiences within the global higher education centres, this article draws on two separate case studies, one conducted in Finland and the other in the UK. In both contexts, Anglophone hegemony plays an important role, but in different manners. In the Finnish case, conflating internationalisation with Englishisation results in both domestic and international students and staff having to continuously grapple with language use in their daily lives. In the UK context, international students in English-speaking universities encounter asymmetric power relations with the locals, which they try to overcome through identity negotiation over digital and physical spaces. Both cases show that creating a liveable international university necessitates structural changes that would build on already existing agentic engagements of international students and staff.
... Th is article examines what it means to create a space amid ruins to re-live, re-collect, and re-member place in relation to "slippery, " multiple, mutable, and hybrid presences, absences, and identities. Drawing from anthropological theories of mutable things (DeSilvey 2006;Young 2011) andruins (DeSilvey 2007;2017;Gordillo 2014;Navaro-Yashin 2009Stewart 1996;Stoler 2008Stoler , 2013Tsing 2015) and linking these concepts to narrative imaginings of the colonization of Australia (Rose 1997(Rose , 2005Veracini 2010;Wolfe 1998), I suggest that narrative spaces that attend to mutable materialities and identities may off er an entry point into troubling settler-colonial grand narratives. In particular, I build upon work on polyethnic identity in Northern Australia (Ganter 2006a(Ganter , 2006bTrigger 1989) and respond to Regina Ganter's (2006b: 33) call to examine "the triangulated relationships between [W]hites, Asians and [Aboriginal Peoples]" in order to challenge settler-colonial narratives of White dominance. ...
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As that which troubles simplistic binaries, ruins provide an entry point for scholars to conceptualize time, space, and identity as multiple, fragmented, and mutable. Th is article contributes to these studies by interrogating Australian settler-colonial time-space narratives (chronotopes) of White dominance through engagement with counter-narratives of mutable materialities and identities. Through ethnography of a commemorative event in a rural Australian town, I show how peoples of mixed Aboriginal and Asian descent negotiated racialized ruins to reassert narrative agency. I argue narratives of identity—when reremembered through spatial understandings of multiple community membership, re-lived through embodied experiences, and re-collected through affective engagement with ruins—create a mutable space to disrupt settler-colonial chronotopes, revealing narratives of hybrid, polyethnic, and polyracial belongings in Australia.
... This book is composed of eight essayistic spaces, envisioning sustainable transformations of social work through embodied, glocal, and earthly entanglements. While the local-global-glocal terminology is known in social work (e.g., , the Anthropocene as a geological period of human domination and destruction, but also renewed forms for textual and visual shaping is both known and unknown (e.g., Tsing 2015). Rosiek, Snyder and Pratt (2019, p. 2) discuss how Indigenous scholars 'developed ideas about non-human agency thousands of years earlier than contemporary philosophers of science'. ...
Book
This book shapes a situated body politics to re-think, re-write, and de-colonise social work as a post-anthropocentric discipline headed towards glocalisation, where human and non-human embodiments and agencies are entangled in glocal environmental worlds. It critically and creatively examines how social work can be theorised, practised, and written in renewed ways through dialogical and transdisciplinary practices. This book is composed of eight essayistic spaces, envisioning social work through embodied, glocal, and earthly entanglements. By drawing on research-based knowledge, autobiographical notes, stories, poetry, photographs, and an art exhibition in social work education, these essays provide readers with analysis and strategies that are useful for research, education, and practice as well as life-long learning. The book constitutes key literature for researchers, educators, practitioners, and activists in social work, sociology, architecture, art and creative writing, feminist and postcolonial studies, human geography, and post-anthropocentric philosophy. It offers the readers sustainable ways to re-think and re-write social work towards a glocal- and post-anthropocentric more-than-human worldview.
... Like Plumwood, Anna Tsing highlights the importance of feeling the precarity of our own life. For Tsing (2015), this requires us to recognise how we are vulnerable to others; 'Unpredictable encounters transform us; we are not in control, even of ourselves ' (p.20). For Donna Haraway, this precarity can result in us imaging other ways of living in the world. ...
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To date, research about human-environmental health and wellbeing thinking has tended to centre the health and wellbeing benefits for humans from time spent in nature. That is, we remain most concerned with the benefits of ‘nature’ to human health. However, nature-based sports and physical activities, like swimming and surfing, challenge such human-centerdness by ‘resituating’ swimmers and surfers in multispecies ecologies. By creating opportunities for experiencing encounters that highlight our vulnerability, sports and physical activities offer an example of how ecologies are part of our everyday lives in real ways, and have great value in encouraging greater environmental awareness and care across communities. Drawing on ecofeminist frameworks, I have been exploring how recreational sports and physical activities shape participants’ relationships to ocean and coastal ecologies. In this discussion I will draw on fieldwork and interview data with ocean swimmers and surfers to explore how the encounters they have when immersed in the ocean can create a sense of vulnerability that acts to remind us we are part of the ocean ecology. In this way, sport and leisure have great value for activating a greater sense of how human and environmental futures are interconnected.
... Our work is provoked by feminist scholars who blur human-nonhuman boundaries and raise questions around human exceptionalism and the privileging of the human (e.g., Alaimo, 2010;Barad, 2007;Braidotti, 2013;Haraway, 2016;Plumwood, 2002). It is also provoked by environmental humanities scholars who propose that if humans are to avert their relentless gaze upon themselves, they need to deliberately cultivate their ability to notice nonhuman worlds (Kanngieser & Todd, 2020;Rose & van Dooren, 2017;Tsing, 2015;van Dooren et al., 2016). We find particular resonances with environmental humanities scholars who are "radically rethinking the subject of justice" (Celermajer et al., 2021, p. 126) through their theorisation of multispecies justice which considers how beings other than humans are the subjects of injustices (Celermajer et al., 2020;Tschakert et al., 2021). ...
Article
Onrushing ecological precarity and collapse disproportionately affects particular humans and their common worlds. This article proposes that in the face of the myriad crises the Earth is experiencing, and the uneven distribution of their effects, extending conceptions of justice in education beyond the human is crucial. This, however, requires honing the ability to notice and attune to the common worlds we inhabit. Drawing on research which deployed a “walking with” methodology with young children in a national park, this article considers the potential of listening in multiple registers as a move toward common worlds justice in post-anthropocentric education. Possibilities for thinking with the registers of sound and smell are put forward for researchers and educators working with young children. The article concludes with a speculative vignette that offers pedagogical openings which make room for common worlds justice.
... No hospital, ela poderia ter um tipo de cuidado que no esquema aberto de tratamento não era possível, dadas as condições cotidianas de sua vida. Portanto, a longa temporalidade do tratamento acarreta dificuldades decorrentes da vida em condições de precariedade, como bem definiu Anna Tsing (2015), da "vida sem promessa de estabilidade" (TSING, 2015, p. 2). ...
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Este artigo aborda como o social se torna parte das práticas de tratamento hospitalar de tuberculoses resistentes desde um espaço de exceção: o hospital estadual Nestor Goulart Reis, referência do estado de São Paulo nesse tipo específico de tratamento. É um hospital que atende uma população que, por motivos sociais – situação de rua, pobreza e consumo de drogas –, não consegue realizar o tratamento, que é de longa duração e, desde 1980, preconizado no esquema ambulatorial. O artigo percorre o itinerário padrão da internação e do tratamento nas tessituras institucionais, com o objetivo de etnografar as emergências e transformações do social nas várias fases do tratamento. Com isso, argumenta-se que o social é uma categoria múltipla e situacional que se faz nos documentos, nas práticas de cuidado, na arquitetura disciplinar, nas diferentes temporalidades do tratamento e, ainda, na própria possibilidade de imaginar o futuro.
... Such control depends on the negotiation of animal agency and resistance which calls into question the unassailability of human sovereignty in the first place. The multiplicity in a multispecies narrative therefore aims not to recover a primordial animal subject but to show the interspecies relationships as pivoting on multiple histories that run counter to a popular history of capital or colonialism (see Tsing 2015). ...
Article
Multispecies ethnography attempts to bring to the forefront those animal lives previously overlooked by charting our shared social worlds and showing how humans and nonhumans are mutually affected by social, cultural and political processes. The resistance in postcolonial critique to focus on nonhuman animal subjects stems from making the colonised and the animal comparable and the fear that such an association may dehumanise the human subject. This paper suggests that multispecies ethnography influenced by Latour, Haraway, Tsing and others is a useful tool for analysing postcolonial contexts because of its emphasis on relation, mutuality and alliances. However, I suggest that this inheritance is rebuilt as a postcolonial multispecies ethnography because of its attention to five aspects that is common to both fields: subaltern, local, collective, representation and decolonisation. By a careful reading of these key concepts with examples from contemporary literature, I show how postcolonial multispecies ethnographies engage with hybrid identities that are culturally produced and historically situated and how they register the nonhuman animals as narrativisable subjects who are nevertheless “irretrievably heterogeneous” (284). In this ethnographic emergence, postcolonial multispecies ethnography re-dignifies the nonhuman animal subject which opens up the radical possibility of realizing their embodied perspectives.
... Those affected are mainly Indigenous communities who claim ancestral territorial rights , but also local non-Indigenous communities, who obtain their sustenance from the habitat (Colono peasants, for example) and are directly affected by the impact on their ecosystems (Guha and Martínez-Alier 1997). This is because most local rural Indigenous and non-Indigenous communities' social reproduction is closely interrelated with the reproduction of their ecosystems in hybrid multispecies assemblages, frictions, and connections (Tsing 2015). Thus, many of these communities' environmental conflicts are also struggles for their livelihoods (Fraser 2021). ...
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This paper examines the implications of climate crisis governance for rural communities in the Amazon of Peru. It draws the attention to the shared political economy behind the resistance of diverse rural populations particularly, Indigenous and Colono communities. Based on an analysis of two local conservation interventions in the region of San Martín—one involving indigenous communities and the other peasant settlers—this study argues that narrow authorized knowledge obscures the wider historical and agrarian macro context of uneven institutional and ecological arrangements that lead to the reproduction of injustices related to the land, the underlying causes of deforestation, and the authoritarian relationships of these local communities with the state.
... In this context, building only a supply chain for raw bioresources is not a satisfactory opportunity. Overseas territories have long been the only providers of resources for distant metropolitan areas, suffering from the dominations of the "plantationocene" model developed by Ferdinand (2019) and based on the theoretical concept of Tsing (2015) and Haraway (2016). A supply chain, which would not create value addition locally, is strongly rejected. ...
Article
In the context of implementing the Nagoya Protocol regarding access to genetic resources, diffusing updated BioTrade Principles by UNCTAD, and largely spreading reflections on global value chains (GVC), cosmetic companies involved in corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategies are eager to build sustainable and responsible supply chains for their raw materials. In southern countries, the “green gold” assertion brings hope to bioresource valorizations as development opportunities, but also suspicion regarding foreign interest. Building a value chain there requires a clear understanding of local situations. This paper contributes to the field of value-chain analyses through a feedback study of the failed implementation of a plant supply chain in an overseas French territory. Located in South America, French Guiana is a European Union outermost enclave in Amazonia. It has rich biodiversity associated with a wide range of traditional knowledge. Ten years ago, a project to build a sustainable supply chain with Piper marginatum was implemented there. Based on recent interviews with the actors involved in the project, this paper retraces the project chronology, describes the obstacles it met, and analyses its limitations and its perception by those participating in it. This value-chain project was built under the principles of BioTrade, but it still failed. Lack of proper monitoring, quality control, local support and long-term commitment of all partners resulted in its rapid abandonment. This paper outlines recommendations for future value chains in general and more specifically on French Guiana biodiversity.
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This article is an attempt to develop a posthumanist messianic figure additional to those created by Walter Benjamin in 20th century. The task of those figures is to provide a way of living in the times of crisis. I argue that the era that we live in –the anthropocene (with all of its catastrophes) –requires a posthumanist update to Benjamin’s philosophy. Therefore I use the case study of rock climbers as a collective subject that dismantles the dominant language of historical politics by creating names of climbing routes based on a mockery. The process of disassembling the language reveals the materiality of the rock and allows its history to be recovered. My attempt is based on the analysis of the El Pułkownik wall in the Liban quarry (Cracow, Poland).
Article
Local ecological knowledge informs how natural resource patches are identified and valued across a landscape by communities that rely on them. However, local knowledge is not always considered in quantitative models evaluating resource access and quality. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in southwest China, I integrate ecological, economic, and cultural factors to model non-timber forest product distribution and resource access in a community-based forest governance system. Observations over four mushroom harvesting seasons suggest that the distribution of harvesters relative to available resources follows the expected distribution under an ideal free distribution (IFD). An emergent ideal free distribution is significant as it may offer evidence of sustainable and equitable resource management. Moreover, this case offers an extension of the IFD by basing model parameters on locally-determined forest values and knowledge rather than predominantly environmental variables. Finally, results reaffirm that local forest management systems with adaptive property rights and redistributive norms offer multiple benefits for addressing resource governance challenges.
Chapter
In the introduction, the author outlines the topic of long-distance trade, bazaars and traders in Eurasia and discusses theoretical concepts such as “informality” and “globalization from below”, the starting point for this study’s theoretical framework. The author introduces her research partners, research sites, methods, sources and motivations and gives an overview of anthropological research and theory on markets, marketplaces, long-distance trade and the role of such studies for the understanding of human society. She then turns from a global to a post-Soviet perspective and presents three marketplaces—Yabaolu Market (Ябaoлy; 雅宝路) in Beijing; Lilo Bazroba (lilos bazroba) on the outskirts of Tbilisi; and the Chinese Hualing Sea Plaza Market (Hualingi Tbilisis Zġvis Plaza, hualingi Tbilisis zRvis plaza) in a new Chinese-built quarter in Tbilisi—as representative examples for different but interlinked types of bazaars and bazaar trade. She also reviews the relevant literature related to trade, traders and markets in the post-Soviet space and introduces some of the major works that have shaped the debates on the post-Soviet economy. By presenting the field methods applied and describing the type of data collected and the range of questions studied, the author explains her contribution to current debates in anthropology and post-Soviet studies. Furthermore, the introduction includes an overview of the book’s chapters and summaries of their contents, familiarizing the reader with the structure and the philosophy of writing that characterize this book.
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What constitutes a data practice and how do contemporary digital media technologies reconfigure our understanding of practices in general? Autonomously acting media, distributed digital infrastructures, and sensor-based media environments challenge the conditions of accounting for data practices both theoretically and empirically. Which forms of cooperation are constituted in and by data practices? And how are human and nonhuman agencies distributed and interrelated in data-saturated environments? The volume collects theoretical, empirical, and historiographical contributions from a range of international scholars to shed light on the current shift from media to data practices.
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This article discusses whether and how the ‘Anthropocene’ concept per se as well as recent interdisciplinary dialogue and philosophical scholarship developed around the global sustainability crisis and the role of humans in inciting or alleviating it, can enrich the theory and practice of Environmental Education for Sustainability (EEfS). It is argued that fostering post-humanist and new-materialist lines of thought and practice can serve as tools for critically challenging the roots and reality of the Anthropocene and enable the transition to a Post-Anthropocene era. Education has a central role to play by challenging anthropocentric approaches and fostering a relational ethic that shifts attention from individual human agents to the communities of both human and more-than-human agents in a place. ‘Pedagogy of the assemblages’, drawing on the philosophical thought and work by Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari, is proposed as an appropriate pedagogical framework that can enrich EEfS to this direction. Following a relational ontology and based on the experiential and embodied explorations and interactions of children/students with the more-than-human world, pedagogy of the assemblages offers new planes for reflection and practice in EEfS. Our article aims to illustrate that creative interaction between an appropriate philosophical and conceptual framework with educational theory, practice and research in EEfS can render the Anthropocene challenge into a mechanism to activate transformative teaching and learning for more sustainable ways of living and co existence. Το παρόν άρθρο εξετάζει κατά πόσο η έννοια του «Ανθρωπόκαινου» και μαζί με αυτήν η διεπιστημονική προβληματική και ο φιλοσοφικός στοχασμός που έχουν αναπτυχθεί για την πραγματικότητα που εκπροσωπεί και τον ρόλο του ανθρώπου στην πρόκληση που εμπεριέχει θα μπορούσαν να εμπλουτίσουν την παιδαγωγική σκέψη και πράξη της Περιβαλλοντικής Εκπαίδευσης για την Αειφορία (ΠΕΑ). Υποστηρίζεται ότι η καλλιέργεια μιας μετα-ανθρωπιστικής και νεο-ματεριαλιστικής γραμμής σκέψης και πρακτικής μπορεί να λειτουργήσει ως εργαλείο αμφισβήτησης και μετεξέλιξης σε μια Μετα-Ανθρωπόκαινo εποχή, με την Εκπαίδευση να έχει κεντρικό ρόλο στη μετατόπιση της προσοχής από τον «Άνθρωπο» στις «κοινότητες των ανθρώπινων και μη- ανθρώπινων στοιχείων» ενός τόπου. Προτείνεται και συζητείται η «παιδαγωγική των συναρμογών» (pedagogy of the assemblages), η οποία αντλεί στοιχεία από τη σκέψη και το έργο των Gilles Deleuze και Felix Guattari, ακολουθώντας μια σχεσιακή οντολογία που στηρίζεται στις βιωματικές, ενσώματες εξερευνήσεις και αλληλεπιδράσεις των παιδιών με τον πέρα-από-τον-ανθρώπινο (more-than-human) κόσμο, δημιουργώντας νέους «τόπους» προβληματισμού και δυναμικής για την ΠΕΑ. Το άρθρο επιδιώκει να καταδείξει ότι η δημιουργική αλληλεπίδραση ανάμεσα σε ένα κατάλληλο φιλοσοφικό και εννοιολογικό πλαίσιο και την εκπαιδευτική θεωρία, πράξη και έρευνα στην ΠΕΑ μπορεί να καταστήσει την πρόκληση του Ανθρωπόκαινου μηχανισμό ενεργοποίησης μετασχηματιστικών πρακτικών διδασκαλίας και μάθησης για πιο αειφορικούς τρόπους ζωής και συνύπαρξης.
Article
This article discusses whether and how the ‘Anthropocene’ concept per se as well as recent interdisciplinary dialogue and philosophical scholarship developed around the global sustainability crisis and the role of humans in inciting or alleviating it, can enrich the theory and practice of Environmental Education for Sustainability (EEfS). It is argued that fostering post-humanist and new-materialist lines of thought and practice can serve as tools for critically challenging the roots and reality of the Anthropocene and enable the transition to a Post-Anthropocene era. Education has a central role to play by challenging anthropocentric approaches and fostering a relational ethic that shifts attention from individual human agents to the communities of both human and more-than-human agents in a place. ‘Pedagogy of the assemblages’, drawing on the philosophical thought and work by Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari, is proposed as an appropriate pedagogical framework that can enrich EEfS to this direction. Following a relational ontology and based on the experiential and embodied explorations and interactions of children/students with the more-than-human world, pedagogy of the assemblages offers new planes for reflection and practice in EEfS. Our article aims to illustrate that creative interaction between an appropriate philosophical and conceptual framework with educational theory, practice and research in EEfS can render the Anthropocene challenge into a mechanism to activate transformative teaching and learning for more sustainable ways of living and co-existence.
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Esta é Edição 18, de junho, de 2022, em versão completa, da revista Paralelo 31, e temos o prazer de apresentar o Dossiê Artes e Convívio, organizado pelas artistas, professoras e pesquisadoras em arte Dra. Andréia Machado Oliveira (UFSM), Dra. Eduarda Gonçalves (UFPel) e Dra. Deisimer Gorczevski (UFC), um conjunto de artigos que versam sobre Artes e práticas contemporâneas; Modos de convívio e Ações em e com comunidades. Este é um periódico de acesso livre do sistema OJS/SEER do PPGArtes da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), hospedado no site do Portal de Periódicos da UFPel. A edição 18 é nossa maior edição! Sua versão completa está disponível para leitura em ISSUU enquanto nossa revista passa pela migração do sistema SEER e pedimos desculpas pelo transtorno por não poder oferecer a versão completa da revista no site do Portal dos Periódicos da UFPel por enquanto. A versão completa pode ser baixada aqui no ResearchGate. Para baixar artigos, por favor, visite o site: https://periodicos.ufpel.edu.br/ojs2/index.php/paralelo/issue/view/1109/showToc ou utiliza: DOI: 10.15210/P31.V2I18 Rosangela Fachel de Medeiros/ Alice Jean Monsell Editoras da revista Paralelo 31. ISSN 2358-2529
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This article discusses how the ambivalences between the order of development and a new epistemic order, in the proposals of the Santiago Round Table in 1972, are manifested in the discussion on the relationship between the museum and the rural environment. Alongside the historical questions that the new museum was then opening itself up to, current phenomena such as the climate crisis and the COVID-19 pandemic brought with them the need to broaden the topics covered by “rurality” to include forest, nature, and environmental issues, as well as the traditional wisdom of peasants, indigenous peoples, quilombola communities, etc. To unfold these ambivalences, the article is divided into four sections: (1) the first analyses how agrarian reform and the “green revolution” are combined in the proposals of the commentator in charge of discussing the relationship between museum and agriculture at the Santiago Round Table; (2) the second presents a small set of alternatives to traditional or industrial agriculture, complementary to each other; (3) the third deals with the differences between the development perspective and the proposal for a new epistemic order, from a discussion about the meanings of tradition and community for post-developmentalism; (4) the fourth particularises the previous one in a debate on education, which contrasts the idea of mutual nurturance with that of conscientization. Finally, it returns to the recommendations made by the Round Table to discuss their current relevance. KEYWORDS: Santiago Round Table; Rural environment; Climate crisis; Post-development
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This introduction provides an overview of both the presence of posthumanism in contemporary Latin(x) American speculative fiction and the recent history of critical engagement with posthumanism in Latin American and Latinx studies. We argue that an engagement with posthumanism by Latin(x) American writers and artists has always been mediated by the region’s particular relationship to ideas of technology and modernity, as well as its histories of dictatorship and political struggle. This has resulted in a posthumanism that from the beginning has been more embodied, more aware of the “difficult entanglements” involved in “making kin” with non-human subjects. We offer a survey of important Latin American thinkers such as Eduardo Viveiros de Castro and Arturo Escobar as important figures in a Latin American tradition of what we may now call posthumanism and we review the recent literature on posthumanism, the limits of the human, and new materialisms in the field of Latin American studies. Finally, we show how the authors in this collection argue for the ways in which Latin American and Latinx works of speculative imagination produce new strands of posthumanist thought from these sites of enunciation.
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In 2020 we, the arts-collective Time's Up, commenced a small pilot program for food deliveries on the Danube river in Austria. While the pilot had to be suspended for various reasons, we find it valuable to talk about our results; what we learnt, what we experienced, the images that arose. The pilot does not exist in isolation, but is part of a larger imagination and development of clean transport. By clean we mean free of fossil fuel usage. The Danube is one of the living connections of central and eastern Europe, and has been a cargo carrying avenue for centuries. Ocean going vessels were able to reach Belgrade from the Black Sea. The Danube upriver of Belgrade is classed as "mountainous" due to its flow speed, traditionally only paddled or poled vessels could stem the flow; most vessels were one way downstream deliveries of wood, salt and other basics. Since the regulation of the Danube and the creation of multiple dams and locks, the river is, to a certain degree, "tamed." In the slow flowing sections behind dams, there are even some recreational sailors. Transport is nevertheless almost entirely in the hands of large motorised barges. The river is also blessed with an extensive floodplain, filled with vibrant farms. Close to Linz, there is a local organic food supplier who uses, for the last mile deliveries, cargo bikes. As an experiment, we looked at what it would mean to replace the road section from the upriver floodplains into the urban area of Linz with small sail cargo deliveries. We invested time and effort in collaboration with various partners to develop the logistics of deliveries, ordering and sorting, cooling, movement, loading and unloading. In the end, the lack of a verifiable refrigeration system was deemed an insurmountable challenge for food safety. We were left with plans and analyses, experiments and test runs but no actual data. The project was, to use Foucault's term, somewhat too Heterotopic to be realisable, but remained a sort of parallel or post-neoliberal economic order along the lines of J.K Gibson-Graham, a prefiguration of a possible, low carbon future, an example of less efficiency effectiveness. In this report we would like to share the insights and experiences, and contextualise the project in terms of futures thinking, heterodox economics, arts practices and the sail cargo community.
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This chapter explores Jesmyn Ward’s novel Salvage the Bones as an enactment of what Claire Jean Kim calls an ethics of avowal of race and animality—in which racialized violence is not conflated with violence toward animals, but rather understood as mutually constitutive and inseparably linked. Ward’s novel takes place over twelve days leading up to Hurricane Katrina and the day after. Drawing from critical race studies, animal studies, feminist science studies, and Black feminist critique, this chapter analyzes Ward’s novel within a climate of anti-Blackness and a climate-changed world. Ward’s novel enacts a kind of noticing of what Katherine McKittrick terms Black livingness that is inextricable from more-than-human aliveness. Through this lens, Salvage the Bones is a different kind of companion species manifesto—a manifesto-novel, a declaration of survival, and a site of resistance—one that tells a complex and contradictory story of co-constitutive relationships between bodies in a world that is always already more-than-human. This chapter examines the current confluence of global crises as a time to turn toward the animal and animalized bodies (both human and more-than-human) and reclaim power, as the vast majority of people and beings on this planet have been excluded from, and exploited by, Western-white-male-humanity.
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We are ever more connected, on a global scale, and our problems have no real borders, as we are increasingly aware in the ongoing discussions of the global climate and biodiversity crises. This collection brings together different vantage points on the interstitial relationship between these considerations. While the chapters in the volume are organized in three sections—perspectives on the climate crisis; concrete challenges of extinctions; and posthuman reconfigurations of human-nonhuman relations—this introduction traces other elements of continuity between the chapters: framing, vulnerability, and interconnectedness. We open by discussing how framing operates when considering climate crises and the nonhuman. Then, following Rachel Carson, we consider the notion of vulnerability, as we are faced with global problems of pandemic and climate crisis. This is shared—by human and nonhuman actors alike—but shared unequally and impacts disproportionately. The introduction highlights this phenomenon and draws connections along this axis. For, just as we are vulnerable, we are also interconnected, which is both a strength and part of our vulnerability. Our narrative responses to these challenges, paired with the goals of such a discussion, bring us back to the frame of the debate and frame the collection as a whole.
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El presente artículo parte del denominado nuevo “boom” femenino de la literatura. Se analizan las problemáticas que dicha categoría ha suscitado entre escritoras y críticas literarias, con la finalidad de poner de manifiesto cómo opera el “purplewashing”. Desde esta problemática, a su vez, se visibiliza el conflicto que emerge con las genealogías femeninas, las cuales surgen del “lavado morado” efectuado por el canon y la industria editorial, al quitarle su carácter subversivo o feminista. En este sentido, ante la tendencia a la elaboración de categorías identitarias, jerárquicas y binarias, se propone un modelo de análisis relacional y múltiple para el estudio de las escritoras, basado en la configuración natural del sistema del micelio, propio del reino de los hongos o fungi.
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Tibet's wild fungus cordyceps (Ophiocordyceps sinensis), a prized commodity in metropolitan China, has been undergoing changes in the way it is traded and marketed in Tibet. Prized as a medicinal tonic and high-value gift, the parasitic fungus has traditionally been traded in its dried form. However, in recent years we have observed the emergence of trade in fresh cordyceps. This paper seeks to make sense of this change in the form of this commodity and its correlation to changing meanings of cordyceps in China. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in Tibet and textual analysis of online markets in China, this paper argues that this transformation is associated with China's anticorruption campaigns, the rising importance of e-commerce infrastructures, and the biomedicalization of cordyceps through advancing biotechnologies. In addition, we argue that professional brokers play a key role in the emergence of the fresh cordyceps trade.
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The constant presence of refugees in the media has constructed its own reality, at the expense of lived reality. Any work concerned with refugees’ lived experience will need to find ways to encourage people to see beyond this discourse. Based on research with refugees placed in depopulating villages in Italy, this article follows the process of collaboratively creating a visual essay that reflects the lived reality of refugee participants. The essay’s aim is to let readers share in an experience, rather than merely documenting that of others. This article reflects on efforts to achieve this through experimenting with the essay’s form, poetics and aesthetics. In doing so, the article discusses an alternative way of communicating research and presenting a visual essay.
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What is activism? The answer is, typically, that it is a form of opposition, often expressed on the streets. Skoglund and Böhm argue differently. They identify forms of 'insider activism' within corporations, state agencies and villages, showing how people seek to transform society by working within the system, rather than outright opposing it. Using extensive empirical data, Skoglund and Böhm analyze the transformation of climate activism in a rapidly changing political landscape, arguing that it is time to think beyond the tensions between activism and enterprise. They trace the everyday renewable energy actions of a growing 'epistemic community' of climate activists who are dispersed across organizational boundaries and domains. This book is testament to a new way of understanding activism as an organizational force that brings about the transition towards sustainability across business and society and is of interest to social science scholars of business, renewable energy and sustainable development.
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In his 1967 lecture titled, “Cybernetics and Ghosts,” Italo Calvino said: “The more enlightened our houses are, the more their walls ooze ghosts. Dreams of progress and reason are haunted by nightmares” (Calvino 1986, 19). As the twenty-first century begins its third decade, our seemingly enlightened houses look cracked to their foundations, haunted by the remains of violence and devastation wrought on humans and the natural world in the name of colonialism, capitalism, and empire. Fires fueled by climate change and bad forestry practices engulf the western United States. Peat smoldering in melting Siberian tundra threatens to unleash enough carbon for planetary cataclysm. COVID-19, a zoonotic virus, ravages human populations, while conspiracists urge those suspicious of science and government to swallow deadly and ineffective horse deworming medicine. The specters of Hiroshima, Nagasaki, and the arms race that US bombs begat haunted Calvino’s high-modernist moment. Yet, in the early 1970s, nuclear annihilation—and the possibility of the planet’s end—was a distant (if all too real) possibility controlled by distant men. The ghosts of our moment haunt us, now, in our everyday lives and are all too likely to lay waste to our civilization.
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At the core of design practices is action, to ‘make-do’. As a contribution to the discussion on post-anthropocentric design, this short essay draws on assemblage theory to question how to ‘make-do’. Methodologically, the inquiry opens six cases of service and system design contexts where agential capacities emerge from non-linear system interactions, skilling platforms, tactical resistances, mattering materialities, struggles in organisation cultures or even non-action. Assemblage theory proves resourceful to delineate how these agencies form and develop. In conclusion, this essay proposes research avenues brought by assemblage theory to design practices about the distinction of designers and users, the building of strategies and the creation of value. KeywordsAssemblage theoryService designSystem designPost-anthropocentric design
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Artificial intelligence and robotics have increasingly been adopted in agri-food systems—from milking robots to self-driving tractors. New projects extend these technologies in an effort to automate skilled work that has previously been considered dependent on human expertise due to its complexity. In this paper, we draw on qualitative research carried out with farm managers on apple orchards and winegrape vineyards in Aotearoa New Zealand. We investigate how agricultural managers’ perceptions of future agricultural automation relates to their approach to expertise, or the degree to which they think specialised skills and knowledge are required to perform agricultural work on their orchards and vineyards. Our research generates two insights: the perceived potential for work to be automated is related to the degree to which it is seen to require technical or embodied expertise, with technical expertise being more automatable; and, while embodied expertise is perceived to be more difficult to automate, it is sometimes attributed more exclusively to those in positions of power, such that embodied expertise can be highly valued while the majority of embodied work is viewed as non-expert and thus automatable. Our analysis illustrates that a robot can be an expert when expertise is technical. It also shows variability in the conceptualization of skilled or unskilled work, and that those conceptualizations can set the stage for the future effects of new technologies. This generates new insights into the conditions under which automation might reproduce existing inequalities in agriculture, and also raises new questions about responsibility in the context of automation.
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Writing at a time in which speculative ways of thinking appear to be undergoing a reprise across the social sciences and humanities – whether through engagements with speculative cosmology (Stengers, 2006), speculative empiricism (Debaise, 2017), speculative fabulation (Haraway, 2011), speculative research (Wilkie et al., 2017), or speculative realism (Bryant et al., 2011) – in this chapter we introduce Speculative Geographies and our motivation for assembling the collection as a way of considering what concepts and practices of speculation might mean for geography, and how speculation might itself be conceived as geographical. In approaching the relationship between speculation and geography, we introduce the book as a collective desire to complicate the modes of thought used to evaluate experience by crafting alternatives, pluralising perspectives, and thereby problematising the immediately given. Far from abstract thinking, in this chapter we conceptualise speculation, after A.N. Whitehead, as a task of thinking abstractions – a style of thinking that prioritises an openness to what thought might become, and which therefore reconfigures empirical problems beyond what seems given in an immediate experience. The chapter traces key genealogies of this speculative practice including speculative philosophy, speculative fiction, and speculative design. Finally, we provide an overview of how the three themes of the book – ethics, technologies, aesthetics – speak to the chapters making up this edited collection.
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This chapter considers speculative geographies of childhoods, plastics and other stuff. It is concerned with storying and otherwise the ‘art of noticing’ encounters between children and material stuff (Tsing, 2015). Geographers and other scholars of childhood have for some years scrutinised children’s engagements with material things. As part of interdisciplinary research about children’s voices and experiences, childhood scholars have examined the use and meaning of variegated material stuff, by and for children (Horton, 2010; Lee & Motzkau, 2011; Lenz-Taguchi, 2014). Critically, theorisations of children’s interactions with nonhuman agents—from toys to pharmaceuticals to animals—have increasingly been characterised by approaches that seek to ‘decentre’ children, to observe either the agency of nonhuman matter and/or the ‘flat’ relationships into which children and matter enter (Prout, 2005; Spyrou, 2017).
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Traditional wage labor has experienced a significant decline in industrialized countries over the past few decades. The spread of temporary work, the proliferation of subcontracting arrangements, the use of artificial intelligence (AI), the shipment of manufacturing jobs overseas, and the employment of foreign contract workers are among the key factors driving this decline. The result is a rise of labor insecurity and fragmentation among increasingly diverse forms of flexible labor arrangements. This book examines this important transformation by considering the impact of foreign contract labor on temporary migrant workers in their places of employment and home communities. It assesses work as a source of value in capitalist, reproductive, domestic, and cultural economics, and argues for a new, work-centric field of economics. Rich in examples, it is a sophisticated anthropological appreciation of the many forms that work can take and what these forms mean for the creation of value in people's lives.
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Nature and Literary Studies supplies a broad and accessible overview of one of the most important and contested keywords in modern literary studies. Drawing together the work of leading scholars of a variety of critical approaches, historical periods, and cultural traditions, the book examines nature's philosophical, theological, and scientific origins in literature, as well as how literary representations of this concept evolved in response to colonialism, industrialization, and new forms of scientific knowledge. Surveying nature's diverse applications in twenty-first-century literary studies and critical theory, the volume seeks to reconcile nature's ideological baggage with its fundamental role in fostering appreciation of nonhuman being and agency. Including chapters on wilderness, pastoral, gender studies, critical race theory, and digital literature, the book is a key resource for students and professors seeking to understand nature's role in the environmental humanities.
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Squatting and the State offers a new theoretical and methodological approach for analyzing state response to squatting, homelessness, empty land, and housing. Embedded in local, national, and transnational contexts, and reaching beyond conventional property theories, this important work sets out a fresh analytical paradigm for understanding the deep, interlocking problems facing not just the traditional 'victims' of narratives about homelessness and squatting but also a variety of other participants in these conflicts. Against the backdrop of economic, social, and political crises, Squatting and the State offers readers important insights about the changing natures of property, investment, housing, communities, and the multi-level state, and describes the implications of these changes for how we think and talk about property in law.
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Since the 1990s, commercial sites across Asia and the Middle East have seen an uptick in visits from Nigerian importers, tens of thousands of whom are now passing through every year. In this context, in which circulatory South–South migration has intensified and transnational commercial links have strengthened, Nigerian mass commercial markets have remained strikingly resistant to monopolies. This is largely shaped by traders’ associations, which defend against corporate and non‐Black foreign actors. This article situates these defensive market practices in longer histories of decolonial “indigenization” efforts, postcolonial anxieties of the petrostate economy, and ethnoregional mobilizations undertaken by Igbo people in Nigeria's post–civil war era. Transnational importers mobilize a distinct politics of “emplacement” in Nigeria, where market actors explicitly attempt to create and control the conditions of exchange. They do so by making political claims to profit and by using the rhetoric of citizenship. [capitalism, emplacement, citizenship, transnational, commerce, Lagos, Nigeria, Africa, Global South]
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Supply chains are fundamental to contemporary forms of capitalist production and circulation, but rarely make themselves known unless they stop working. This ‘anti-paper’ documents the beginnings of a project grappling with the possibilities and limitations surrounding digital renderings of supply chains and related research online in a way that goes beyond the spectacle of breakage. It is an ‘anti-paper’ in that it documents process and learnings over findings, results, or other finalised outputs. Section one introduces the project and the wider context it was born from and into, while section two reviews the existing landscape of digital projects surrounding supply chains and our attempt to develop some heuristics for thinking through their underlying epistemological, informational, and design assumptions, and how approaches to digital supply chain renderings differ along these lines, with possibilities and constraints entailed by each. Section three documents the dilemmas faced so far in our own project, and section four concludes by reflecting on maintenance as a research ethos and its relevance to learning about supply chains.
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Opioid agonist medications, such as the buprenorphine‐based Suboxone, are becoming increasingly important tools for caring for people with opioid use disorders. Yet, whether at the level of the family, the clinic, or pharmaceutical companies, the circulation of Suboxone can involve forms of concealment, secrecy, and deceit, even as it is used to provide a vital form of care. In exploring the moral economies that shape the licit and illicit circulation of Suboxone in southwest Virginia, we aim to unpack the logics of obligation, care, and secrecy that emerge within a family network caught in a set of sociopolitical, economic, and therapeutic conditions. In exploring how Suboxone circulates at these different scales—in families, in clinics, and in the global pharmaceutical economy—this article shows how secrets lubricate the social, economic, and moral mechanisms through which relationships are sustained and substances circulate. [moral economy, secrecy, substance use, care, rural United States]
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New technologies open up the possibility of rapid social change the likes of which has not been seen since the appearance of anatomically modern humans: humanity being either substituted by or transformed into a new post‐human species. Such an unprecedented change is difficult to concretely imagine in advance of its occurrence because it would unfold in a heretofore unheralded manner, and due to the speed with which it might happen, the only real indication of being on the cusp of such an even might be ‘affective indexes.’ For various reasons, models based on either Christian apocalyptic literature, the post‐human academic turn, or science fiction are unreliable models of what these ‘affective indexes’ might be like. This essay explores whether horror literature in general and the writings of H.P. Lovecraft, in particular, might serve as models of what such ‘affective indexes’ of such a transformation might be and suggests that senses of disjunctures in scale, of time being ‘out of joint,’ of disturbing problematizations of what constitutes the human, and of religious horror and the sublime may be ways that humanity might anticipate the unthinkable prospect of being replaced.
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